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1 2 3 







^cto ^ntttstDtcfe School §mte. 


Jor the E0e of cSfhoole. 






Pkovinck of New Biiunswick 


The Board of Education, under the Authority of The Common-School Act 
1871, has prescribed this edition of Archer's School Hiatory of Canada, as a Text- 
Book for use in the Schools of this Province. 


Chief Superintendent of Education. 



fpxJ'*'^'^"*''^ mi8cnrrl8gt> of son^cot tht roviscd prooi shoots, a fow om)r« appear In il.p 

r. 189, par. 9, for "2nd of July," read aisx of Junb. 

P. 27.J, I'nd line, for •' Chodiibucto Harbour," r3ad Chervcto Harbolr. 

P. 3.W, I St line, for " William Balloj," kw! Thom*s ; and for " Frederick 
A. Uobinson," read FREDEaicK P. Robtnso.n. rreaencK 

P 390. par. 18, for "Sectarian Schools," read oENOMiNATicvAr, coileges; and for 

'• a flree common school system," read A PnoYiNXMilJHivKRgrrT. 
P. 41«, for " Winacke," road J. U.via(k);. 
P. 487, par :59, for " 1866," i-ead 1867. 

Hon. Adams G. Arculbiild. slioiiid also appear in the list of the first Privy 

For-'Frcderickton.' read FREorRit-i-ON; for Maxaquudaric." wad Maoaoiaua- 
tic; for "MIssignash,' road MissmiAsa 

lie jj I CO. tea o opctuCj unc cuuioc \Ji cvciito lu. x^kjvcl Kjouna. -x.^cw 

Brunswick, and the other Provinces, is in this book treated in 
he order of their relative importance. The writer, in dealing 
i^ith a long series of eventi:^, has made it his aim to be as clear 
nd concise as possible ; but he has not thought it necessary to 
onfine himself to a bare outline. The greater interest given 
a narrative by dwelling a little at length on some of the 
Qore important incidents, and the desirableness of pkcing a 
>ietty comprehensive history in the hands of teachei-s, will, it 
s hoped, successfully meet objections to fulness of detail, should 
■ny be raised. 

■ A V r . 

b> ■ ■ -l 



IfcJiNCE Confederation, a new interest haa been awakened in the 
Elistory of Canada. The different Provinces comprised in the 
)ominion have been intimately connected in the past ; a study 
)f their records shows that the same course of events abroad, and 
^iniilar causes of political dissatisfaction within, have helped to 
^lould their destiny. Separate Histories of the British North 
Lnierican Provinces Ih-ve, from time to time, been written for 
he use of schools ; but these, viewed from the stand-point of 
lie Dominion under Confederation, are incomplete. In the 
resent book an endeavour has been made to give a general 
[ew of the history of the country now known as Canada, from 
^e earliest to the latest times. That history ceatres in the 
L'ovinces now called Quebec and Ontario, which long alone 
be the name of Canada ; but, though these necessarily occupy 
le greatest space, the course of events in Nova Scotia, -New 
Brunswick, and the other Provinces, is in this book treated in 
pie order of their relative importance. The writer, in dealing 
rith. a long series of events, has made it his aim to be as clear 
md concise as possible ; but he has not thought it necessary to 
confine himself to a bare outline. The greater interest given 
to a narrative by dwelling a little at length on some of the 
lore important incidents, and the desirableness of placing a 
)retty comprehensive history in the hands of teachera, will, it 
Is hoped, successfully meet objections to fulness of detail, should 
luy be raised. 

.,!il4U' tlW 


CHAPTER 1.— INTRODUCTORY. 1604 to 1867 A.D. 

A Glance at the History of Canada from its earliest settlement by the French to 
the consummation of Confederation 13 

CHAPTER II.— DISCOVERY. 982, 1492, 1583 A.D. 

The Northmen— Christopher Columbus — John and Sebastian Cabot — Amerigo 
Vespucci — The Banks of Newfoundland — John Verazzani — Jacques Car- 
tier's first Voyage — His second and third Voyages — Sieur de Roberval, 
Viceroy of Canada — Disastrous issue of liit, Expedition — Martin Frobisher 
— Sir Humphrey Gilbert — Origin of the name " Canada" 23 


The first peopling of America — The three Indian "Families" — The Esquimaux 
and Savannois — Location of the Algonquin Tribes — The Hurons or Wyan- 
dots — The Iroquois — Indian Characteristics — Their constructiva skill — 
Dress — Wampum — Occupations and Amusements — Position of the Women 
• -Form of Government — Superstitions ; Religious Belief — Their present 
state 87 


1588 TO 1608 A.D. 

The Fur-trade at Anticosti — Sieur de la Roche, Viceroy of Canada — Convicts 
on Sable Island — M. Pontgrav6 at Tadoussac — Samuel de Champlain — He 
ascends the St. Lawrence — M. de Monts, Lieutenant-General of Acadie — 
Settlement on the St. Croix — Port Royal — Baron de Poutrincourt and Marc 
Lescarbot — The Order of tlie Good Time — Break-up of the establishment 
at Port Royal 48 

CHAPTER v. — QUEBEC. 1608 TO 1614 A.D. 

Renewal of De Monts' Monopoly — Foundation of Quebec — Plot to murder 
Champlain — He goes to war against the Iroquois — Disorders caused by 
French fur-traders — Poutrincourt returns to Port Royal — Baptism of Mem- 
bertou and family — The Society of Jesus — Discord at Port Royal — Settle- 
ment at St. Sauveur — Destroyed by Samuel Argall — Destruction of Port 
Royal ,. 69tt. 


CIIArXEll VI.— CIIAMPLAIN. 1612 to 1610 A.D. 

Tieutcnant-Oencrals of New France — Comte de Soissons — Prince de Con<l«< — 
Vignan the impostor— Champlain ascends the Ottawa — His disappointment 
— His troubles in France — He visits the Huron country — CJoea to war 
against the Senecas — Repulie of the allied Indians— Cliamplain detained a 
jirisoner — Lost in the woods 63 


1017 TO 1020 A.D. 

Precarious existence of Canada — Due de Montmorency — Intrigues of the Asso- 
ciated Merchants — Champlain victorious — Dismal state of Quebec — 
Madame de Champlain — Guillaume and Emery de Caen— Due de Venta- 
dour, Viceroy — The Jesuit Fathers— -Acadie — Sir William Alexander— 
Knights-Baronets of Nova Scotia 72 


Unsatisfactory state of affairs — Cardinal Richelieu — New Company of 'e One 
Hundred Associates — War between France and England — Admiio,* Kirkt 
seizes Port Royal — Champlain refuses to surrender Quebec— French fleet 
captured by that of Great Britain — Quebec taken — Treaty of St. Oermain- 
en-Laye — Restoration of Canada and Acadie — The last labours of Cham- 
plain — His death 78 


M. de Montmagny- The Jesuit Fathers — Colleges, Seminaries, Hospitals — 
The Huron Mission — Founding of Ville-Marie de Montreal — Incursions of 
the Iroquois — Dangers incurred by missionaries — Maisonneuve at La Place 
d'Armes — New Company fails to perform obligations — Deceptive truce with 
Iroquois — Continued prosperity of the Huron Mission — Its total destruc- 
tion 84 


CHAPTER X.— TIME OP TRIAL. 1648 to 1663 A.D. 

The New England Colonies — Proposed treaty of perpetual peace — Its faihxre — 
M. de Lauscn — State of Canada — Jesuit Mission in Onondaga — Viscomto 
d'Argenson — Insolence of the Mohawks — Portents and signs in the skies— 
The liquor traffic — The great earthquake — New Company sxirrenders its 
charter 95 

CHAPTER XL— ACADIE. 1632 To 1670 A.D. 

D'Aulnay and La Tour, lieutenants under RaKilli — Thdr fends — la Tour dis- 
obeys the royal command to appear in France — D'Aulnay's Fleet at Part- 
ridge Island — La Tour and wife visit Boston — D'Aulnay makes Treaty with 
New England — Madame La Tour's heroism and death — Death of D'Aulnay 
— His widow marries La Tour — Emmanuel le Borgue — The English seize 
Acadie — Grant to La Tour, Temple, and Crowne — Acadie restored to the 
French 102 



M. Gaudois, Royal Commissioner — The Sovereign Council — Governor-General, 
Bishop, Intendunt — Courts— -Character of the French Canadians — The 
West India Company — The FeudJ System — The Fur-trade — Commerce — 
The English at New York — Theh Alliance with the Iro(iuois — Rivalries 
between French and English 110 


1G65 TO 1G72 A.D. 

M. de Mesy — Marquis de Tracy, Viceroy— Joy in Quebec — The Forts on the 
Richelieu — Defiant attitude of the Moliawks — Campaign against them — M. 
de Courcellcs-- Peace — Missions at Sto. Marie and Mic^illlimackinac — The 
labours of M. Talon — The 1 bes of the west, and the Crown of France — The 
Mississippi— Hudson Bay — Newfoundland 110 


Firm rule of M. de Courcelles — The Fort at Cataracoul — Count Frontenac — M. 
Duchesneaii, Intcndant — Sieur la Salle — The Griffin on Lake Huron — La 
Salle reaches the mouth of the Mississippi — His sad fate — Frontenac in 
disgrace — Governor Dongan of New York — M. de la Barre — The Bay of 
Famine 131 


Marquis de DenonviHe — Treaty of Neutrality — Seizure of Iroquois Chiefs — The 
Senecas punished — Pestilence — Intrigues of Governor Dongan — Cataracoul 
besieged — Kondiaronk "the Rat" — The Peace killed — M. de Calli6res in 
France— The Massacre of Lachine — Hudson Bay 140 


Canada in extremity — The *.hree war parties — Schenectady — The first 
— Acadie — Capture of Port Royal — Montreal threatened — New England 
Fleet off Point Levi — The rage of Frontenac — Kebeca liberata 149 


The Iroquois Chiefs — Frontenac's policy — Expedition against the Onondagas — 
Naval fight in the Bay of Fundy — Baron St. Castine — Fort William-Henry 
captured — The Nachouac — Newfoundland and Hudson Bay — Peace of Rys- 
wick — Death of Frontonac — M. de Calli6res— Marquis de Vaudreuil.. 167 


Canada and New England — Port Royal — The Bostonlans enraged — The French 
destroy Haverhill — Invasion of Canada checked — Nova Scotia — Annapolis 
Royal — Canada again threatened — The English Fleet shattered on the Egg 
Islands — The Treaty of Utrecht — Internal condition of Canada — Father 
Charlevoix — Miiquis ie Beauharnois 167 


• • « 


CHAPTER XIX. — J.OUISBUEG. 1744 to 1748 A.D. 

The "War of the Austrian Succession — The Acadians — Du Vivier'g stratagem— 
The siege of Louisburg — The great French Fleet — Due d'Anvillc — A series 
of casualties — The Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle 179 


Territorial pretensions of France — Count de la Galissonnifire — Boundary Com- 
mission of Paris — M. de la Jonquidre— Official corruption — Halifax — Abb^ 
de lioutre — Fort Beaus^jour — Preparation for the coming struggle — Colli- 
sion in the Valley of the Ohio 186 


The Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnac — Capture of Fort BeausSjour — Braddock 
at Monongahela — Battle of Lake George — Expulsion of the Acadians — War 
declared — Loudoun Commander-in-Chief — Marquis de Montcalm — Fort 
Oswego taken — Massacre at Fort William-Henry 195 


Internal state of Canada. — William Pitt — Louisburg captured — The Island of 
St. John — Ticonderoga — The last struggle — Bourlamaque bars the gate — 
Fort Niagara taken — Wolfe before Quebec — Battle of the Plains — Surren- 
der of Quebec — Pattle of Ste. Foye — M. de Levi's blockade raised — End of 
French Rule in Canada 206 


Military Government — Canada left bankrupt by the French — Close of the Seven 
Years' War — The Treaty of Paris — Influence of the Noblesse — The Royal 
Proclamation— The Boundaries of the Province of Quebec — Civil Govern- 
ment — Surrender of the western forts — The rise and defeat of Pontiac's 
Conspiracy 222 


The "New" and the "Old" Subjects— English and French Law — Governor Guy 
Carleton — The Remedies for the conflict of laws — The Feudal Terure — 
Marriage and Mortgage — The discontents in the English Colonies — The 
Quebec Act — The dissatisfaction in Quebec— The first Assembly of Nova 
Scotia — The French on the Miramichi — The Loyalist Refugees — Mauger- 
ville— The Island of St. John 235 


The Philadelphia Congress — The "Gates of Canada" secured — The Invasion- - 
General Montgomery — Benedict Arnold threatens Quebec — Montreal Aban- 
doned — Death of Montgomery at Quebec — Naval fight on Lake Champlain 
— Burgoyne's Surrender at Saratoga— Sir Frederick Haldimand — Fort 
Cumberland — The last Rising of the Indians 248 



Close of the Revolutionary War — The United Empire Loyalists — The Treaty of 
1783 — Boundaries — Landing of the Loyalists — New Brunswick — Governor 
Thomas Carleton — Frederickton — Lord Dorchester, Governor-General — 
State of Canada 256 


The French Revolution — Fox and Burke — Earl Grenville's Act — Upper and 
Lower Canada — The Constitution — The Meeting of the two Legislatures — 
Governor Simcoe at York — Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation — 
Affairs in Lower Canada 265 

SIGNS OF WAR. 1807 to 1811 A.D. 

Nova Scotia — Impeachment of the Judges — Sir John Wentworth — Edward, 
Duke of Kent — Prince Edward Island — Legislative Disputes in New Bruns- 
wick — Members' pay— Governor T. Carleton's Administration — Hostile feel- 
ing in the United States — The Right of Search — Change of Governors — 
Reign of Terror in Lower Canada 273 


The Feeling in the United States — President Madison declares War — Defeat of 
the American General Hull — Death of Brock — Queenston Heights — III suc- 
cess of American War operations — Preparations for Campaign of 1813 — ■ 
Ogdensburg burned — General Proctor victorious in the West — York c^ip- 
tured by Americans — Fort George taken — Sackett's Harbour — Midni§;ht 
Attack at Stoney Creek — Naval Fight on Lake Erie — Cliateauguay — • 
Newark burned by the Americans — Buffalo burned by the British .... 2al 

CHAPTER XXX.— WAR ENDED. 1814-1815 A.D. 

Mediation of the Czar — Impeachment of the Lower Canada Judges — Position of 
the combatants — U.S. General Brown crosses the Niagara — General Riall 
retreats — Battle of Lundy's Lane — HalifAx — The Chesapeake and the 
Shannon — Washington burned — Sir George Prevost at Plattsburg — 
Fort Erie— Close of the War 300 


State of Canada after the War — The Feeling of the French Canadians — The 
Revenues — Disputes in the Legislature — Death of the Duke of Richmond 
— The Earl of Dalhousie — Upper Canada — Aliens — Clergy Reserves — 
Customs Dispute between the two Provinces 310 


1822 to 1827 A.D. 

The Union Scheme— Canada Trade Act— Failure of S?r John Caldwell— The 
Canada Tenures Act — The Earl of Dalhousie's unpopular acts — The Crown 


Lan 1s —State of Nova Scotia — Cape Breton — Legislative troubles in New 
Brunswick — Death of Governor G. Tracey Smythe — Sir Howard Douglas — 
The Great Fire at Miramichi — The Disputed Territory — The Duties on 
Baltic timber 320 

CANADA. 1828 to 1836 A. D. 

An age of Political Reform — Report of the Canada Committee — Recall of the 
Earl of Dalhousic — The Concessions made by the British Government — 
Renewed discontents — Lord Aylmer — Rebellious tendencies — The Ninety- 
two Resolutions — Lord Gosford — The Commission of Inquiry — A dead- 
lock 329 

CANADA. 1828 to 1836 A.D. 

William Lyon M'Kenzie — The Family Compact — William IV., the People's 
Friend — M'K!enzie expelled from the Assembly — The People's Agent in 
Downing Street — The Result of the Mission — M'Kenzie dragged from his 
seat — Lord Goderich — The Fifty-six Rectories — Sir Francis B. Head— The 
Reformers deceived — The Tories triumphunt 339 

PROVINCES. 1832 to 1837 A.D. 

The Family Compact of Nova Scotia — Joseph Howe and L. A. Wilmot — Divi- 
sion of the Council of New Brunswick — Crown Land Department — Mission 
of Messrs. Simonds and Chandler — Surrender of Casual and Territorial 
Revenue — Mission of Messrs. Crane and Wilmot — Sir Archibald Campbell 
— Hon. G. F. Street in Downing Street^— The Civil List BiU passed — Harvey 
and the Reign of Harmony — Joseph Howe — The closed doors — The Twelve 
Resolutions — The doors opened-^ The King's gracious intentions de- 
feated 348 


Lord John Russell's Resolutions — Opinions regarding Responsible Government 
— Final Dissolution of the Legislature of Lower Canada — Sir Francis Head 
tranquilly awaits rebellion — The Meeting of the Five Counties — The 
" Dorics " and the " Sons of Liberty" — Affair at St. Denis and St. Charles — 
Flight of Papineau — M'Kenzie threatens Toronto — The Rebels defeated at 
Montgomery Farm — Loyal enthusiasm of Militia of Upper Cana^'a — 
Insurrection in the Two Mountains crushed 367 


Loyal Feeling in the Maritime Provinces — M'Kenzie on Navy Island — The 
burning of the steamer Caroliv^ — American sympathizers invade Canada 
— Suspension of the Constitution of Lower Canada — Sir Francis B. Head 
resigns — Execution of Lount and Matthews — Earl Durham, High Com- 
missioner — Amnesty to Political Prisoners — The Earl abruptly leaves 
Canada — Fresh outbreak — Affairs at Napierville and Odell-town — The 
"Hunters" invade Canada — The Disputed Territory — Warlike excitement 
in Maine and New Brunswick — The Ashburton Treaty 369 



1839 TO 1849 A. D. 

Lord Durham's Report — Charles Poulett Thompson — The Union Act of 1841 — 
Meeting of First Parliament of United Canada— Death of Lord Sydenham 
—Sir Charles Bagot and Sir Charles Metcalfe — The riglit of Appointment 
to Office — Lord Elgin and the Reform Ministry — Nova Scotia — Reconstruc- 
tion of the Executive Council — Lord Falkland — Responsible Government 
carried — New Brunswick — The Provincial Secretaryship — Charles Fisher's 
Resolution — Rebellion Losses Bill — Lord Elgin mobbed — The Parliament 
Buildings burned— Seat of Government question 381 


Commercial independence — Measures of Progress — Municipal Institutions — 
The Intercolonial Railway — Delegations and Conferences — The Reciprocity 
Treaty — The Clergy Reserves question settled — Feudal Tenure Abolished 
— Emigration — The Hudson Bay Company— The North-West Territory — • 
Selkirk Settlement— Feuds of Rival Traders — British Columbia 400 


State of the Union Question — Increased Representation — Elective Legislative 
Council — Representation by Population — First Proposal of Union — The 
Canadian Tariffs — Prince of Wales' Visit — The United States Defence 
question — Crisis in Parliament of Canada — Parties coalesce to carry Con- 
federation — Prince Edward Island Conference — Quebec Conference — The 
Scheme of Union — Delegation of Canadian Ministry to LondcJh — New 
Brunswick Anti-confederate— Mr. Cardwell's Despatch — The Fenian Broth- 
erhood — The Session of 1866 in New Brunswick — M?eting of Delegates in 
London — British North America Act — First Meeting of Confederate Par- 
liament 417 


Notes of Pkincipal Events since Confederation 439 

The Constitution 444 

Internal Progress of Canada — 1492-1867 447 

Chronological Table 458 

Pronunciation of Proper Names 460 

INDEX 470 


The Known World in the Fifteenth and Nineteenth Cen- 
turies 24 

Early Discoveries and Explorations 84 

Location of Indian Families (Province of Quebec in 1774) 36 



Nova Scotia, 162i a.d 76 

The Huron Mission 92 

i(ouisburg 182 

Lake Champlain 198 

Siege op Quebec 214 

The Lake Country and the Western Forts 226 

The Disputed Territory 258 

Upper and Lower Canada 266 

Niagara Frontier 285 

Lake Erie 289 

Sackett's Harbour and Chrysler's Farm 297 

St. Denis and St. Charles 364 

British Columbia 4i4 




1604 to 1867 A.D. 

A Glance at the History of Canada from its earliest Settlement by the French, 
to the Consummation of Confederation. 

1. Within three ceDturies a band of Frenchmen — nobles 
and adventurers, soldiers and fur-traders, Catholic priest and 
Protestant cur^ — attempted to settle on a small island in "".he 
mouth of a river that flowed into Passamaquoddy Bay, and 
which they named the St. Croix. Exposed to the bitter blasts 
of winter, they struggled against cold, disease, and despair. 
Many sank before tlie balmy breath of spring inspired vigour 
and revived hope. In all the country now c?Ued the Dominion 
of Canada there was not, except those forlorn adventurers, a 
single European or white man. From ocean to ocean, and 
north to the region of perpetual snow and ice, stretched a vast 
unknown wilderness ; boundless prairies, deep valleys, and lofty 
mountains ; dense and trackless forests, in whose gloomy deptlis 
inland seas, great lakes, reposed in calm and raged in storm, 
and through which mighty rivers with many tributaries flowed, 
to empty themselves into ocean, gulf, and bay. Tribes of un- 
tamable savages pitched their wigwams by the shores of the 
lakes, and by the banks of the streams. War and hunting were 
their avocations ; they were sunk in a state of cruel barbarism • 



/^ /3 1612 


but even amidst th jir degradation they showed some sig^8 or 
greatness, goodness, and generosity. 

2. Among the adventurers of the St. Croix there was one 
:aan of noble mind and disinterested purpose, who looked be 
yond the immediate profit of the hour. Samuel dc Champlaiu,^ 
to the courag'e of a soldier, and the zeal of a missionary, added the 
daring curiosity of a discoverer. He had a strong desire to see 
strange land^i. He had skill to note and map out their features. 
He was not discouraged by the utter failure of the first attempt 
at settlement on the St. Croix, or by the misfortunes that befell 
the colony at Port Eoyal in Acadie.^ He followed in the tiack 
of his predecessor, Jacques Cartier.^ He was haunted by the 
idea of finding his way to the rich and glowing East by pene- 
trating the western wilds until he reached a great northern sea. 
Eagerly he listened to the hints given by the Huron and Ottawa 
Indians, whom he met on the banks of the St. Lawrence ; and 
intently he studied the rude charts, drawn on birch bark, of 
the rivers and lakes in the west and north. He persuaded 
himself that great discoveries awaited him if he ascended the 
St. Lawrence and the grand northern river — the Ottawa — to 
their sources. 

3. One autumn day he stood by the Falls of the Chaudiere, 
while his Indian companions threw votive offerings of 
tobacco into the seething caldron to propitiate the spirit 
— the Manitou of the waters. He was discomfited, 

and, for the time, discouraged. He had been made the 
dupe of an impostor, who had falsely told him that the great 
northern sea was to be found by ascending the Ottawa to its 
source in Lake Nipissing, and by following the river that 
flowed into it. With excessive toil he had made his way to the 
Isle d'Allumette, only to find that he had been deceived; 
and he was then returning to the banks of the St. Lawrence. 
But (and not unconsciously to himself) he stood on the ground 
of his predestined labour. The riches of the glowing East were 

* Samuel de Champlain. — A French 
naval officer, born at Le Brouage (a vil- 
lage in the west of France), 1570 ; died 
1(535. Lake Champlaio was named 

ftfter him- 

' Acadie. — The ancient name of Nova 
Scotia and New Brunswick. 

* Jacques Cartier. — Born at bt. Male 
(in the north-west of France), 1494; 
died after 162g, 

found;..tion of Quebec. 16 

a mere delusion of the imagiration — his work lay among the 
wiJds and the ravages of Canada. Already, in the rtide fort 
and palisades of Quebec he had laid the fouudytion of a colony. 
He was not gifted with the vision of a seer, and could not fore- 
tell the events that would come to pass. He was obliged to 
work on, often in doubt and in sickness and with perpetual 
difficulties, sustained by his trust in God and the strength of 
his purpose. "Within sight of the sjjot on which he stood, two 
centuries and a half afterwards rose a noble pile of buildings, 
worthy of his own regal Paris. The solitary, savage spot on the 
Ottawa, had become the centre, the capital, of a vast Dominion, 
aspiring to the rank of a nation. His dream of finding a 
way to the East across the Western Continent had become an 
every-day fact. By the agency of the wondrous power. Steam, 
travellers were whirled from great cities on the Atlantic sea- 
board, through a richly-settled country, out through the forest 
and over the prairie and the mountain, to the great ocean 
across which lay the islands and the far Cathay,^ which the old 
discoverers had longed to reach by this route. 

4. Two centuries and a lialf ago the rude fortress at Quebec, 
the fort at Port Royal, the trading station at Tadoussac on the 
Saguenay, an4 the.^fisheries at Canceau and La H^ve on the 
southern and weatem coasts of Acadie, were the only occupied 
posts in the country, held by the French under the name of 
New France. Along the iron-bound and fog-enshrouded east- 
ern coast of Newfoundland were scattered a few English fishing- 
stations ; and, in the season, vessels from every maritime nation 
in Europe congregated to fish on "the banks." Eude and 
feeble were the beginnings of our Dominion. The difiiculties 
iu the way of making a settlement, and 1 <?eping up communi- 
cation between the different posts, were .. imense, so vast were 
fche distances between them : through the intervening forests 
roamed fierce and hostile savages ; and when the adverse winds 
arose, the little sail-ships were blown from their course across 
stormy gulf and bay. Where Toronto, Halifax, and St. John^ — 
the capitals of three flourishing Provinces — now stand, solitude 
and barbaiism reigned two hundred and fifty years ago. On the 

' Cathay. — An old name for China ; j '^ St. John. — The commercial capitfil 
ROW iiaed chiefly hj the poet§. ) of N?w Brnnswic)^. 



nortlieru nhore of Lake Ontario the forest descended to the 
shore, and tho trees g^issed themselves in the waters ; across the 
noble Bay of Chebiicto a few Indians in their canoes sometimes 
darted ; beneath the western height y> ithin the sheltered har- 
bour of St. John a family of the Micmac tribe pitched their 
wigwams. A century and a half afier the foundation of the 
colonies of Canada and Acadie, the primeval quietness was 
scarce broken, in places which are now the seats of intelligence 
and the centres of industry. So recent has been the rise of the 
modern Provinces of Ontario, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, 
and of all that constitutes the chief strength of the present 
Dominion of Canada. 

5. Canada has attained her present position with infinite 
pain and difficulty. There have been many obstacles in the 
path of her progress. The first settlers possessed their souls in 
fear and trembling, exposed to the constant onslaughts of wily 
and blood-thirsty savages. Deeds of pious zeal and adventu- 
rous courage cast a lustre over that period of trial and suffering. efforts of the Jesuit missionaries to carry the Cross of 
Christ among the distant Indian tribes, and the discoveries of 
explorers, extended the power of the Crown of France over the 
wilderness, and made it known to the world. For a hundred 
years there were commercial rivalry and perpetual war between 
the French in Canada and Acadie and the British colonists of 
New England and New York, until the struggle was decided 
by the taking of Port Royal and Acadie, the capture of 
Quebec, and the conquest of Canada. Not until the final relin- 
quishment by the Crown of France of all claim to territory, by 
the Treaty of Paris,^ did Nova Scotia (the ancient Acadie) enter 
fairly on the path of internal peace and progress. Peculiar 
olistructions, from the first, were met with in carrying on the 
government of Canada. The difficulty of reconciling the pre- 
tensions of French Canadians and the claims of the new British 
population was very great. Though but a small minority, the 

' The Treaty of Paris. — Between 
England, France, and Spain, concluded 
February 10, 17C3. One of the principal 
articles was that France should resign 
kII claim to Nova SQOtia, Canada, an4 

Cape Breton, but should retain a share 
in the fisheries of Newfoundland, with 
the islea of St. Pierre and Miquelon ; 
which, however, were not to be fortl- 



British, as the conquerors, and possessing the greatest amount of 
cajjital, intelligence, and eiiterprise, r.38unicd that the language 
and laws of the Province should be altered to suit their views 
anu prejudices. But the British Governmeat, in imposing a 
constitution on Canada, took into consideration the interests of 
the large majority. For several years it remained a French 
Provmce under British sovereignty. Deeply attached as the 
French Canadians were to France, and to their own language, 
laws, customs, and institutions, they were well satisfied with 
the benignity of British rule, under which they enjoyed a peace, 
a happiness, and a prosperity unknown in the times of the French 
government. Daring the trying pcxiod of the American llevo- 
lutionary War they remained loyal to the British Crown. 

6. After that war, and the acknowledgmeut of the indepeii- 
(lence of the American Colonies, a new era opened for 
Canada. Bands of Loyalists, who had lost all in fight- 1783 
ing for their King and country, fled tliither to seek a.d. 
safety and sustenance. The two new Provinces of Upper 
Canada and New Brunswick were created. The Loyalists 
brought with them a love for monarchical institutions. Separate 
governments ^were granted to Upper Canada, Lower Canada, and 
New Brunswick, like that which, since 1750, Nova Scotia had 
enjoyed. In each Province there was a Legislature of three 
branches. The two upper branches' — the Governor, assisted 
by an Executive Council, and the Legislative Council — had 
control over the making of the laws and the expenditure of all 
moneys. They acknowledged no responsibility to the third 
branch, the Assembly, which represented the people. They })re- 
sumedly were actuated by the highest motives, and were in- 
terested in promoting the happiness and prosperity of the Prov- 
inces ; but if the Acts of the Councils excited the censure of 
the Assembly, the representatives of the people had no redress, 
for the members of the upper branches held their offices for 
life. The Imperial Government protected the commerce of the 
Provinces between the mother country and her other colonial 
dependencies, and regulated the trade between them and foreign 
countries by discriminative duties in favour of the home mer- 
chant and manufacturer. 

7. Under this system of oligarchical government and comraer- 

(473) ' 2 


cial protection and restriction the Provinces made considerable 
advances in wealth and population. Tliey stood 
1812-14 the shock of, war unshaken in their loyalty, and 
A.D. fouyht bravely to preserve their dearly-prized con- 

nection with the motlier country. But in the course 
of time a number of causes conspired to bring about a change 
in the form of government, and in the relations between the 
mother country and the Provinces. The people could not see 
unmoved the marvellous prosperity of the United States under 
free institutions, and they were influenced by the agitation of 
liberal political oj)inions at home. Immigration from the 
British Isles set in, and the Provinces received large accessions 
in poj)ulation from classes more or less imbued with those 
ouinions. But above all, the composition of the Executive and 
Legislative Councils excited popular discontent. 

8. For twenty years there was political strife ; and in Lower 
Canada the antagonism between the races grew in intensity. 

The discontent exploded in a brief rebellion. Upper 

1848 '"^iid Lower Canada were tlien united. Responsible 

A.D. Government was established in all the Provinces. 

Political power was transferred from the upper to the 
lower branch of the Legislature. No Government that could 
not command the support of a majority ui the members of the 
Assembly in carrying out its policy, could thenceforth remain 
in office. At the same time that the Imperial Government 
granted to the Provinces the right to manage their own affairs, 
it withdrew all protection from their commerce — they were 
placed on the same footing as foreigners. 

9. Under the system of free government and free trade the 
Provinces grew enterprising. In Canada abuses were reformed, 
and improvements were made in internal communication by 
means of canals and railways. The system of common schools 
was inaugurated. Efforts were made to establish free commercial 
intercourse between the Canadas, Nova Scotia, and New Bruns 
wick, and to construct a railway to connect them. A Confede- 
ration of the Provinces had long been declared, by eminent 

11 statesmen, to be the best remedy for the political discords that 

rent the Canadas, and a means of advancing the prosperity of 
all. A wonderful conjuncture of circumstances made it possible 


to turn those suggestions to practical accoimt. The Con- 
federation of the Provinces was cousummateil. Two 
liimdred and fifty years from the time wlieii Cham- 1867 
]>laiii stood near the t'alls of the Chaiidiere, in the wiUls a.u. 
of the Ottawa, the Dominion of Canada was erected. 
Wonderful changes had taken place in the condition of the 

10. What is now the state of this Dominion ? Quebec — gi-own 
up from being a rude wooden fort with a gariison of fifty 
people, to be a venerable city of 60,00') inhabitants^ — gives its 
name to a well settled Province (tluit once comj)rised all Canada), 
having a popuLition of 1,192,000 souls. Montreal — the Hoche- 
laga of the Indians, the Ville-Marie of Maisonneuve and the 
religious enthusiasts of 1642 — is a flourishing and beautiful city, 
the commercial centre of the Dominion. It has a population of 
107,000. Time has worked many changes in Lower Canada. 
The Feudal Tenure,^ which held the mass of French Canadian 
inhabitants in a state of semi-bondage, has been swept away. 
Universities, colleges, superior and conmion schools are estab- 
lished in the cities, towns, villages, and districts. But the 
attachment of the French Canadians to their language, laws, 
customs, and institutions has not been shaken. The evidence 
of the French origin of Canada is as strong as ever, amidst the 
l)roofs of the wonderful growth of British power. This double 
nationality ought to widen the sympathies of the young 
Cana^'ian. It gives him an interest in the history of two great 
nations — France and Great Britain. 

11. By the shores of Lake Ontario-^ where, eighty years pgo, 
the Indian pitched his wigwam beneath the shade of over- 
hanging boughs, and myriads of wild-fowl giithered in the bay 
and surrounding marshes — the city of Toronto, the capital of the 
leading Province of the Dominion, has arisen. On the site where 
it stands, Governor Simcoe'^ had encamped with his regiment, 

' Inhabitants. — The figures referring 
to population are taken from the Cen- 
sus of 1871. 

'■* Feudal Tenure. —Tenure of land, 

Graves Simcoe, appointed Governor of 
Upper Canadaj when the new Consti- 
tution dividing Canada into Lower and 
Jpper Provinces was inaugurated in 

not by virtue of rent paid, but of mill- 1792. He had commanded the Boyal 
tary service rendered to a superior. Virginian Rangers during the Revolu- 

* Oovemor Simcoe. — Colonel John l tionary War. Sep p. 370. 


the Royal Rangers, in 1793. Not a house was then erecte<l. 
Within the years of an old man's life Upper Canada, now called 
Ontario, from being a few settlements, scattered between the 
Bay of Quintd and Toronto and along the Niagara frontier, witli- 
out towns, roads, or schools, luia grown up to be a well-order h1, 
self-governing, prosperous Proviiice, with an established system 
of education scarce to be surpassed, and magnificent means of 
internal comnmnication by roads, cjinals, and railways. Toronto 
has a population of 58,000. It lacks nothing that a rising city 
should have — gieat docks, broad streets, fine buildings, churches, 
universities, colleges, schools, halls, a busy population, and grow- 
ing manufactures, aor uired wealth, enterprise, and a free and 
powerful press. Other cities and towns have arisen by the 
shores of Lakes Ontario and Erie — Kingston (the ancient Cata- 
racoui), Hamilton, London, Brantford, Guelph,ieeday Chatham, 
and others — while numberless villages are spread over the vast 
extent of the Province. The country between the St. Lawrence, 
the Ottawa, and Georgian Bay is being filled up. Railways 
have been made ; more are being constructed, and soon the 
whole Province will be intersected by ramifying lines. The 
great source of its wealth is its fertile wheat-growing soil ; agri- 
culture is its chief pursuit. In the ancient capitals of Europe 
— London, Paris, Vienna — the excellence of its products ^as 
won distinction. Its manufactures are growing in importanoe. 
Its population numbers 1,700,000. 
12. By the incorporation of Hudson Bay and North-Wesl 

Territories into the Dominion, an addition has been 

1870 made to Canada vastly more extensive than all the 

A.D. country claimed by the French, and called by them New 

France. The extension of the Dominion to the Pacific 
coast took place in 1870, and in all probability consequences of 
the utmost importance will result from it. Many years may 
not elapse before a line of railway will connect the Atlantic and 
Pacific Oceans. Across the Dominion will be the shortest route 
from England to China. Traffic generally seeks the shortest 
route. Then the commerce between Europe and Asia will pass 
over the American Continent, realizing in a strange manner the 
dream of the first explorers — of finding a way to the East by 
the west. A tide of emigration may pour into the vast and 


fertile valley of the SaHkatchowaii, and other VioviiicoH beMules 
Manitoba may spring ii{). In the far west of the Dominion there 
are illimitfible means of expansion. 

13. Acadie is now no more. What it was is a matter of 
history. Cattle graze in the ruined ditches and on the mounds 
(»f the ancient Port Eoyal. Few and faint are the vestiges of 
French domination in Acadie. Two British Provinces occuj)y 
its ground — N ova Scotia and New Brunswick. Lying along .the 
Gulf shore, and abutting on the Atlaj^ic, they show an exten- 
sive sea-board, with si)acious harbours and ports, without which 
the Dominion of Canada could never attain a commanding 
]>()sition in the Empire. By Chebucto Bay and the harbour of 
St. John stand two cities of nearly equal population — Halifax 
and St. John, the centres of extensive commerce. The sister 
maritime Provinces bring to the Dominion a great accession of 
strength ; a joint population of 677,000 souls ; a revenue of over 
$2,500,000 ; in their extensive forests and tisheries, ar 1 in their 
mines of coal and iron, great sources of wealth ; a great com- 
mercial fleet, and a hardy sea-going class of people. 

14. The fertile Island of St. John, now Prince Edward 
Island,^ joined the Confederation in 1873. It was very long 
neglected, and its existence as a Province dates back only to 
1758. It brings to the Dominion a population of 94,000, and a 
revenue of $400,000 ; both gi-eater than those of Canada in the 
best days of French rule. With the entry of Newfound \i,\d 
the Confederation of the British North American Provinces 
will be completed. 

■ 15. The Dominion of Canada has come of age. Its people 
have reached the stage of free action, and can either make or 
mar their future. Many of the worst obstacles in their }>ath of 
progress have been overcome, and they have acquired strength 
to proceed with accelerated speed. The future is hid from all, 
but the prospect seems full of promise. The Dominion has now 
a population close on 4,000,000 of peop!'^ Its flag is now car- 
ried by its marine to every quarter of the globe. Its com- 
merce, in the aggregate, amounts to $200,000,000. The rudi- 
ments of a sound education are within the reach of every 

' PHnce Edwc^d Island. — So named I the father of Queen Victoria; died 
In 1800, after Edward, Duke of Kent, 1 1820. 




cliikl The meaus of enlightenment are freely spread abroad. 
The Church, the Scliool, the University, the Press unite in main- 
taining the religious, moral, and intellectual advancement of 
the people. In their hands is the control of the government. 
It is in their power, ultimately, to put an end to the sectional 
strifes, the bitter party political contests, that have caused great 
diflficultieg in the past, and to determine that the admiuistratiou 
of affairs shall be pure. 

Questions. — 1. When was the first 
attempt made to settle in Canada? 
Where? What was the fate of many 
of the adventurers ? Describe the 
country as it then was. 

2. Wlio was the most remarkable c* 
the St. Croix settlers? What was his 
character? What idea haunted him? 

3. What great imposture was prac- 
tised on him ? Where did he really lay 
the foiindation of a colony? How has 
his dream been realized? 

4. Describe the state of what is now 
the Dominion of Canada, two centuries 
and a half ago. What shows how 
recent has been the rise of all that con- 
stitutes its strength ? 

5. Mention some of the difficulties 
which Canada has had to encounter. 
From what does the rise of Nova Scotia 
date? What obstrTictions in carrying 
on the governme.'??; of Canada were met 
with from the first? What made the 
Frencli Canadians loyal to the British 
Crown? When was their loyalty piit 
to a severe test? 

6. How did the independence of the 
United States open a new era for Can- 
ada? Describe the new Constitution 
then conferred on the latter. 

7. How did the country prosper un- 
der the new government? What were 

the chief causes which led to the intro- 
duction of change ? 

8. How long did the political strife 
last? In what did it result? What 
change took place in the position of 

9. What improvements followed these 
changes ? What remedy was suggested 
for the political discords that pre- 
vailed? When was confederation son- 
summated ? 

10. What changes have occurred in 
Lower Canada? What is meant by the 
"double nationality" of Canadians? 
What effect ought it to have? 

11. Describe the present state of 
Toronto and the cities of Ontario. 

'hat is the population of the capital? 
v/hat is the chief source of the wealtli 
of the Province ? 

12. When was the Dominion extended 
to the Pacific? Whr.t effects may be 
anticipated from thai extension ? 

13. What Provinces: now occupy the 
ground of Acadie ? Describe their pres- 
ent condition. 

14. W hen did Prince Edward Island 
join the Confederation? What was its 
former name? What Province is stlU 
outside the Dominion? 

15. What considerations seem to fill 
the future of Canada with i>romise? 

;! '"■*; 





982 A.D.— 1492 A.D.— 1583 A.D. 

The Northmen. 

Christopher Columbna. 

John and Sebastian Cabot. 

Amerigo Vespucci. 

The lianks of 1> ev foiincUand. 

John Ver-^zzani. 

Jacques Cartier's first Voyage. 

His second and third Voyngas. 
Sieur de Roberval, Viceroy of 

Disastrous issue of liis Expedition. 
Martin Frobisher. 
Sir Humphrey Gilbert. 
Origin of the name " C'anada." 

1. The name of Christoplier Columbus^ is inseparably con- 
nected with the first discovery of America. But in the old 
records of Iceland, it is recorded that the Western Continent 
was known to the Northmen in the tenth century. Eric 
Eaude (the Eed) discovered the coasts of Greenland 982 
and Labrador. Following up those discoveries, Biarni a.d. 
Heriuf ulson ^ passed through the straits between New- 
foundland and Labrador, and, entering the Gulf, sailed until he 
gained the ocean. Keeping a south-westerly course, he saw 
from his vessel'' deck the low-lying and wood-covered shores of 
Nova Scotia ; he passed the headland of Cape Cod, and steer- 
ing his way among the beu,:''tiful islands of Narragansett Bay, 
landed on the point on which the town of Newport now stands. 
To the Northmen, Newfoundland was Helhcoland, "the land 
of broad stones ;" Nova Scotia, Markland, " the land of woods ;" 
Massachusetts and Rhode Island, Vinland, " the land of vines," 
because, according to the legend, some of Biarni's crew gathere<l 
grapes in Martha's Vineyard. 

2. The prior discovery of America by the Northmen does not 
detract from the fame of Columbus. Long before their time 

' Christopher Columbus. — Bom at 
frenoa, 1445. He was of humble origin. 
In 1470 he joined his brother Bartholo- 
mew, who was a maker of charts at 
Lisbon. After soliciting assistance in 
vain from the Oouris of England, 
Genoa, and Portugal, he obtained three 

vessels from Ferdinand and Isabel of 
Spain. He discovered San Salvador in 
149^., and the mainland of South Amer- 
ica in 1498. He died at Valladolid 
poor and neglected in 1506. 

' Biarni Heriufulsoji. — By soma 
simply tailed BiOrn. 








* Such. figures were used by old geographers to denote unknown regions. 



ilie existeuce of another continent was deemed very probable. 
Tlie great glory of the Genoese mariner was that he pi'oved 
practically the truth of theories, and clearly established a fact 
that, before his time, had rested in the shadowy realm of 
tiaditiou. His exploit filled all Europe with wonder 
and admiration. It was believed that sailing from the 1493 
west by a way never before attempted, he had found a.u. 
the East Indies ; a mistake that caused the natives of 
the new continent to be ever afterwards called Indians. 

3. The discovery awakened a wonderful spirit of enterprise. 
It filled men's minds with wild dreams of glorious countries 
across the main ; of lands of gold and precious stones, and of 
fragrant spices, through which flowed rivers of miraculous 
waters, that cured all diseases, and renewed in the old the 
spring-time of youth. When it was noised abroad, Henry VII. 
of England, cold and cautious {is he was, regretted that he 
had let slip the opportunity of linking his name with the great 
discovery of the age, when he refused to aid the Genoese 

4. The success of Columbus excited the envy of John Cabot, 
a mercliant of Venice, then carrying on business in Bristol. His 
80U Sebastian,^ an ambitious youth, was stirred by tlie event, 
and gi'ew impatient to distinguish himself by some extraor- 
dinary enterprise. Father and son found favour with Henry. 
They received the royal permission to take six vessels 

of about 200 tons each, from any port in England. At 1496 
their own charges they equipped this little fleet, and a.d. 
the King stipulated that he should receive one-fift^ of 
the profits of the venture. The Cabots left Bristol, hoping, by 
sailing west, to reach Cathay. 

5. On the 24th of June they first saw land, the coast 1497 
of Newfoundland, which they named Prima Vista. a.d. 
Turning in a northerly direction, they kept the line of 

the coast of Labrador, sailing as far as the 56^h degree of north 

' Sebdstian Cabot. — Born at Bristol 
1477, — son of John Cabot, or Gabotto, 
a merchant of Venice. It is, however, 
believed by many that Cabot's "Prima 
Vista" was not Newfoundland, but 
Labrador. Sebastian Cabot spent many 

years in the service of Spain, exploring 
tlie coasts of Brazil and La Plata. In 
lo53 he was at the head of the enterpris- 
int; merchant adventurers who formed 
the " Russia Company " of traders. lie 
died in 1557. 



latitude, meeting great islands of ice, and experiencing intense 
cold. Much troubled at finding that the land still extended 
north without showing any entrance or gulf, they changed their 
course, and after passing through the Straits of Belle Isle, and 
exploring the Gulf, sailed south as far as Florida. The hard- 
ships of the voyage, and the scarcity of provisions, raising a 
mutiny among their crews, they returned to England. The 
Cabots saw the mainland of the new continent fourteen 

1498 nionths before Columbus, who reached the coasts of 
A.D. Paria^ the next year. By right of this discovery from 

1499 their vessels' decks, Henry VII. claimed possession of 
A.D. the North American Continent from Labrador to 


6. A Florentine, Amerigo Vespucci,^ followed in the track 

of Columbus. An account of what he had seen was 

1507 published. When the book ai)peared Columbus was dead, 

A.D. and the discoveries of the Cabots were then little known 

to the world. No one at first refuted the false assertion 

that he had reached the mainland before the great Genoese ; 

so the new continent was called America after him. 

7. Sebastian Cabot made another voyage of discovery. 
1517 He found by the Banks of Newfoundland and the coasts 
A.D. of Cape Breton a fleet of French, Italian, Spanish, antl 
Portuguese fishing- vessels. These islands were then 
called BaccalaoSj which in the Basque^ language signifies "cod- 

8. England and France at this time met in the field of 
American discovery. Both ignored the right of the natives to 
the soil of the new continent, and claimed vast territories, whose 
boundaries were vague and undefined. Hence arose confusion 
and conflict when they asserted their right to the same tract of 

' Paria. — North-oast of Vonezuela. 
It gives name to the gulf between 
Trinidad and the mainland. 

^ Amerigo Vespucci. — Born at Flor- 
ence 1451. In the first account of his 
voyage, published in 1507, his discovery 
was placed in 1497. Humboldt, the 
great (rerman philosopher and traveller 
(1709-1850), showed that he did not visit 

South America till 1499 —one yearlator 
than Columbus — and maintained that 
the application of his name to the New 
World was made in ignorance. 

^ Basque. — The language spoken in 
the Basque provinces (Biscay, Guipus- 
coa, and Alava) of the north-west of 
Spain. It is supposed to be of Tartar 


iOtltJ VEttAZZAKt. 


country. French adventurers from Harfleur^ and Dieppe- 
had takeii possession of some islands in the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence. Seven years afterwards, Baron de 1518 
Lery attempted a settlement on that little barren out- a.d. 
post, Sable Island, and left cattle upon it. 

9. The claim of the French to the possession of the North 
American Continent rested on the discoveries of John Veraz- 
zani, an Italian mariner of ancient Florentine lineage. 

He entered the employ of Francis I. of France, and 1524 
explored the American coast from the 34th to the 50th a.d. 
degree of north latitude. In the account of his voyage, 
it is said that he vas the first man who saw the shores of North 
Carolina, and see.. ted the fragrance of their forests, which was 
borne far out to sea ; that the natives of Virginia and Mary- 
laud, when they descried his vessels, crowded on the beach and 
made signs of welcome ; that he entered the Bay of New York, 
and saw the harbour crowd '^'^ with canoes ; that he was most 
hospitably receiv(}d by the natives of Narragausett Bay ; and 
that as he passed the irregular coasts of Massachusetts and the 
surf-beaten rocks of Maine, he viewed the scenes " ill pleased." 
This voyage terminated after he had explored, for many miles, 
the coasts of Terre-Neuve, or New-Foundland. Fearful that 
his provisions would fail, he returned to France, where the 
report of his discoveries raised the hopes of the merchants that 
in th( se new countries would be found mines of gold. Little 
is known with certainty of the after life of Verazzani. 

10. Ten years afterwards Jac(iues Cartier, a famous mariner 
of the sea-port of St. Malo,^ followed in the course 

of the Florentine explorer. The expedition was under- 1534 
taken under the patronage of - Philli pe-de Brian Chabot, a.dA^''-^\ 
the favourite and boon companion of Francis I.* On 
the 30th of April the Breton Master Pilot sailed from St. Malo, 

' Harfleur. — A sea-port of France, at 
the moiith of the Seine, 3 miles east of 
Le Havre. 

^ Dieppe. — A sea-port of France, on 
the English Channel, 50 miles north- 
east of Le Havre. 

^ St. Malo. — A fortified sea-port in 
the north-west of France ; on the north 
coast of the old province of Bretagno. 

* Francis I. — King of France from 
1515 till 1547. He was the great rival 
of Charles I. of Spain for the dignity 
of Emperor, which the latter obtained 
in 1519. His famous interview with 
Henry VIII. of England on "the Field 
of the Cloth of Gold" took place in 
1620. He was taken prisoner at Pavia 
iu 1525. 






with two siuall, quaintly-shaped vessels. By the eiul of Jime 
he had crossed the ocean. He saw enormous islands of ice 
floating down from the Northern Sea. Passing thiough the 
Straits of Belle Isle into the Gulf, he sailed past islands white 
with fowl, and luxuriant with wild fruits and verdurous woods. 
On a resplendent day in July he entered a sheltered, shining 
sheet of water, called since that day Bay Chaleur ; for, coming 
from ihe icy air off Labrador and out of the fogs of the Gulf, 
they felt the heat intensely. Passing out, Cartier steered his 
course norih-west till he saw white and rugged cliffs rise high 
and straight from the water. He cast anchor at the entrance 
of Gaspe Bay. But a furious storm having caused his ships 
to drag, he was compelled to haul up his anchor and seek 
shelter in the Bay of Penouih 

11. The weather continuing stormy and foggy, he remained 
there several days. A crowd of Souriquois, Salt-water Indians, 
tishing for mackerel, held communication by signs with the 
Frenchmen. On the 24th of July Cartier caused a large white 
cross, thirty feet high, bearing an escutcheon, on which were 
graven three Jleurs-de-lis,^ and the words " Yive le Eoi," to be 
planted at a point at the entrance of the bay. When the cross 
stood firm and erect, he knelt on the sands with his companions, 
and prayed with clasped hands. The Indians viewed these 
proceedings with mingled wonder and alarm. An old chief, 
accompanied by his two sons, went on board Cartier's vessel, 
and, by signs, testified displeasure. He w^ould not have been 
easily pacified if he had understood that the act he had 
witnessed transferred to a distant potentate all the rights of 
his people to their country. The Frenchmen set themselves 
to amuse the old man and his boys. They made the youths 
doff" their foul furs, and arrayed them in white shirts and 
coloured woollen jackets. Placing red bonnets on their heads, 
and throwing brass chains around their necks, they pronounced 
their civilized attire complete. Proud of their gorgeous array, 
the simple boys were easily induced to remain on board with 
their kind friends, while their father went on shore. Next 

' Fleurs-de-lis. — Flowers of the lily, or 
iris — the ancient royal insignia of 
France. Some, however, have sup- 

posed it to represent the head of a 
javelin. At the Revolution (1789) it 
was superseded by the tricolor flag. 


day Cartier sailed off with the two young "savages," as the 
French always called the natives. He reached an island, whose cliffs reminded him of a familiar i)ort in France, and 
named it L'Assomption. Along its dangerous and forbidding 
south-west coast he found no safe shelter for liis ships. The 
clouds l)eginning to gather and the winds to rise, he debated 
with his company whether, in the face of the threatening weather, 
they should proceed further. They returned to France. 

1 2. Next spring Cartier was ready to cross the Atlantic again. 
The report of what he had seen induced several gentlemen 

to accompany liim as volunteers. The Church gave her 1535 
blessing, and on the 16th of May, with three vessels, a.d. 
small as river schooners, he set sail, full of expectation. 
He was still buoyed up with the hope of finding a way to the 
East, and of bringing back gold, rubies, and spices, and every- 
thing to delight the senses of man. A furious storm overtook 
and sepaiated the vessels as they approached the Labrador 
coast. Uninjured by the buffeting of the storm, the tiny 
barques were gathered together again. Cartier sailed for the 
mouth of the great river. On the 10th of August he cast 
anchor in a bay on the north-western shore of L'Assomptioii 
Isle. It was the day of St. Lawrence, and this name was 
given to the gulf and the river. 

13. The adventurers sailed past the precipitous and barren 
rocks through whose chasm rolled the deep and gloomy waters 
of the Saguenay ; past bold coasts that now rose steep from the 
water's edge, then receding, enclosed wooded plain and meadow 
lands within an amphitheatre of hills. They left behind the 
lofty promontory of Cape Tourment and the difficult channel 
between the mainland and the richly-wooded " Isle de Coudres." 
Another island, whose vines and clustered grapes suggested the 
name "Isle of Bacchus," which divided the river into two 
channels, was soon seen. The red Indians, darting in their 
canoes from the north shore of the river, surrounded the vessels. 
They swarmed on board whooping and yelling, but with no 
hostile intent. Dunnaconna, the chief lord of that country, 
harangued the Frenchmen, and invited them to visit his town. 
With bread and wine the " pale faces " regaled their red 
brothers, pleased with their welcome to Canada. Accompanied 


by tlie flotilla of canoes, the French vessels, threading the 
northern channel, passed into the broad basin. A lofty prom- 
im'Mvy of bare and weather-beaten rock thrust itself into the 
river, standing like a fortress raised by the hand of Nature to 
bar all hostile approach. When the scene in its grandeur burst 
npon the Frenchmen, some writers pretend that a Breton 
mariner exclaimed ** Quel bee " — how beautiful ! But others 
are content to derive the time-honoured name Quebec from the 
Indian Kebec, which means a strait. 

14. Stadacoii^, Dunnaconna's town, was approached by 
crossing a river that Cartier called the St. Croix, and clambei'- 
ing up rocks until the height on which it was situated was 
attained. While Jiere, Cartier heard of Hochelaga, the 
chief town of the tribe. The Indians tried hard to dissuade 
him from visiting it, and even sent three devils, messen- 
gers of their god Codougey, to threaten him with inevitable 
destruction if he persisted. But, in spite of the well-acted play, 
Cartier, with his volunteers and fifty sailors in the smallest of 
his vessels, ascended the river. Missing the clip'inel into Lake 
St. Peter, they were compelled to take to their boats. It was 
evening when they approached the island on which Hochelaga 
stood. They encamped on shore, and when the darkness came 
the Indians lighted fires and danced around them in glee 
through all the night. The town was surrounded by a circle 
of high palisades, constructed of trunks of trees set in a triple 

15. In the morning, Cartier and his baud (the leaders in 
plumed helmets, shining breastplates, and cuisses on their 
thighs) in military pomp, with trumpets sounding and colours 
flying, entered the gateway. As they took position in the 
square around which rows of long cabins were placed, women 
and children swarmed out in loud amazement. Those noisy 
welcomers were thrust into the back-ground, and the warriors 
squatted themselves on their haunches. Mats having been 
brought out, the chief Frenchmen sat down in the centre of a 
grave and reverent throng. Those untutored savages looked 
up to Cartier as a divine being, a touch of whose hand could 
cure all mortal disease. Their old chief, paralytic and helpless, 
was brought out to be restored to pristine health and strength ; 


from the cabins came forth the blind, the halt, and the palsied ; 
the fevered and the sick were carried out by their friends, and 
laid down before the Frenchmen. Looking compassionately 
u])ou the afflicted throng, C^artier read aloud a portion of the 
Gospel of St. John, and made the sign of the cross. This j)ain- 
ful scene ended, gifts were distributed — to the men hatcliets 
and knives, to the women beads. Handfuls of pewter rings 
imd little images of Agnus Dei were thrown into the stpiare to 
be scrambled for by the children. As the Frenchmen lepassed 
tlie g.ateway, the women crowded round and tried to force on 
them unsavoury articles of food, which were courteously de- 

16. Before leaving t!ie island, Gartier ascended to the top of 
the mountain on the noith-west. From its height he saw the 
l)lue glistening waters of the St. Lawrence, encircling isle and 
islet, flowing between lofty verdurous heights, and the forest 
si)readiug like a billowy ocean all around. He called it Mount 
Koyal. It was late in autumn when Cartier returned to 
Quebec. In his absence a rude fort had been built, and he 
determined to winter there. A terrible time was passed. 
The scurvy attacked nearly the whole company, and killed 
seventy-five. Fearful iliat the Indians would discover their 
weakness, the men v/ere kept immured within the fort, and 
were told to beat on its wooden walls with sticks as if hard at 
work. From a poor Indian, Cartier learned that a decoction of 
a certain evergreen was a sovereign remedy for the disease. 
This ameda, as the natives called it, was the common spruce. 
The Frenchmen drank so copiously that they used up a whole 
tree ; and with the best effect, for when the spring came they 
were in health and spirits. 

17. Cartier resolved to return to France. Before leaving he 
took formal possession of the country. Instead of 

gold and rubies he had gathered mica only, and rock 1536 
crystals from the slate ledges of Cape Diamond. Such a.d. 
dross was a poor return for all the expense and suffer- 
iug of his voyage. He wished to have some living witnesses 
that he had visited a glorious land, worth many a sacrifice to 
convert and bring to the knowledge of the true faith. He de- 
termined to take back with him some of the natives. Dunua- 


couna and four chiefs, luretl on board his vessel, were borne 
away to Fiance. 

IS. Five years elapsed before Cartier again saw the })roniou- 
tory of Quebec. Francis I. wjis dissatisfied at not re- 

1540 ceiving treasures of gold and precious stones. Evil 
A.D. reports of an unhealthy, inclement climate got abroail. 

For a time exploration of the Western Continent wjia dis- 
couraged ; but soon the K ing's interest revived. By letters patent, 
dated 15th of January, Jean Fran9ois de la Roche, Sieur de 
Boberval, a nobleman of Picardy, was created Viceroy and 
Lieutenant-General of Canada, Hochelaga, Saguenay, New- 
foundland, Belle Isle, Carpent, Labrador, and Baccalaos,and Lord 
of Noremb^gue.^ Cartier was appointed Cai)tain-General and 
Master Pilot. He was thus placed in a secondary position over 
an enterprise which he had claims to lead. In his commission 
of the 17th of October, it was set forth that the King had caused 
certain natives to be brought to France to be instructed, so 
that on their return they might be able to induce their country- 
men to embrace the true faith. This declaration reads like 
Cartier's justification for carrying ott' the chiefs, as it gives a 
command and a reason for the act. Unfortunately, Dunna- 
conna and his biothers died before the expedition sailed. The 
prisons were scoured to man the ships, and fifty convicts were 
hauled on board. 

19. There was some de^ay at St. Malo. The King, growing 

impatient, commanded Cartier to sail with the five 

1541 ships that were ready. He departed on the 23rd of 
A.D. May. When the French fleet appeared off the Isle 

of Bacchus no canoes, filled with gleeful Indians, 
darted out from the shores to welcome them. The savages 
of Stadacond had learned to distrust their kidnapping visitors. 
They did not show open hostility. They listened quietly 
when told that Dunnaconna was dead, but that the other 
chiefs had married and were living in state in France. The 
whole truth was too harsh to be told. The old feeling of 
trust and cordiality had vanished. Cartier determined to 
move up the river and make a settlement on the height at 

' NorevxMgue. — Lands on the PentagoSt or Penobscot, and near its mouth. 



Cap Rouge. Two foi-ts were built, one at tlie auniniit, another 
at tlie foot. A gully ran down the face of the rock, and up 
it a road of communication was cut. This place was called 
Charlesbourg Royal. The cold weather came upon the in- 
habitants soon after the work was completed. Tho gloom of 
the darkening days fell upon their spirits. Their experience 
of the winter must have been bitter. On the return of spring 
they abandoned their forts and left the country. 

20. Sieur de Roberval did not leave Rochelle^ until the 16th 
of April. He put into a harbour, Saint Jean, on the 
eastern coast of Newfoundland. Soon after, to his 1542 
utter amazeme'it, his Master Pilot entered with his a.d. 
live vessels. He commanded him to return to Canada ; 

but Cartier, quietly disobeying the order, sailed away under 
cover of night to France. Thus ended the last known 
voyage of the Breton mariner, in disgust, dimppointment, and 
(lisatfection. He had failed to discover a route to the rich 
East; but he had found Canada on his way. He lived for 
many years in his seignorial mansion at Limoilu. There he 
wrote an account of his voyages, which kept alive the knowledge 
of the countries he had visited, and the spirit of adventure 
in kindred minds. A cloud of doubt rests over his last voy- 
age. It is said that the King sent him out to endeavour 
to ascertain the fate of De Roberval. Whatever else is doubt- 
ful, it is certain that the enterprise of that nobleman failed 
disastrously. He built a spacious fort above the site of 
Charlesbourg, but could not defend it against cold, famine, and 
disease. His convict settlers grew mutinous. Terrible scenes 
were enacted throughout the winter of 1542 within that fort 
by the frozen St. Lawrence, over which the xjurtain of oblivion 
had better be dropped. 

21. The spirit of discovery grew languid in France. 1576 
The mania of finding a north-west passage to India a.d. 
spread in England. Martin Frobisher^ explored the 

' Rochelle. — A fortified sea-port on 
the west coast of France, 95 miles north 
of Bordeaux. 

'^Martin Frohisher. — A famous ex- 
plorer and naval hero of Elizabeth's 
reign. The object of his first expedi- 

(473) 8 

tion was to search for a north-west 
passage. He took part in the action 
with the Spanish Armada, 1588 ; and 
was killed in assaulting a fort near 
Brest (in France) in 1594. He was a 
native of Yorkshire. 



! i 





|j| i 


co.'iats of Labradfii" and Gieenljuid ; disooverod the ca])e 
■which he called Elizabeth's Foreland, .nn<^ +he straits which 
hear liis name; and gathered a (jnantity of mica, under the 
impression that it was the precious metal. Two years later, 

Frobisher, commanding an expedition of fifteen ships, 

1578 «''til<'<l af^ain to find the north-west i)assa^'e, but bronf,'iit 

A.D. back ruin only on the heads of those who had adveii- 

tared their Means to fit it out. Strange, chimerical 
ideas, filled the in, agination of the first exi)lorer8. The imnu'di- 
ate I'esuUs of tlujir voyages ai)})ear to have been miserable, but 
mighty consequences followed u])on them. 




<p^§a}V Salvador 


^ _oo 22. Five years later Sir Humphrey Gilbert^ took 
possession, by authority of Queen Elizabeth, of the 
Island of Newfoundland, and formed a settlement ou 

' Sir Humphrey Gilbert. — Born at had accompanied him in an earlier 
Dartmouth (Devonshire), 1539. He was voyage to America Gilbert published a 
)i^lf-brotlier of Sir "Walter T?f legli, who Discourse on the North-W^st pj^sgag^, 



llie li.'ubour of St. JoIiu'h. But lie fuiltMl to reach any part of 
the luainland of America. On his return to Euglaml he was 
canglit in a furioua Htorm. As Ins consort vessel scudded past 
liiin, Sir Humphrey cried out, " Be not afraid ; Heaven is as 
near hy water as by land." At midnight his little uarque 
foundered with all on board. The English never ascended 
the groat river St. Lawrence in the course of any of their 
voyages of exploration. To the French belongs the honour of 
discv)vering and founding " Canada." 

23. There has been considerable controversy over the deriva- 
tion of that name. Some writers pretend thav. the Spaniards 
l>rece(led the French, and disappointed at finding no gold in 
tlie country, exclaimed contemptuously, " Aca nada " — here is 
nothing. Others hold that Canada is a modification of the 
Algonquin word Kanata, " a cluster of cabins," a town. What- 
ever its derivation, Canada sounds grandly to the ear, nnd is 
a nnme that suggests to the mind the idea of a great country. 

QiTKSTioNS. — 1. Who are said to have 
discovered America long before Colum- 
bus? Give some account of the dis- 
coveries of Biarni. What names did 
tlie Northmen give to these districts? 

2. What was the great glory of Colum- 
bus? What islands was he supposed 
to have reached ? What mistake thence 
arose ? 

3. What effects did his discovery 
produce? Whom did it fill with re- 

4. Who obtained Henry's permission 
to fit out an expedition ? What country 
did the Cabots hope to reacli ? 

5. Give an account of tlieir voyage. 
On what ground did Henry VII. claim 
possession of North America? 

G. After whom was America named ? 
Through what error ? 

7. When did Sebastian Cabot make 
another voyage of discovery? What 
did he find near Newfoundland and 
Cape Breton ? What were these islands 
then called? 

8. What were the consequences of 
England and France meeting in the 
field of American discovery? Who 
took possession of islands in the Gulf of 
St, l^awrence? 

9. On what did the f'rench claim to 
the possession of tlie North American 
Continent rest? Whose service did 
Verazzanl enter? What is said in the 
accoimt of his voyage? Describe the 
ternlination of his voyage. 

10. When did Cartier cross the 
ocean? Where did lie sail after making 
the coast of Labrador? Wliere did he 
first cast anclior ? 

11. What ceremony was performed 
at the Bay of Penouil? What trick 
was played on the sons of an old chief 
who visited tlie ship? 

12. W'lio accompanied Cartier on his 
second voyage? What liope buoyed 
him up ? What was the origin of the 
name of the St. Lawrence? 

13. Where did the adventurers next 
sail ? What chief invited them to visit 
his town? What different accounts 
are given of the origin of the name 

14. How was Stadacong reached? 
From what did the Indians try to dis- 
suade the adventurers ? What occurred 
when they landed at Hochelaga? 

15. How was Cartier regarded by the 
Indians? What painful scene occurred 
in the scjuare of the towp ' 



16. Wliere did Cartier go before 
leaving the island? What was resolved 
on when he returned to Quebec? From 
what did the men siiffer severely? 
How were they cured? 

17. When did Cartier return to 
Prance ? What expectations were dis- 
appointed? Whom did he take with 
him? Why? 

18. Whei; «ras the next expedition 
undertaken ? U"''3r whose command ? 
In what position was Cartier? What 
was the fate of the Indians taken to 
France? How were the ships for the 
new expedition manned? 

19. How were the Frenchmen received 
on their return to the St. Lawrence? 
^Vhat had destroyed the feeling of 

cordiality? Where did the French- 
men spend tht winter? What did they 
do on the return of spring ? 

20. Where did Cartier meet De 
Roberval? How did his expedition 
end ? How did he occupy the remainder 
of his days ? What was the fate of De 
Roberval's enterprise ? 

21. Who was the next to explore the 
Labrador coast ? What led Frobisher 
thither? How many voyages did he 
make to the west ? With what results ? 

22. What did Gilbert accomplish? 
What was his fate ? What did none of 
the English explorers do ? 

23. What different explanations are 
given of the origin of the name 


The dotted li .e shows the extent of the Province of Quebec in t77U. 





The first peopling oi America. 

The three Indian " Families." 

The Ksqmtraux and Savannois. 

Location of the Algonquin Tribes. 

Tlie Hurons or Wyandots. 

The Iroquois. 

Indian Characteristics. 

Their constructive skill. 
Dross — Wampum. 
Occupations and Amusements. 
Position of the Women. 
Form of Government. 
Superstitions ; religious Belief. 
Their present state. 

1. There has been a great deal of speculation over the quea- 
tiou, "How was the New World peopled?" Ingenious 
tlieories liave been raised only to be refuted. Bold authoi 
have maintained that Peru was identical with Ophir,^ "the 
laud of gold ; " that the Antilles were the ancient isles of 
the Hesperides.2 It is a disputed point whether Americ^i 
was found by accident, by ships having been driven on its 
coasts by violent w ads, or by free emigration from Europe and 
Asia. The learned men of many countries in Europe have 
claimed for their countrymen the honour of having beea the 
tii-st who passed over to the Western Continent. Theorists 
have given free rein to their imagination in answering the 
question, " How was the New World peopled V Theophiiistus 
Paracelsus,"'^ a philosopher of Zurich, solved it to his own satis- 
faction by asserting that each hemisphere had an Adam and 
Eve. Such speculations, however, need not detain us. 

2. At the time when the French began to settle in Canada 
(using that name in its present wide geographical sense), there 
were several distinct Indian "families,"* who were sparsely 

' Ophir. — A country, repeatedly men- 
tioned in the Old Testament, to which 
the ships of Solomon traded- It was 
famous for its gold. The "gold of 
Ophir" was prov bially the finest gold 
(sea Ps. xlv. 9). Various conclusions 
have been arrived at regarding its 
locality. Some interpreters have placed 
it in the East Indies, others in Africa, 
and others in Arabia. 

^ Hesperides. — A poetical name for 
the islands of the West ; just as first 
Italy and then Spain were called Hes- 

' Paracelsus. — A famous physician 
and chemist. He was the first to make 
use of mercury and opium as medicines 
Born 1493, died 1541. 

* Indian "families." — For their loca- 
tion, see Map, p. 36. 



spread over its vast extent. The chief were the Sioux, the 
Algonquin, and the Huron or Wyandot. The Indians of 
Newfoundland were a race distinct from those of Canada ; 
they were Esquimaux — eaters of raw flesh — from the desolate 
and sterile regions of Labrador. They were ferocious and 
inhospitable. Many had white complexions and flaxen hair. 

3. Several tribes, also of distinct origin, called collectively by 
the French Savannois, from the low, marshy, ill-w6oded 
country they inhabited, dwelt along the southern shores of 
Hudson Bay. The}' adored the Sun, and devoured humau 
flesh, and lived in squalid misery. On the western shore of the 
bay lived a tribe to whom the sobriquet " Plats cotez de chien" 
— Dogribs — was given. 

4. Each of these great families was divided into numerous 
tribes and sub-tribes. The Sioux, eastern and western, dwelt 
south-west of Lake Superior, in the region between the 
Mississippi and the Missouri, by tlie River Assiniboine, and 
Lake Winnipeg. They were less warlike than the other two 

5. The Algonquins were spread along the northern shores of 
the St. Lawrence, along the coasts of the Gulf, and of the Bay 
of Fundy, and from Maine to Virginia. They were found also 
along the course of the Kiver Ottawa, from its mouth to its 
source, and on the western shores of Lake Huron. 

6. From the mountainous region of the Saguenay to Quebec 
were scattered several tribe::; of Algonquin blood, — the Bersia- 
mites, Papinachois, Montagnais, and Neskapees. The Atti- 

, camigues, or White Fish, dwelt about the sources of the -^Pferee 
|jjiij|;f'//i2/t V^!^CJ^8)i¥e^?«. The Ottawas claimed to be lords of the grand 
northern river ; and various tribes of Beavers, Bullheads, and 
Sorcerers pitched their wigwams by lakes Temiscaming and 
Nipissing, and on the islands AUuruoue and Calumet. The 
Cristinilaux, or Crees, noted for their volubility of tongue and 
vivacity of manner, dwelt in the region between the south- 
western shores of Hudson Bay and Lake Winnipeg. At Saiilt 
de Ste. Marie, on the neck of country between lakes Superior 
and Huron, dwelt the Ojibaways and Chippewas, called 
Salteurs by the French. In the regions around Lake Michigan 
there were many tribes, the chief being the Pottawattaniies, the 



Sacs, the Ottigamies or Foxes, the Kickapoos, aud Mascoutins. 
The Abenaquis, of Algonquin lineage, occupied the territory 
south of the St. Lawrence, between the rivers St. Francis and 
Cliaudiere and the northern part of Maine. Under the general 
name Abenaquis, or St. John Indians, some writers include the 
Milicetes (or Etcheniins), whose wigwams were pitched along 
tlie rivers Trois Pistoles, Restigouche, Miramichi, and St. John ; 
the Micmacs (Souriquois or Salt-water Men), who were spread 
along the southern shores of the St. Lawrence to Gaspe, and 
who were found on the isles and the coasts of the Gulf, on the 
shores of the Bay of Fundy to the St. Croix River, and all over 
the peninsula of Nova Scotia ; also the Canibas, wl o dwelt in 
the country watered by the Penobscot River. There were 
several Algonquin tribes in the New England States — the 
Pequods, Narragausetts, and others — who sorely plagued the 
Puritan Fathers.^ 

7. The Hurons of Canada occupied the teiTitory between the 
lakes Huron, Erie, and Ontario. The principal tribe lived in 
what is now called Simcoe County. They were a settled, 
agricultural people, unlike the Algonquins, who were hunters j 
and fishers, who were continually shifting their camps as the 
game grew scarce, and who were often reduced to the direst 
distress. At the south-eastern extremity of Lake Huron lived 
the Tionnates or Tobacco Indians ; on the isthmus between 
lakes Onta^'io and Erie, the Attinanchrons or the Neutral 
Nations ; alcisr the southern shores of Lake Erie, the Eries or 

8. The most powerful members of the Huron family were the 
IroQtUois ; a name given to them by the French, and derived 
from +he word "hiro," — I have sjiid, — with which they invariably 
finished their speeches. Among the Indian tribes they were 
known as the Hodenosaunee, "the people of the long house ;" 
they proudly termed themselves Ougonhonse, "the men sur- 
passing all others." Of all the savages of North America they 

' The Picritan Fathers. — The name 
"Puritan" was first given, about the 
middle of the sixteenth century, to dis- 
senters from the Established Church of 
England, who aimed at greater piirity 
of doctrine, of worship, and of life, 

than prevailed within the Church. 
The " Pilgrim Fathers," who founded 
the first of the New England States in 
1620, were Puritans who had been 
driven from England by persecution in 
the reign of James I, 



were the most warlike and astute. They were divided into live 
tribes or cantons ; whence they were called the Five Nations.^ 
Their bourgades or villages were situated between the Mohawk 
River in the east a'ld the Genessee in the, in the following 
order : — Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, Senecas. 
Tliey claimed the territory which is now the northern part of 
the State of New York. The position of the long house of the 
Iroquois enabled them to command the entrance to the west by 
the Great Lakes, and to Canada by Lake Champlain and the 
Eiver Richelieu. They were placed between the French and 
the English. The Five Nations were united into one con- 
federacy ; but each nation was in a great measi -e independent, 
and made war and peace on its own account. The Iroquois 
were thus a very difficult people to deal with. The French 
might conclude a treaty with the Senecas on the west, while 
the Mohawks on the east carried on war from Montreal to 

9. The Iroquois were divided into eight clans — the Wolf, 
Bear, Beaver, Tortoise, Snipe, Deer, Heron, Hawk. The tie of 
clanship ran through the whole Five Nations ; thus, a Mohawk 
wolf was connected with the wolves of all the other tribes. The 
lii;ure of a wolf, or bear, and so on, was the emblem or totem of 
the clan. It was tattooed on every clansman's body ; it was the 
signp.lure of a chief to a treaty. The relat^'on of clanship existed 
among other Indian tribes, but among -Jie Iroquois the bond 
was strongest. 

10. Early French voyagers said that to see one Indian was to 
see all ; but close observers among the Jesuit missionaries said 
that there were great distinctions between the people of the 
different families. They called the Hurons the "noblemen," 
the Algonquinsthe " burghers," and the tribes of the Saguenay 
the " peasants " of the wilderness. The reddish tawny skin, 
the coarse black hair, the smooth, beardless face, the high cheek 
bones, were common to all. They were, o » the whole, a race of 
robust men, often of tall stature, sometimes flf majestic propor- 
tions. Their carriage was easy and dignified. Notwithstand- 

' The Ficc Nations.— 'When the Tus- 
caroras joined the Iroquois (which they 

did in 1717), they were called " The Six 



iiig uuclean living and filthy personal habits, they had sound 
constitutions, and were free from many of the diseases incident 
to civilization. They had no idea of restraining their animal 
appetites ; while food lasted they ate voraciously, then they 
tightened their belts and fasted. Experience of dire distress 
never taught them to husband their stores. 

11. Their intellectual powers were good ; their perception 
was keen, their memory ex'^eedingly retentive, their judgment 
just, their wit and imagination lively. They made their 
way through the trackless forest as easily as a denizen of a 
city walks its streets. They had no written language, no 
books ; the traditions of the past were hande ' town orally. 
Their best orators displayed true eloquence : -xon they spoke 
they seemed absorbed in their subject, they went direct to the 
point, and used just and striking imagery. The Indians paid 
willing homage to superior merit. They could be faithful and 
devoted friends to those who commanded their esteem, but they 
were not easily deceived by mere professions. 

12. In the Indian character there were some strange contra- 
dictions. Vicious as wild beasts, they yet displayed qualities 
that did honour to human nature. Fierce in war, pitiless and 
atrociously cruel to the prisoners whom they doomed to death, 
they were in social life very free from hatred, envy, jealousy. 
No one, while food lasted, was allowed to want ; and their 
adopted prisoners were treated like their own people. In an 
ludian community every one did pretty much what seemed 
good in one's own eyes ; there was a great deal of good humour 
and forbearance shown. But discord entered the cabins of this 
Ciireless people when the traders introduced the fell "fire- 
Water." Under their many afflictions they were very patient ; 
the most dreadful tortures they often bore calmly. 

13. The Indians displayed little constructive skill. Tlie 
wigwams of the wandering tribes were mere sticks driven into 
the ground and covered with sheets of bark. The cabins of 
the stationary tribes were sometimes a hundred feet long and 
thirty feet high. They were formed by driving two parallel 
rows of saplings into the ground, and bending them until they 
formed an arch overhead ; the outside was covered with thick 
sheets of bark. Sometimes a low nmd wall was built around 

42 l)ll£SS, WAMPUM. 

the cabin. Several families lived in one house, which was 
divided into compartments like a stable. The fires were lighted 
in a line in the centre. A number of houses of this description 
formed a bourgade, which was generally situated on a rising 
ground by the side of a lake or river. It was surrounded by 
lofty palisades, often set in a triple row. The outer rows were 
l)lanted in the ground in a sloping direction till they met and 
crossed at the top ; the middle row was set upright ; and the 
whole were firmly braced together. Galleries, supplied at 
different points with magazines of stones, ran along the pali- 
sades on the inside and near the top. There was also a gutter, 
by means of which the waters of the adjacent river or lake were 
poured down on the fires that a foe might enkindle without. 

14. The dress of the Indians was suitable to a climate of 
alternate cold and heat. In winter they wore the skins of wild 
animals, which they had the art of making pliable and soft. 
lu summer the warriors generally dispensed with clothing 
altogether, and rubbed their bodies with malodorous oil as a 
preservative against mosquito bites. They tattooed on their 
faces the forms of beasts, birds, and plants. On their war 
excursions they painted themselves in startling colours, in order 
to strike terror into the foe, and sometimes to hide their own 

15. The Indians wore their hair in many fantastic fashions. 
Sometimes they dressed it so that it bristled up on one side and 
remained flattened down in plaits on the other, or they left it 
to hang straight down to their ears and eyebrows, or gathered 
it up in the form of a crown. Sometimes they shaved their 
heads, leaving only the long scalp-lock. The warriors often 
oiled it and powdered it with swan-down. On their heads they 
placed the plumes of rare birds and tufts of dyed hair. Around 
their necks they wore collars of bears' claws, eagles' talons, I'oe- 
bucks' hoofs, and the paws and teeth of other wild animals. 
The women neither adorned their heads nor dressed their hair. 

16. Wampum was an article of immense value to an Indian. 
It was made of fine, beautifully tinted sea-shells, which were 
formed into beads. Strung upon threads, these beads were 
worked into necklaces, collars, and belts. Wampum was the 
chief ornament and all the riches of the women. It was the 


only money of the country. No important speech was made 
no treaty was ratified, without the presentation of wampun: 
belts. These belts, worked into various mnemonic designs, wen 
the only records of war and treaties. 

17. War, hunting, and fishing were the chief occupations 
of the Indian men. They built the cabins and fortifications 
they made the implements of battle and the chase. Befon 
European traders supplied them with the rifle, their principal 
weapons were the bow and arrows, spears tipped with points oi 
various designs, the round-headed club of hard wood, the toma- 
hawk, hatchet, and scalping-knife, made of stone and shel 
Hharpened with infinite labour, and easily dulled. The intro- 
duction of steel weapons saved them much work, and put mort 
deadly arms into their hands. They framed the light and 
elegant birch canoe ; they made threads and cords, and wove 
tlie fishing nets ; they carved in curious fashion the heads oi 
the calumets or pipes, and ornamented the stems with coloured 
plumes of various designs. 

18. Among the Huiun nations the women were, in theory 
the fountain of all authority. The chiefs were their representa- 
tives. But, in practice, they were not consulted on public 
att'aii-s. When a woman entered the marriage state, her life was 
a course of perpetual drudgery. The squaw was the slave oi 
her husband. She performed all the hard work, tilling the 
soil and bringing in the fire-wood. When the harvest was 
ripe, the warriors condescended to bestir themselves, and aided 
the women in gathering it in. The mothers nursed theii 
children with tenderest care. Through infancy and youth tht 
parents bestowed the gi^eatest affection on their offspring. 

19. The Indians had some amusements. They were inveterate 
gamblers. They played matches with bat and ball. Baggiat- 
way, "la crosse," is now a national game among Canadians. 
They held numerous festivals, both for ceremony and pleasure. 
The sound of the drum and the monotonous notes of the chicka- 
houe (a gourd filled with pebbles) were continually heard in an 
Indian village. 

20. The medicine men and conjurors were persons of the 
greatest importance. They pretended to the possession of 
supernatural powers. They had some knowledge of the virtue 

ll'ilill I' 




I li I ' 




jllilil jjlj 


44 porai of government. 

of siii:ples,^ and cured woimds by the applicution of the juice of 
certaiu herbs. They ofteu set fractured limbs with success. 
For colds, fevei-s, and inflammation they jnescribed sweating 
baths. But they joined to their medical and surgical practice 
the most ridiculous mummeries, and sanctioned the most revolt- 
ing and indecent customs. 

21. The Indians had a defined form of government. They 
held the republican doctrine that all men are equal ; but they 
were aristocratic so far that th<'y chose the best men to be their 
leaders. The Algonquins elected their chief. Among the 
Hurons the dignity was hereditary, but its descent was by the 
woman's side. When a chief died his eldest son did not succeed 
him, but, it might be, a brother of his mother, or a son of his 
sister. Among the Five Nations the chief bore the name of 
Alilatho, and the dignity was hereditary in one family of the 
Ouondagas. The great council-house of the confederacy was 
situated in the chief bourgade of that nation. Among the 
Micmacs the chief was elective, and they generally chose the 
warrior who had the largest family, and to him they paid 

22. The power of the chief was not despotic. He derived no 
revenue from his office. He held no particular state. He led 
by advice and persuasion, and not by force. He had a body of 
counsellors, sachems, chosen from the heads of families, who 
guarded the public treasure, and without whose advice he could 
do nothing. There were also a body of ancients, men of mature 
age, and a crowd of warriors, comprising all capable of beaiing 
arms, who had a voice in all public matters. The Indians had 
thus their governor, executive and legislative councils, and 
general assembly ; responsible government, in fact, but in a 
rude form. 

23. The Indians were the slaves of superstition. They be- 
lieved that they were surrounded by good and evil spirits. All 
nature to them was animate. The of the cataract, the 
brawling of the stream, the howling of the angry wind or the 
sighing of the gentle breeze, and the rustling of the leaves, 
betokened to them the presence of spirits — Manitous and 

jjljll ^ Simples. — Medicinal plants. So I have a special virtue, which it exerts 

called because each plant is believed to I without its being compounded. 


Okies. They were given to feticism — the worship of iuauiuiate 
objects, plants, and stones. 

24. It has been asserted, that, before the advent of Christian 
missionaries, the Indians professed belief in one God ; and, on 
the contrary, it has been said that they received from their 
aucestors no knowledge of God, and that there was no word in 
their language that expressed his name. Some of the Indian 
tribes spoke of the Great Spirit. When pressed to explain 
what were the attributes of this Being, they showed by their 
puerile notions that they had no conception whatever of one 
God. The legends in which some writers — anxious to prove 
that the Indians were the descendants of the Hebrews — profess 
to see distortions of the scriptural accounts of the creation, the 
fall of man, the deluge, are in the last degi'ee contused and 

25. Among the Algonquins, Messou, the Great Hare, was 
the Supreme Spirit. He formed the eai'th out of a grain of sand 
brought up from the depths of the ocean, and men from the 
bodies of dead animals. Areskou^, the God of War, was held 
by the Hurons to be the Supreme Being. The Indians believed 
ill the immortalitv of men and animals. Heaven to them was 
an improved earth, a happy -hunting-ground, where game was 
always plentiful, and where an eternal sj^ring reigned ; where 
want, misery, and pain were unknown ; where the warrior was 
rewarded in proportion to the number of foes he had vanquished 
iu battle. The Indian was sunk in the lethargy of savage 
ignorance. He was excessively indolent, and scorned what he 
did not understand. He had no knowledge of the laws of 
nature, and accounted for their operation by some ridiculous 

26. Ar account of the aborigines of Canada may fitly close 
with a statement of their present condition. They are now only 
a remnant of a people, never very numerous. Fragments of the 
tribes of the Montagnais, Bersiamites, and Neskapees in north- 
eastern Quebec, and of the Abenaquis of the rivers St. Francis 
and B^ancour, still occupy portions of their old hunting-grounds. 
The descendants of the Christian Iroquois, who were in 1671 
settled first at Madelaine Prairie, then at Sault St. Louis, under 
the care of the Seminary of St, Sulpiciua, are still found at the 



a'M I 

);itter place, now commonly called Cauglinawaga. The remains 
of other tribes occupy lands in Manitoulin and other islnuds of 
Lake Hnron. Bands of Ojibawaya, Chippewas, OttaWas, and 
Hurons are settled in different parts of the country east of Lake 
Huron, and in Walpole Island in Lake St. Clair. The Moravian^ 
settlement of J)elawares is located on the River Thames in that 
district. The " Six Nations" have lands on the (xrand River in 
Brant county, whither, in 1784, after the War of Independence, 
they were removed by the British Government. Bands of 
Iroquois, Ottawas, and Nipissingr live at Two Mountains, near 
the mouth of the Ottawa. The Mohawks are settled at Bay of 
Quint(5, and on Salmon River, in the township of Tyengeda, in 
the county of Hastings. There are Micmac villages in all the 
counties of Nova Scotia, and in Kent and Westmoreland, Ne-w 
Brunswick ; and there are Milicete towns on the Restigouche, 
Miramichi, and St. John rivers. The whole Indian population 
does not exceed twenty-five thousand. 

27. Forty years ago the Indians were looked upon only as 
useful allies in case of war. They were under the charge of 
military superintendents, whose chief duty was to make them 
annual presents of blankets, calico, thread, knives, powder, ball, 
and tobacco. The majority were then pagans. The British 
Government reserved large tracts of country for their support ; 
but their just liberality was in a great measure nullified by the 
rapacity of individuals who coveted the lands, and took advan- 
tage of the simplicity and intemperance of the poor Indian. 
These reserves checked the settlement of the country, and it 

was found neither judicious nor possible to allow them 

1830 to be held locked up. The policy of reclaiming the 

A.D, Indians from paganism and sloth to Christianity and 

settled habits was adopted. They were put under the 
charge of superintendents. For several years afterwards no 
correct accounts of the extent of Indian lands or of the number 
of sales was given. 

ill I I 

* Moravian. — The Moravians, or 
United Brethren, originated in Moravia, 
a province in the north of Austria, and 
in the neighbouring province of Bo- 
hemia, about 1467. Having formed a 
get|l,eiiie?jt o^ the estate of Count Zin- 

zendorf in Upper Lusatia (in 1722), and 
having called it Hemhut, — "The watch 
of the Lord," — they are generally known 
on the Continent of Europe by the name 
Hernhntters. They began to found 
missionary colonies about 173?. 



28. In the jnesent day tlie ludians are tlie (jharge of the 
(k'pa)'tineiit of the Secretary of State. Under the paternal care 
of the Government of the Dominion they are comparatively 
prosperous. Their hmdH are sohl to intending settlers, and the 
piuceeds are invested for their benetit. They receive annual 
presents of grain, seeds, imjiloments, and are, especially in 
Ontario, advancing in agiicultural industry. Hundreds of 
children in all sections of the country attend Indian scliools. 
It is impossible to change natuie ; but under the influence of 
juligion, education, and industry, they are being brought within 
the i)ale of our civilizjition. 

Questions. — 1. What theories have 
been advanced regarding tho first 
peopling of America? 

2. Name the three chief Indian 
"families" found by the French in 
Canada. 'Who were the inhabitants of 
Newfoundland '{ 

3. What tribes occupied the southern 
and the western shore of Hudson Bay? 

4. Where did the Sioux dwell? 
A\'liat was their character? 

5. Where were the Algonquins found ? 
C. Mention the other tribes of Algon- 
quin lineage, and their territories. 

7. What county did the Hurons 
occui)y? Where did the principal tribe 
live ? Wherein did they differ f om the 

8. Which was the most jjowerful 
branch of the Hurons? Explain the 
meanings of the different names they 
bore. AVhat was their character? 

9. Into how many clans were the 
Iroquois divided ? What was peculiar 
in the tie of clanship? 

10. How did the Jesuit missionaries 
distinguish the three great families? 
Describe their common characteristics. 

11. Give some account of their intel- 
lectual powers. How were the tradi- 
tions of the past preserved among them ? 
Describe their oratory. 

12. What strange contradictions were 
noticeable in the Indian character? 
What introduced discord among them? 

13. Describe their houses, and their 
mode of living. What name was ap- 
plied to a collection of cabinut 

14. Describe their dress, and the 
adornment of their bodies. 

15. How did tiiey dress the hair? 
How did they adorn the head and neck ? 

10. What was wampum ? For wimt 
was it used ? 

17. What were the chief occupations 
of the Indians? What weapons did 
they use ? 

18. What was the position of the 
women among the Huron nations? 
How were children treated? 

19. What amusements had tlie 
Indians ? 

20. Why were the medicine-men so 
important ? 

21. What was the fundamental doc- 
trine of their government? In what 
different ways was the chief chosen ? 

22. Show that responsible govern- 
ment prevailed among the Indians. 

23. By what superstitions were they 
possessed? To what kind of worship 
were they given? 

24. What statements have been made 
regarding their belief in one God ? 

2.5. AVhat was held to be the Supreme 
Spirit among the Algonqiiins and the 
Hurons respectively ? What were their 
notions regarding immortality ? 

26. Where are the remnants of the 
aborigines of Canada now settled ? To 
what does their population amount? 

27. How did the ludians use to be 
regarded ? How were they supported ? 
When was a change of policy adopted ? 

28. How are they now treated? Wha^ 
is their present condition? 





1588 to 1607 A.D. 

The Fiir-trade at Antlcositl. 

Sieur de la Roche, Viceroy of Canada. 

ConvlctB on Sable Island. 

M. Pontgravfi at Tadoussac. 

Samuel de Champlain. 

He ascends the St. Lawrence. 

M. de Monts, Lieut. -General of Acadie. 

Settlement on the St. Croix. 

Port Royal. 

Raron de Poutrlncourt and Marc Les- 

The Order of the Good Time. 
Break-up of establishment at Port 


1. Canada was neglected for a period of forty years after the 
disastrous issue of De Roberval's expedition. During that time 
France was torn by civil and religious strife.^ While stern and 
bloody work had to be done at home, her adventurous sons 
thought not of pursuing the path that had been opened up by 
the first discoverers. But hundreds of Europeans engaged in 
the fisheries annuallv visited the Banks of Newfoundland, the 
coasts of Cape Breton, and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The 
Indi?" ^ rought their peltries to the Island of Anticosti, and 
b* chem away to the fishermen. The fur- trade became 

/ject of importance to the merchants of the sea-ports of 

France. When Henry III. granted to Jacques Noel 

1588 ^11^ Sieur Chatin, nephews of Jacques Cartier, a monop- 

A.D. oly of the trade in the Gulf and River of St Lawrence 

for twelve years, they raised such an outcry that the 

King rescinded it. 

2. With the return of peace, and the ascent of Henry I V.^ to 
the throne, the spirit of adventure was re-awakened. The 
scheme of creating on the Western Continent a " New France," 
with the feudal institutions of the old country, was revived. 

' Civil and religious strife. — It was 
the time of the wars ol the League 
(formed in 1576 to oppose the Protes- 
tants) in France. Henry III. (the last 
King of the House of Valois) was mur- 
dered in 1589, and was succeeded by 

Henry of Navarro (the first King of the 
House of Bourbon) as Henry IV. He 
overthrew the League at the Battlt of 
Ivry in 1590. 

^ Henry IV. — Henry of Navarre. 
See preceding note. 


The coniniisHion given lialf a century iK'fore to Sieur de 
li(jl)eivjil way made out afresh in favour of Troilus des 
McHguets, Sieur de la Iloche. Thia viceroy of a bound- J-""** 
1l'«h domain sailed in a vessel so small, that the con- 
victs, by whom it was chiefly manned, could wash their hands 
ill the sea by leaning over its sides. Sieur de la Koclie 
touched at Sable Island, and left there forty of his J-*^"" 

• • • AD 

iniruly jail-birds, with the intention of returning and 
Liking them ott*. But furious winds blew his banjue out 
of its coui-se, and the viceroy returned "bootless liome, and 
weather-beaten back" to France. For five yeaxs the aban- 
doned crew were left on the island. They hunted the wild 
cattle, the progeny of the animals left by Baron de Lery in 
i 18. They fished, and they fought and murdered each other. 
H. iiry of France was touched with compassion when he lieard 
the story of their abandonment. He sent Chetodel, De la 
lioclie's pilot, to ascertain their fate. Only twelve were 
iilive when their release came. Clad in wild attire of 1603 
skins, ])urned black by exposure, with shaggy beards a.d. 
and long tangled hair, they stood before the King in his 
palace, and received his bounty. Sieur de la Roche was utterly 

3. M. Pontgrave, a merchaiit of St. Malo, and M. Chauvin, 
captain of marine, obtained an extensive grant of ter- 
ritory in Canada. Their chief object was commerce; 1599 
and the settlement they attempted to make at Tadoussac, a.d. 
on the SagMenay, did not succeed as a permanent colony, 

but it continued for many years to be the centre of the fur- trade 
of the St. Lawrence. The profits of the fur-trade were required 
to help to defray the expenses of colonization ; but the mere 
merchant was the woi st of colonizers. It was a^rainst his in- 
terest to establish people in the c:ountry to share the gains 
which he wished to monopolize. This spirit of selfishness re- 
tJU'ded for many long years the growth of Canada. It was the 
great difficidty against which its founder had to contend. 

4. Samuel de Champlain, captain of marine, was a native 
of Brouage, a small sea-port on the Bay of Biscay. From his 
boyhood he had been familiar with the sea. He was thirty 
years old when hL a-ttention was directed to the lands discovere<i 

^473) 4 



l>y Cartier. He had lived a life of action ; had commanded a 
ship, and had fought with Henry of Navarre. High in favour 
at Court, he cared not to dally in the ante-chambers of a palace. 
He loved adventure in strange lands, and was very curious to 
iilil observe and skilful to note the manners and customs of their 

peoples. He was single-minded, courageous, resolute, but kind 
and courteous. In liim the zeal of the missionary tempered tlie 
fire of the warrior. His first expedition was undertakeu 

1603 along with Pontgravd, under the patronag' of Ajmar 
ii!!l! A.D. de Chastes, governor of Dieppe, and commander of tlie 

Order of St. John, who desired to found a colony in 
Canada, and to convert its heathen tribes. When Champlain 
ascended the St. Lawrence, he saw no vestige of Stadacond or 
Hochelaga. No gleeful natives came out to meet him. Nothing 
remained but the ruins of the fort at Cap Rouge, to attest the 
fact that Cartier had been there before him. At the Sault St. 
Louis, where his course was checked, the Indians drew rough 
plans on bark of the river above, of its chain of rapids, of the 
great lakes, and the mighty cataract of Niagara. Champlaiu's 
enthusiasm was aroused, and he longed to explore that mag- 
nificent reach of waters. But he was compelled to return 
with Pontgrave, who had, with much profit, traded with the 
Indians. In the meantime De Chastes had died. 

5. King Henry now created a gentleman of his bed-chamber 
— Pierre du Guast, Sieur de Monts — Lieutenant-General of the 
Province of Cadie, or Acadie, (which extended from the 40th 
to the 46th degree of north latitude,) with full power to 
colonize it, and with authority to make grants of land and to 
confer titles, to levy troops and to wage war. He also received 
the monopoly of the trade of the Gulf and River St. Law- 
rence. A colon'^ was to be founded under the wing of the 
Roman Catholic Church. De Monts, who was a Huguenot,^ 

was directed to take out priests with him. He was 

1604 accompanied by Champlain and a kindred spirit. Baron 
j A.D. Poutrincourt of Cham{)agne. With them sailed, from 

H^vre de Grace, a mixed company of noblemen and 
gentlemen, Catholic cures and Huguenot ministers, artisans and 
soldiers, sailors and convicts. They made for the south-west 



' flupienots, — The Freacli Protestants, so called in the 16th centui-y. 



coast of Acadie, and entei'ed a harbour, where they found a 
solitary trading vessel. De Monts, by right of his moiioix)ly, 
seized it, and the place was called, after the unfortunate owner, 
Rossignol. They then sailed west into a smaller bay. A sheep 
junijing overboard suggested the name — Port au Mouton. 
Here they waited for Poutgrave's ship, which carried the prin- 
cipal suppUes. When anxiety was relieved by its arrival, they 
left the port, and rounding Cape Sable, sailed north into tlie 
narrow Bay of St. Mary. Traces of silver and iron were here 
found. Excursions were made into the woods. M. Aubry, a 
young priest of Paris, became bewildered, and lost his way. 
Jr\ vain his companions shouted themselves hoarse to guido his 





steps; in vain were the ship's cannon fired. Suspicion grew 
that he had been murdered. Dark looks were cast on a 
Huguenot minister with whom he had had a dispute on the 
passage out. Seventeen days after he had been given up as 
dead, a man-spectre appeared, and hailed feebly a boat's crew 
fishing off the bay shore. It was the priest. 

6. Leaving St. Mary's, and sailing up French Bay, the expe- 
dition entered a gut that opened into a spacious and placid har- 
bour, encircled by wooded heights. The beauty of the scene 
made an instant impression, and it was called Port Boyal. 
Poutrincourt was so charmed, that he prayed the Lieutenant- 
General to make him a grant of the place, and was graciously 
answered. De Monts and Champlain then made a circuit of 
French Bay.^ At the head of the basin were found traces of 
copper ore, and some blue stones supposed to have beau 
amethysts. They called the basin Mines.^ The mouth of the 
river of the Etchemins, Ouangondy, on the northern shore of 
the bay, was entered on the 24th of June ; and in honour of the 
day it was named the St. John. They then sailed west until 
they came to the Bay of Passamaquoddy. Passing by so many 
islands that Champlain was unable to ascertain their number, 
they continued their course until they found the mouth of 
a broad river. Four miles up they saw an island in the middle 
of the stream, that seemed " to be strong by nature and easy of 
defence." Eiver and island De Monts called St. Croix. On 
this island, a sandy spot where neither herb nor . grain would 
grow, where neither fire- wood nor fresh- water was to be found, 
he determined to settle and fortify himself. A busy and harass- 
ing sui ler and autumn were passed. By the beginning of 
winter a quadrangle of buildings was erected, including the 
governor's house, which was " of fair carpentry work." 

7. The cold set in early, and with intense severity. The icy 
north-west wind swept down the river over the shelterless 
island, and made the poor Frenchmen shiver in their rough 
boarded barns, and forced them to think despairingly, as they 
cowered over their fires, of the vine-clad hills of sunny France. 
Gloom fell over the once vivacious company. Though Cham- 

' French Bay. — Now Bay of Fundy. 

found there, or from the stone calle'J 

' Minea. — So named from copper ore mines, onoe U8e4 toj wheel arquebuses. 


plaiu ever maintained a confident and cheerful fiont, ni.iny 
rrrew dejected, and fell an easy prey to disease. Thirty-five 
died, and as many lay long sick nigh unto death. The expe- 
rience of that dreadful winter convinced De Monts that he had 
chosen the site of his settlement unwisely. When spring came, 
he with Champlain cruised along the coast of Maine and 
Massachuse.t-a, from the River Pentagoet to the shoals 1605 
and sands of Malabar Bay, but found no place that a.d. 
pleased so well as Port Royal. Thither they removed 
the colony from St. Croix Island, carrying with them the tim- 
ber of the buildings, which they used in constructing another 
quadrangular fort. Apprised by letters from Paris that he had 
enemies who were jealous of his monopoly, and who were en- 
deavouring to deprive him of it, r* t Monts, with Baron Poutrin- 
court, returned to France. There he remained. Though, by 
his influence at Court, he preserved his privileges, his enemies 
were vigilant, and he required to be constantly on his guard. 

8. Poutrincourt returned to Acadie next year. Wifli him 
came Marc Lescarbot, a briefless barrister, a poet, a 

man of varied talent, with whom the world had not 1606 
gone well. Their coming, like a gleam of sunshine after a.d. 
long dismal weather, infused a spirit of joy and hope 
throughout the settlement of Port Royal. The miseries of a 
severe winter were forgotten, as the expatriated Frenchmen 
hob-nobbed with their friends from la belle France, around a 
hogshead of wine that the baron caused to be tapped in the square. 

9. Champlain sailed soon afterwards to explore again the 
rugged coasts of Massachusetts : those who preferred land ad- 
venture dispersed themselves through the woods, and fished, 
hunted, and traded with the Micmacs. Lescarbot remained in 
command of the fort, to direct the ploughing and sowing of the 
fields around it, to till his garden, to indite a rhyme, or write a 
page of his History of New France. When Champlain returned 
in November, rather disconsolate from his cruise, the irre- 
pressible Marc, habited like old Father Neptune, appeared at the 
gate of the fort, surrounded by his Tritons, and welcomed him 
with a poetical address. To j)ass the time pleasantly, fifteen 
of the gentlemen of the colony instituted the Order of the 
Good Time. Each of them held the oflfice of grand-ma«ter for 



a day, and his duty was to cater for the company. At the 
hour of dinner this grand-master, with the staff of office in hia 
hand, a napkin on his shoulder, and the collar of the order 
around his neck, entered the hall, followed by the members of 
the brotherhood, each bearing a dish. There was great rivalry 
among them as to who should provide the best table. Their 
board groaned with the variety of fish and game. The best 
restaurant in Paris, Lescarbot boasted, could not show a better 
bill of fare. An Indian tribe was encamped near Port Eoyal. 
Tlie merry and hospitable Frenchmen invited its sagamore, 
Membertou, and other chiefs, to their table. Warriors of less 
note, and women and children, crouched in the corners of the 
hall, and were fed from the board. The winter was mild and 
genial, and it gave zest to " the Good Time." 

10. In spring the prospect before Port Eoyal appeared 

bright ; but the first ship from France brought dismal 

1607 news. The enemies of De Monts had for a timepre- 

A.D. vailed, and he sent out imperative orders to break u]) 

the establishment. This was a sore blow to Champlaiu 
and Lescarbot, who had hoped to found a prosptrous settle- 
ment in Acadie. Membertou and his Micmacs were much grieved 
at the departure of their kind friends, and were only consoled 
by the good-natured promise of a speedy return. 

dition sent out in 1604? Who accom- 
panied him? What incidents occurred 
after they reached the coast of Acadie? 

6. What places were touched at in 
French Bay? Where did De Monts 
determine to settle? What was the 
character of the island ? 

7. How was the winter passed ? 
Y/here did De Monts and Champlain 
go in spring? Whither did they re- 
move their colony? What led De Monts 
to return to France ? 

8. What revived the spirits of the 
settlers at Acadie the next year ? 

C'. What coasts did Champlain soon 
aftijrwards explore? How was he re- 
ceived on his return to Port Royal? Do- 
scribe the "Order of the Good Time." 

li). What dismal news arrived in 
spring? How were the Micmacs con- 
soled for the dcpartme of tLcir fricudef 

Questions. -1. AVhat led to the ne- 
glect of Onada for a time after De 
Roberval's expedition ? What trade 
was opened during that time? V.^'hat 
showed the importance which the 
French merchants attached to it ? 

2. What scheme was revived with 
the return of peace ? To whom was a 
new commission granted? What befell 
the convicts on Sable Island? 

3. What was the chief object of Pont- 
grav6 and Chauvin? Where did they 
attempt to found a settlement? Why 
were merchants bad colonizers ? 

4. Sketch the early career and the 
character of Champlain. When was 
his first expedition undertaken ? Along 
with whom? What were the only 
traces he found of Cartier's visits? 
What aroused his enthusiasm ? 

6. Wlio was at the head of the cxpc- 






1608 to 1614 A.D. 

Renewal of De Monts' Monopoly. 

Foundation of Quebec. 

Plot to murder Champlain. 

He goes to war against the Iroquois. 

Disorders caused by French fur-traders. 

Poutrincourt returns to Port .Royal. 

Baptism of Membertou and family. 
The Society of Jesus. 
Discord at Port Eoyal. 
Settlement at St. Sauveur. 
Destroyed by Samuel Argall. 
Destruction of Port Royal. 

1. De Monts, though he had many powerful enemies, had 
still sufficient influence at Court to secure the renewal 
of his monopoly for another year. The scheme of 1608 
founding a colony on the St. Lawrence was revived, a.d. 
Tlie explorer and the trader again united to carry out 
the enterprise. It was expected that the profits of traffic would 
defray the expense of colonization. The project nearly 
spoiled at the outset. Pontgravd, at Tadoussac, narrowly escaped 
death at the hands of a fiery Basque sailor captain, who resented 
bis assertion of an exclusive right to the fur-trade. Early in 
June, Champlain moored his vessels in the roadway between 
Point Levi and the promontory on which formerly stood 
Stadacone. At the foot of the rock by the river's bank a num- 
ber of buildings were erected in the form of a square, enclosing 
a court, in the centre of which rose a tall pole surmounted by a 
dove-cot. They were surrounded by a wooden wall, pierced 
with holes for musketry. Outside the wall ran a moat ; and at 
sahent points ramparts wei-e thrown up, which were defended 
by cannon. This rude place was called Quebec. It was scarcely 
finished when some of the inmates conspired to murder its 
founder, and hand over the habitation to Basque and Spanish 
traders. Timeous warning was given to Champlain. The con- 
spirators were arrested ; the leader was executed, and his head 
was stuck upon a pole ; four were sent manacled to France, 
and a salutary impression was made on the remainder. During 
the winter, twenty of the garrison died from the effect of im- 



proper food. A tribe of Montagnais pitched their wigwaim 
close to Quebec. Among them were a few Ottawas from the 
river of the north. They beheld with mingled awe and con- 
fidence the stately and gracious presence of " the man with the 
iron breast," whose weapon killed with flame and thunder, 
and who always was happy to converse with them. They 
longed to secure so potent an ally to aid them against the 
Iroquois, and they proposed that he should accompany them 
when they next went to war. Eager to explore the country, 
Champlain seized this opportunity to gratify his desire. 

2. In spring, Champlain, with a few Frenchmen, crossed 

Lake St. Peter, and met at the mouth of the River Iro- 

1609 quois^ a throng of Algonquin and Huron warriors, who 

A.D. gave him a most clamorous welcome. The allied party, 

slowly ascending the river, checked often by its rapids, 
and hunting and fishing on the way, entered a great lake, which 
was studded by numerous islands, and enclosed by lofty moun- 
tains clothed with rich forests. Ever since that time it has 
borne the name of Champlain. This lake in one place narrows 
to the breadth of a river, and then opens out into a beautiful 
sheet of water, Lac Sacrament. ^ In the gray dawn of a sum- 
mer morning the party landed on the western shore of this 
" Holy Lake." Proudly the Mohawk warriors stalked out 
from their fortifications to meet a foe whom they despised. 
But their confidence turned to alarm when Champlain, coming 
to the front, fired his arquebuse rapidly, and two of their 
chiefs fell and bit the ground in their death's agony. Soon 
they fled in dismay. Champlain's heart turned sick within 
him when he beheld the tortures inflicted on their prisoners by 
the exultant victors. Angrily he remonstrated ; and, out of 
respect,|they forbore their savage practices in his presence. 
After the victory so easily gained, the allied Indians dispersed 
to their hunting-grounds. Before separating from Champlain, 
they exacted a promise that he would meet them the following 
spring, again to make war upon the Iroquois. 

3. A few mouths afterwards, Champlain was in Fontaine- 

' The River Iroquois.- 

-Now the River 

* Lac Sacranient. — Ijong afterwards 
called Lake George. 


jleau^ Palace, amusing the King with the story of his adven- 
ures. When next spring came, he went to fight the 
[rOQUOis according to his promise. In the meantime 1610 
,he fur-trade did not prosper in the hands of Pontgravd. a.d. 
rhe one year's term o£ De Monts' monopol}? had ex- 
)ired. The traders of St. Malo, Rouen, and Eochelle gathered 
he best of the harvest at Tadoussac and Quebec, and enriched 
hemselves by exchanging hatchets, axes, knives, copper kettles, 
Lud beads for costly beaver skins. Champlain, with a view of 
uterceptiug the canoes laden with peltry that descended the 
)ttawa River, caused a station to be erected on tlie Isle of 
yiontreal. But the traders ascended as far as the head of the 
viult St. Louis. By their rough and boisterous manners they 
utimidated the Indians, who did not think they were safe 
mless they had the rapids between themselves and the pale 
aces. The chiefs went to Champlain and besought their kind 
rieud to leave his companions and come to live with them. 
rhey told him he might make them Christians, or do what he 
)leased with them. The red men appear to have been very 
ractable under good treatment. It may be that if Europeans 
Generally had shown in their dealings with them a kinder and 
airer spirit, they might not have been the forlorn people that 
hey now are. Champlain was grieved at heart. He saw that 
mless some barrier were erected against the incursions of the 
Taders his infant colony would die. 

4. Three years after the abandonment of Acadie, Baron 
?outrincourt returned to Port Royal, the grant made 
him by De Monts having been confirmed by the 1610 
ving. He found the buildings standing untouched by a.d. 
he Indians and uninjured by the climate. By Mem- 
)ei'tou, the stately Micmac sagamore, he was received with the 
lignity of a chief who esteemed himself the equal of kings, and 
vith the cordiality of a man not oblivious of past good cheer. 
^ prejudice had been created against the former attempt at 
iolonization by a charge made by its enemies, that the interests 
>f religion had been neglected. The influence of the " Society 

' Fontainchleau. — A town 35 miles 
outh-east of Paris, celebrated for its 
ncient royal palace, long the favourite 

residence of the French Soveroig'is. 
The palace is sunonnded by beautiful 
gardens and parks. 



of Jesus," founded by Iguatius Loyola^ in 1534, was tlieu 
great at the Court of Paris. Through Cottin, confessor of King 
Henry, Father Pierre Biard was appointed organizer of spiri- 
tual atfairs in Acadie. But the feeling against the formidable 
Society, whose members mingled with intense religious zeal 
much worldly wisdom, was very strong in France, and Poutriu- 
court, to satisfy the scruples of a Huguenot merchant with whom 
he was associated, had evaded his engagement to take out with 
him the Jesuit Father. To evince his zeal for reli.^^ion he sub- 
stituted in his place a priest. La Fl^che, surnamed the Patriarcli. 
Pitying the state of heathen darkness in which the ancient 
Membertou had lived for over a century, Father la Fl^che 
prevailed on him to be baptized along with all his family. 
The names of the King and Queen of France, and those of 
princes and ladies of high degree, were bestowed on the chief 
and his wife, and on his sons and his daughters. The rite waa 
performed with much solem> ity, and was followed by profuse 
hospitality. It excited a grf u . desire among the Indians gener- 
ally to be received into the fold of the Church. Biencourt, 
the Baron's son, was despatched to Fi'ance with the registry of 
baptisms, and for the purpose of seeking material aid from 
certain Huguenot merchants of Dieppe. 

5. In the meantime a tragical event had occurred. Henry 

, IV., I'idinff throuofh the narrow streets of Paris, had 
May 24 . . ■ 

1 ft 1 n ' ^^®^ stabbed by Eavaillac,^ a priestly fanatic. After 

the great King's death Jesuit influence became all- 
powerful at Court. Zeal for the conversion of the hea- 
then took possession of the great ladies. Madame de Guerche- 
ville (late maid of honour to the consort of King Henry) 
evinced an uncontrollable desire, after inspecting the registry 
brought by Biencourt, to aid in the conversion of the savagea 
of Acadie. Biencourt was constrained to assent to the propo- 
sition pressed on him, that Fathers Biard and Enemond Masse 
should accompany him on his retui n. The merchants of Dieppe, 

^ Ignatius Loyola. — The founder of 
the Jesuits ; was the youngest son of a 
Spanish nobleman ; born 1491, died 
1556. He began life as a soldier, but 
having got a leg broken, he vowed that 
if he recovered he would devote him- 

self to a religious life. This was the 
origin of the " Society of Jesus." 

^ Ravaillac. — Francois Ravaillac.born 
167r, originally a monk, was expelled 
from his order on account of his fanati- 
cal vittWtf. 


leariiig of this coudition, refused to make their promised ad- 
uDces. Bieucourt was driven to accept the assistance of 
^ladame de Guercheville. Through her zealous efforts among 
he charitable, funds were raised. The Society of Jesus be- 
;;une partners with Poutrincourt by contributing 3^500 livres 
the common fund, besides advancing further sums as 
oaus. This aid placed him under heavy obligations. As a 
nark of distinction, Biencourt was appoint' 1 Vice-Admiral of 
he Seas of New France, with authority over the trading vessels 
lom St. Malo and Rochelle. Claude Etienne de la Tour and 
lis son Charles Amadou r accompanied his party to 
"Lcadie. Poutrincourt returned to France soon after 1611 
he arrival of his son, leaving him in command. Young, a.d. 
elf-willed, and impulsive, he resented any interference 
)y the Jesuit Fathers with his authority, which he was inclined 
exercise harshly. Enemond Masse visited the wigwams of 
,n Indian tribe of the River St. John, of which Louis, son of 
^lembertou, was chief. After a few months' experience he 
etnrued half starved, and inexpressibly disgusted by the filth 
lid smoke and indescribable annoyances among which he had 
ived. When winter came evil days fell upon Port Royal. 
iistead of the plenty and geniality that had reigned in the 
[iter days of Champlain and Lescarbot, scarcity and discord 
<ist their gloom over it. The Indians shunned the once merry 
iJiU, though a few, grateful for past kindness, came with small 
»reseuts of game. 

6. The internal harmony of Port Royal was not restored 
^'hen Madame de Guercheville, who had obtained from 
jouis XIII. a grant of all the territory formerly given 1612 
De Monts, sent out Father Gilbert du Thet to look a.d. 
iter her interests in the colony. Discord burst forth 
iito open flame. Tlie Fathers, rather than endure the over- 
•earing authority of the young Vice- Admiral, made prepara- 
ions to leave Port Royal, but were restrained by him. There- 
il)on they excommunicated their tyrant, and for months 
efused to officiate at the altar. Then a change came over 
lieir spirit. The chapel door was again opened, and peace for 

time came back to Port Royal. Soon afterwards Father du 
•het left fur France. Baron Poutrincourt was now involved 



li ( 


in law-suits arising out of the moneys advanced to him by 
Madame, and lie loudly accused the Jesuit Fathers of having 
enmeshed him in legal toils. An attempt was made to induce 
him to abandon Poi*t Royal. On his refusal the Fathers re- 
solved to seek some other place. In the spring of the following 
year, M. de la Sanssaye received a commission as Lieutenant- 

General of Acadie under Madame de ( Juercheville. He 

1613 sailed with Fathers du Thet and Quentin, and a small 

A.D. party of colonists. After taking Fathers Biard and 

Masse on board at Port Royal, he cruised the Bay of 
Fundy to find the mouth of the Penobscot River. Oft" the 
south-east of Grand Manan the vessel was enveloped in a thick 
^'*«^fe:s^fog, and it drifted along until the cloud rose from the sea, and 
disclosed to the party on board wreaths of vapour curling 
around the heigkts of Mount Desert. They anchored in a bay 
on the east side of the island, and called it St. Sauveur. On a 
well-sheltered point of Penobscot Bay a fit place to land was 
found. There the tents presented by the Queen and the ladies 
of the Court were pitched, and there the work of settlemeut 

7. The English colony of Virginia^ was then struggling into 
existence. It was the custom of the people to send annually a 
fleet of boats, under an armed convoy, to fish on the banks 
around the " Seven Isles of the Shoals," some twenty-five leagues 
south of the Penobscot. This year Samuel Argall, a man of 
daring and unscrupulous character, but generous withal, com- 
manded the convoy. Hearing from some Indians that French- 
men were settling on Penobscot Bay, he promptly resolved to 
treat them as invaders of English territory. By right of the 
discoveries of the Cabots, King James claimed all the country 
named Acadie, which was held by the French by virtue of the 
explorations of John Verazzani. When it is considered that 
the English and French nations were at peace, and that the 
claims of both were vague and undefined, Argall's action ap- 
pears unjustifiable. 

8. The French sailors and settlers were on shore, busy plough- 
ing and building, when a strange vessel was descried beating up 

' Virginia. — So named by Sir Walter I virgin Queen of England, when he took 
Ralegh in honour of Elizabeth, the I possession of the settlement in 1584. 



the mouth of the bay. Saussaye hurried his men on board Iiis 
sliip, and, all unprepared, put out to meet the stranger. To the 
sound of drum and trumpet, and with the red flag flying, Argall 
jidvanr^d, and when within range, saluted the Frenchmen with a 
volley of musketry. A cannon shot fired by Father du Thet 
ilropi)ed harmlessly into the water. In reply, the English dis- 
chargod their broadside, which tore up the timbers of the French 
ship, and rolled the courageous priest, mortally wounded, on 
the deck. The Frenchmen then struck their flag. The Eng- 
linh landed, and plundered and destroyed the rising settlement. 
By the craft of Argall (who privately caused the cherts of the 
B'leuch commandant to be rifled), M. de la Saussaye could not 
produce his commission from the French King ; so, when he was 
accused of having invaded foreign territory, he could show no 
warrant for his act. He, with Father Masse and fifteen others, 
were sent adrift in an open boat. Fortunately, off the east 
coast of Acadie they fell in with a French vessel, which bore 
them away to France. The rest of the party were taken to 
Virginia. Sir Thomas Dale, the Governor at Jamestown, 
would have executed them summarily as pirates, but was 
deterred by Argall, who then produced Saussaye's commis- 

9. Next year Argall was again on the track of havoc. Father 
Biard is vehemently accused of having disclosed to him, 

from the grudge he bore to Biencourt, the fact of the 1614 
existence of a French settlement at Port Royal. After a.d. 
completing the ruin of the St. Sauveur settlement on 
the Penobscot shore, he sailed for Passamaquoddy Bay, and on 
the Island of St. Croix razed to the ground such buildings as 
had been left standing. Crossing the Bay of Fundy (long 
afterwards known as Argall's Bay), he plundered and destroyed 
Port Royal ; and caused the names of De Monts, Poutrincourt, 
Champlain, and others, and the fieur-de-lis of France, to be 
erased from a massive stone. In a meadow, and standing on 
the opposite sides of a stream, he and Biencourt had a stormy 
interview. Each accused the other of piracy and robbery, and 
they parted in mutual rage. 

10. Knighted by King James, Sir Samuel Argall was shortly 
afterwards appointed Governor of Virginia. Baron Poutrin- 



court .abandoned his settlement at Port Royal. Tlie follow- 
ing year he was slain at tl)e siege of Mesy, on the 
1615 Seine. Buried at St. Just, in Champagne, liis epi- 
A.D. taph bore testimony to his military virtues, and to the 
difficulties lie had encountered in his Christian work of 
establishing New France. 

QuKHTioNH.— 1. By wliom was the 
scheme of founding a colony on the Ht. 
Lawrence revived? Give an account 
of the founding of Quebec. What nar- 
row escape did Champlaln make ? What 
proposal gave him an opportunity of 
exploring the country? 

2. What lake was discovered ? How 
were the Mohawks defeated? What 
promise did his allies exact from Cham- 
plain ? 

8. Where did he go in the mean- 
time? What disorders did lu; (Ind pre- 
vailing on his return? What did the 
chiefs propose to him? What reflec- 
tion is made regarding the treatment 
of the Indians ? What did Cliamplain 
clearly see ? ' 

4. When did Poutrincourt return to 
Port Royal? What charge had been 
made against the former attempt at 
colonization? Into what difficulty was 
Poutrincourt led in trying to clear his 
new enterprise of such a charge * What 
solemn rite was performed by Ln 

FlBche? What effect had it on the 

6. What change did the deatli of 
Henry IV. bring about? Who became 
especially zealous for the conversion of 
the heathen? Who withdrew their 
support from the colony? Who theu 
became Poutrincourt's partners? How 
was the next winter passed at Port 
Royal ? 

6. What led tlie Jesuit Fathers to 
leave Port Royal? Where did they 
found a new settljment Y 

7. Who resolved to attack the new 
settlers? On what ground? Why was 
the action unjustifiable? 

8. Describe Argall's attack on St. 
Sauveur. What became of the French- 

9. What did Argall do tlie following 
year? Where c.nd how did he and 
Biencourt part? 

10. How was Argftll rewarded for his 
exploits? What was the fate of Pout- 






1612 to 1616 A.D. 

Lieutenant-Generals of New France. 
Cointe de SolsHong. 
Prince de Cond^. 
Vignan the impostor. 
Chanjplain ascends the Ottawa. 
His disappointment. 

H la troubles in France. 
He visits the Huron country, 
does to war against the Sunecas. 
Repulse of the allied Indians. 
Champlain detained a prisoner. 
Lost in the woods. 

1. Champlain, after his return to France in 1611, exerted him- 
elf to secure a powerful patrr a for his colony, with the object 
if establishing a centre of permanent authority. Charles de 
Jourbon,^ Comte de Soissons, prevailed upon to give the in- 
lueuce of his name and rank to ihe project, wiis created Lieu- 
euaut-General of New France. By a commission, dated 15th 
f October, Champlain was appointed his lieutenant, and was 
a vested with absolute civil and military jurisdiction over the 
olouy, and with exclusive trade privileges. The spread of the 
Ionian Catholic religion, and the conversion of the savages, 
fere mentioned as objects of paramount importance. Tlie 
rade monopoly, of course, excited the wrath of the merchants 
f the sea-ports. Their satisfaction was not concealed when, by 
lie sudden death of the Comte de Soissony, it was rescinded, 
lieir satisfaction, however, was short-lived. 

2. Henri de Bourbon,^ Prince de Cond^, was appointed 
jieutenant-General in room of the deceased Comte ; and the 
ommission to Champlain was revived with all its powera and 
rivileges. Champlain sought no^ the monopoly of trade for a 
'Ifish purpose, but for the protection of his colony. He invited 
lie clamorous merchants to join him. The strife of religious 
ilferences was then very bitter. The Huguenots of Rochelle 
sfused to associate with him, and with the Catholic traders 

Charles d Bourbon. — Second son 
f Louis Prince de Cond^, and cousin 
' Henry IV. He died in 1612. 
* Henn de Bourbon. — Grandson of 

Louis Prince de Cond^, and nephew of 
Charles, referred to in preceding note. 
He died in 1646. His son Louis wis 
the great Cond6, a famous soldjef . 





of St. Malo and Ronen, who formed themselves into a body 
of " Associated Merchants," preferring to run the risk of 
carrying on illicit traffic. The obstructions that met Cham- 
plain in his way, from the indifference of people in higii places, 
and from the envy and jealousy of others, could only have been 
surmounted by a most resolute spirit, fortified by the secret 
belief that he was an instrument in the hands of Providence to 
effect a great purpose. In the course of the winter, Nicolas 
Vignan (an adventurer who had served with Champlain iu 
Canada) appeared in Paris, and gave out that he had ascended 
the Ottawa River to its source in a lake, and that he had fol- 
lowed the course of a river that flowed into it until he reached a 
great sea. Champlain listened eagerly to this tale. If it were 
true (and Vignan, under threat of death by the hangman's cord 
in event of its falsity being proved, maintained that it was true), 
the question that had agitated discoverers since the time of 
Christopher Columbus was solved, — the way to the East by the 
west was found. 

3. He did not require to be pressed by his friends at Court to 
follow up this discovery. He crossed the AUantic in spring. 

On the 27th of May, with Vignan and three other 

1613 Frenchmen and one Indian, in two canoes, he left a 

A.D. little island near the Island of Montreal, which he named 

St. Hel^ne, in honour of his wife. Three days after- 
wards he entered the mouth of the Ottawa, and saw its black 
tide flowing through, without intermingling with, the blue-green 
waters of the St. Lawrence. Above " the Lake of the Two 
Mountains" an impetuous rapid checked his course, and the 
party was compelled to drag the canoes through the thick 
tangled woods. Beyond this " sault " the course was smooth ; 
for leagues the river flowed gently past wooded banks some- 
times level with the water's edge. But before long Champlain 
was compelled to land. As he ascended, the river ran with great 
force, and soon he saw the body of the stream dashing down a 
steep chasm, and falling into a huge and deep " kettle," where, 
frothing and bubbling, it swirled round with a mighty noise. 
The upward voyage was arduous and difficult on account of the 
ever-recurring " chuts" and cataracts. Above Chaudiere 
Lake he entered the Lac du Chats, a beautiful expanse of soft 



and <ylassy water. As he ascended, small islands divided the 
descending waters into numerous falls. On one of them, the 
Isle of St. Croix, he erected a cross of red cypress bearing the 
arms of France. On his further way the canoes had sometimes 
to be carried through forests swarming with mosquitoes, and 
over or beneath huge prostrate trunks ; sometimes they had to 
be drawn in the water by cords, near the edge of the banks, 
on which there was slippery and dangerous footway. 

4. At the Island of Calumet, which divided the river into 
two arms, Champlain was welcomed by Nibachis, the chief of a 
friendly tribe. With this escort he proceeded on his way. 


passing frequent rapids and falls, and threading deep rocky 
defiles, until the river expanded into Lake Colange. At the 
Isle dAUumette he was met by Tessouac and his warriors. 
The old Algonquin chief viewed Champlain with wonder, as 
a man virho had fallen from the clouds. He could hardly be- 
lieve that with so if'-'^ll a party he had made his way through 
a country so difficult and dangerous. He gave a grand feast in 
his honour. A solemn council was afterwards held, when Cham- 
plain, through his interpreter, recounted the story told by 
Nicolas Vignan, and expressed a hope that Tessouac would 
assist him with men and canoes to ascend to the source of the 
river, whence he might iind the great sea. The Indians heard 

(473) 5 




the story in silence ; but they looked askance at Vif^nan 
(whom they knew, and who had passed a winter in their com- 
pany), as if they would have eat^n him. But the old chief 
broke out in fury, calling him liax. Nicolas, he said, had lain 
down with his children and risen up with them. If he had 
seen the people, the country, and the sea he had spoken of, it 
must have been in his dreams. 

5. The calm-tempered Champlain was transported with mo- 
mentary rage when he found that he had been made the dupe 
of an impostor. Vignan had to the last persisted in his 
story, hoping that the difficulties of the way would break up 
the expedition, while he would retain the reputation of having 
made a great discovery. The Indians cried out, " Kill him with 
tortures;" but the humane Champlain pardoned the wretch 
after a full confession of his lie. He would fain have pursued 
his journey to Lake Nipissing, where dwelt the tribe of the 
Nipercini, or Sorcerers ; but Tessouac threw obstructions in the 
way. He was forced to retrace his weary steps. A party of 
Algonquin waniors accompanied him as far as the Chaudiere 
Falls. On parting, he promised to accompany them and their 
Huron allies on their next war expedition against the 

6. Trouble awaited Champlain on his return to France. 
Trade jealousies gave him no rest. The merchants of Rochelle 
intrigued for permission to trade to the St. Lawrence inde- 
pendently of the Associated Merchants ; and they found men in 
authority who abetted their pretensions. The Prince de Condd 
even was accused of playing into their hands, and for a money 
consideration of giving them passports that secured to them the 
privileges of free trade. A facile disposition truly he must have 
had, to pretend to be anxious to further the views of his friend 
and lieutenant, and yet to permit those who were hostile to 
them to approach himself with bribes ! Champlain found the 
greatest difficulty in raising his enterprise above a mere trade 
speculation. Nothing as yet had been done to promote the 
spread of religion. 

7. When he returned to Canada, he took out with him four 
servants of the Church to minister to the wants of his own 
people, and to convert the savages. The priests chosen as the 

' (1 


fittest missionaries for New France were named Becollets, an 

order of Franciscan monks of " the strict observance," 

who abjured all worldly ambition, and took the vow of 1615 

])erpetual poverty. They wore a coarse, hooded gown, girt a.d. 

with a knotted rope, and wooden sandals on their bare 

feet. To Father d'Oilbeau was assigned the mission among the 

Montagnais at Tadoussac ; Fathers Jamet and Pacifique du 

Plessis were stationed at Quebec. Champlain chose Father le 

Caron as his companion in his intended expedition to the Huron 


8. He found the Algonquins of the Isle d'Allumette im- 
patiently waiting for him at Sault St. Louis. Imperative 
business calling him to Quebec, he exacted a promise from them 
that they would await his return. But his fickle allies, taking 
with them Father le Caron and a few Frenchmen, were at the 
Chaudiere Falls before he again reached the Isle of Montreal. 
This insolent disiegard of his wishes mortified Champlain, and 
his first angry impulse prompted him to abandon the expedi- 
tion. If he had followed it, it might have been well for the 
future peace of Canada. But he believed that he could not 
extend his discoveries, and so promote the spread of religion 
and commerce, without the goodwill of the Algonquins and 
Hurons, and that he could not gain their friendship without 
aiding them in their wars against the Iroquois. The benefits, 
however, that were derived from an alliance with people so 
intractable were very doubtful, while the evils that flowed to 
Canada from the hostility to the French which his course 
awakened among the " Five Nations," were very certain. 

9. Passion for travelling conquered Champlain's irritation. 
With his trusty interpreter, Etienne Brul6, the first of Canadian 
voyageurs, and a crew of four Frenchmen, he ascended the 
Ottawa to the Isle d'Allumette. He found the firs and 
boulders of the country above it displeasing to his eye ; but 
he remarked, as a signal instance of the goodness of Providence 
to the inhabitants of so sterile a region, that it abounded in 
wild fruit. On the borders of Lake Nipissing he was heartily 
welcomed by the Nipercini, or Sorcerers. From the lake he 
entered the French River, and the country along its course ap- 
peared to him even more uninviting than that through which 



he had passed. On the shores of Lac Attigoiiantin (the 
Georgian Bay^ of Lake Huron) he encountered a friendly 
people whom he called Les Cheveux Ilelev^s ; for no courtier in 
France, he thought, had his hair dressed in so magnificent a 

10. Skirting along the rough, flat, and ill-wooded northern 
shore of this lake, he passed many islands, and rejoiced in the 
enormous trout and in the huge sturgeons, " of a marvellous 
goodness," that were caught by his men. He was out many 
days on this lake, which, from its vast extent, he called the 
Fresh Sea. Coasting along its southern shore, he entered its 
eastern extremity at Matchedash Bay.^ There his party landed, 
and took the trail through a pleasant country of vale and 
stream that led them to the bourgade of Otciaacha. On their 
way they visited several other bourgades, and were every- 
where received by the Huron people in the most kindly and 
hospitable manner. At Cahiague, the principal town of the 
country, Champlain met Father le Caron and the Frenchmen 
who had preceded him. It was the 12th of August, and Father 
le Caron (who rejoiced that it was his lot to be the first to pro- 
claim the gospel in that heathen land) performed divine service, 
returning thanks to God for their preservation amidst many 

11. Cahiague was situated at the north-eastern extremity 
of Lake Simcoe. The fine country around it was well 
adapted for wheat culture. Champlain saw fields of Indian 
corn, pumpkins, and sunflowers from which the Indians ex- 
tracted an oil. In the fir plantations hares and partridges 
abounded. Plums, raspberries, strawberries, wild apples, 
cherries, nectarines, and nuts were plentiful. Here on the 1st 
of September the allied Hurons and Algonquin warriors as- 
sembled for their expedition against the Iroquois. They ex- 
pected the aid of five hundred Eries, who dwelt on the southern 
shore of Lake Erie ; and a few resolute men, among whom was 
Etienne Brul^, went forward to apprise them that the war 
party had set out. 

12. By a succession of lakes that formed an almost continuous 

' Oeorgian Bay. — See Map, p. 92. ^ Maichedash Bay. — See Map, p. 92. 


river through a country that looked like a grfeat pleasure-park, 
Mnd which abounded in game, Champlain and the dusky 
warriors, who fished, and hunted the bear and deer for their 
daily support, made their way to the shore of Lake Entou- 
hououns.^ They crossed its eastern extremity, and hid their 
cauoes in the woods. They were now in the enemy's country, 
and they moved cautiously. The object of their attack was 
the castle of the Senecas, guarding the western end of the 
Hue at the Eiver Genes see, between which and the Mohawk 
River in the east the boirgades of the " Five Nations " were 
situated. On the 10th of October they came in sight of it. 
Against Champlain's advice the allied warriors rushed at once 
to the attack ; but before they shot their arrows they poured 
out a volley of abuse against their foes, who, crowding on the 
galleries within the palisades, returned it vigorously, and 
hurled down stones upon the foremost assailants. Champlaiu 
and his few Frenchmen then stepped to the front. The balls 
from their arquebuses whistling about the ears of the defenders 
of the castle caused them to hide their heads. Several of the 
Senecas were killed and wounded. The allies then retired and 
encamped themselves out of sight of the foe. 

13. Champlain rated them soundly for their want of disci- 
pline. He taught them how they might ovei'power the volleys 
of their foe by constructing a high covered r)latform that would 
overlook the palisades, and from whence the arquebusier could 
shoot down their defenders. He showed then also how to 
make mantelets^ to protect themselves in advancing to set fire 
to the palisades. They patiently set to work and constructed 
the platform, and two hundred warriors pushed it within dis- 
tance ; but, scorning the shelter of mantelets, they rushed into 
the open fields and shot their arrows, which did little execution. 
Champlain in despair roared himself hoarse in his endeavour 
to restore discipline, but could not be heard above the furious 
yelling of the combatants. He received two wounds, in the 
thigh and knee. After fighting three hours, and suffering a 
trifling loss, the allies grew discouraged, and drew off, saying that 
they would await the arrival of the five hundred Erie warriors. 

' Entouhonotins. — That is, Ontario. 
' Mantelets, movable parapets, made 

of boards, covered with skins or metaJ. 
[Diminutive of mantle, a cloak. J 



14. After three days, when no aid appeared, they retreated 
towards Lake Ontario, harassed by the foe. Champlaiu, cha- 
grined, suffering from his wounds, confined in a sort of pannier, 
and carried over rough ground on an Indian's back, endured 
unspeakable torture of mind and body. The unreasonable 
allies, though their want of discipline and perseverance had 
alone prevented success, blamed him. They had imagined that 
he carried assured victory with him ; but finding that their 
" champion with the iron breast" was neither invulnerable nor 
invincible, they failed to pay him superstitious respect as had 
been their wont. 

15. When they arrived at the shore of Lake Ontario the 
chiefs broke the plight they made to Champlain before tlie 
battle. None of them would take him to Sault St. Louis 
by the route of the " great river" St. Lawrence, as they had 
promised to do. He was compelled to accompany them, a 
virtual prisoner, to the Huron country. He was indebted to 
the chief Durantal for shelter. He spent the winter of liia 
forced stay in hunting and in close observation of the mannei-s, 
customs, and superstitions of the Indians. The results of his 
observations are recorded in his published works. Once he lost 
himself in the woods, and for two days and nights he wandered 
about. He had given himself up for lost before he struck upon 
the track by which he had entered. If he had perished in his 

solitude, what would have become of infant Canada? 

1616 Except himself, there was not a man in all France will- 

A.D. ing to devote his life to its preservation. When in the 

spring he and Father le Caron reached Sault St. Louis, 
they were welcomed by Pontgravd and the Recollets as meu 
who had risen from the grave. 

Questions. — 1. Whose patronage 
did Champlain secure for his new 
colony in 1611 ? What was Champlain 's 
own position? What objects were 
held of paramount importance ? What 
event gave satisfaction to the mer- 
chants? Why? 

2. Why was their satisfaction short- 
lived? What dimculties had Cham- 
plain to encounter ? What story fired 
his enthusiasm ? 

3. Describe Champlain's expedition 

up the Ottawa. Who accompanied 

4. What occurred on the Isle d'Allu- 
mette? What did Tessouao say of 
Vignan's htory ? 

5. How did Champlain receive the 
discovery ? How did he treat the im- 
postor ? Whither did he go? 

0. What difficulties did Champlain 
meet with in France ? Of what dupli- 
city was the Prince de Cond6 accused ? 

7. Whom did Champlain take with 





him on his return to Canada? How 
were they distributed ? Where did lie 
himself go? 

8. What conduct of the Algonquins 
annoyed him greatly? What waa his 
first impulse? What prevented him 
from following it? 

9. In what direction did Champlain 
travel? Who were his companions? 
Describe his course. 

10. Where did the party land ? Where 
did they meet Le Caron ? , 

11. Describe the country around Lake 
Simcoe, and its products. What ex- 
l)edition was resolved on ? 

12. In what direction did they pro- 
ceed? What was the object of their 
attack ? Describe the first encounter. 

13. For what did Champlain reprove 
his allies? What did he teach them? 
What were the results ? What befell 
Champlain ? 

14. In what direction did the allies re- 
treat ? On what ground did they blame 

15. How did the chiefs break faith 
with him? Where and how did he 
spend the winter? When did he re- 
turn to Sault St. Louis? IIow was he 
received ? 






1617 to 1626 A.D. 

Precarious existence of Canada. 

Due de Montmorency. 

Intrigues of the Associated Merchants. 

Champlain victorious. 

Dismal state of Quebec. 

Madame de Champlain. 

Guillaume and Emery d« Caen 

Due de Ventadour Viceroy. 

The Jesuit Fathers. 


Sir William Alexander. 

Knights-Baronets of Nova Scotia. 

1. For several years the infant colony of Canada passed a 
precarious existence under the nominal sovereignty of the Prince 
de Cond^, and in the hands of the "Associated Merchants," 
who quarrelled among themselves, and would do nothing to 
advance its permanent interests. Champlain, when in France, 
wiis surrounded by a network of intrigue. Every effort was 
made to deprive him of his position as lieutenant under the 
Viceroy. The persistency with which he urged upon the 
Associated Merchants the duty of planting a colony, and of 
maintaining priests for its spiritual welfare, was exceedingly irk- 
some to them. They tried to evade their obligation by citing 
the ill success of the efforts of De Monts to found a colony iu 
Acadie. But Chtmiplain would not be diverted from the pur- 
pose of his life by so irrelevant an excuse. 

2. At this time the venal Prince de Cond^ disposed of his in- 

terest in the viceroyalty to the Due de Montmorency,^ 

1619 Admiral of France, for 11,000 crowns. Champlaia 

A.D. retained his position as lieutenant. By great efforts 

arrangements were made to send out a body of eighty 
colonists, including three RecoUet Fathers. Two years before, 
Louis Hebcrt had taken out his wife and two children, and they 
were the first regular settlers in Canada. To encourage the 

' Due de Montmorency. — He was grand- 
son of the Constable Montmorency who 
was taken prisoner, along with Francis 
I., at Pavia, 152.'>. lie joined in a plot 

against Richelieu's government, and 
was taken prisoner in a skirmish with 
the royal troops. He was convicted, 
and beheaded in 1632. Born 1595. 

MADAME dt: champlain. 73 

^rui'k of actual settlement, Champlain resolved to take his 
louseliold with him. In 1611 he had married H^l6ne de 
ioiilay, a young lady of great beauty and of pious mind. A 
letermined eflFort was made by the Associated Merchants to 
leprive him of the command of the colony. They intimated 
hat Pontgrave would command at Quebec, while he would be 
eft free to pursue his discovreries. But he refused to accept 
his mandate. He hurried to Paris, pleaded and won his case 
►efore the Royal Council, and then he caused the Royal Decree, 
8t{iblishing him in his position as lieutenant, to be posted up 
u the exchanges of all the sea-ports. 

3. Champlain found the habitation of Quebec in a most de- 
ilorable state, and the colony in a perishing condition. 
Abuses introduced by the free-traders awakened his 1620 
leap displeasure. In exchange for peltries they bartered a.d. 
,way fire-arms and brandy. The poor red man took a 

iolent liking for the fiery Uquid, which worked like poison in 
lis blood, inflaming him to madness. Champlain gave imme- 
liate orders for the construction of a stone fort on the summit of 
, rock. Though clothed with full authority under the Viceroy, 
le could not command the power of the purse. The Associated 
^lerchants could not see the necessity of fortifying Quebec. 
['he advances they made were small and intermittent, and so 
he work of the fort made slow progress. Madame de Cham- 
)lain was not dismayed by the rude scene in which she found 
lerself, but entered with enthusiasm into the work of instruct- 
ng the Indian children, whose hearts were won by her beauty, 
ler benignity, and her pretty trinkets. 

4. Owing to the non-fulfilment of their obligation to colonize 
lie country, the Associated Mer(»hants were temporaiily 
leprived of their privileges. The monopoly of the 1621 
rade was granted to two Huguenot gentlemen, Guil- a.d. 
aume and Emery de Caen, on condition that they would 

;end out to Canada none but native Frenchmen and Roman 
Catholics. The Associated Merchants were shortly afterwards 
tdmitted to a share in the profits of the concern ; but the 
uterests of the colony were little advanced by the new ar- 
angement. An element of religious discord was introduced, 
yhich caused scandal, and roused the wonder of the Indians. 



De Caeu's Huguenot sailora, debarred from attending divine 
service on land, roared out their psalmody from the decks of their 
vessels, which lay moored by the banks of the St. Lawrence. 

5. The state of the colony was very dismalt It was little 
cared for at home ; it was rent by dissensions, and exposed to 
the onslaught of foes from without. The Iroquois, perceiving its 

feeble condition, sent out three war parties to extirpate 

1622 the Frenchmen at one fell swoo]). The Montagnais, 

A.D. Hurons, and Algonquins, hitheito friendly, evinced a 

disposition to join them in their onslaught. But the 
dangers were averted. The example set by Champlain in bring- 
ing out his family was not followed by any one in France. By 
reason of the irregular arrival of ships he was often in want of 

necessary things ; and he did not choose that his wife 

1624 should be exposed to privations. Her first glowing en- 
A.D. thusiasm had waned. He returned home ; and 

Madame de Champlain retired to a convent. 

6. The Due de Montmorency was succeeded by his nephew, 

Henri de Levi, Due de Ventadour. He was a spiritual 

1625 enthusiast. From the splendour of the Court of Paris 
A.D. he had retired to the seclusion of a convent. The great 

objects he held before his eyes were, the spread of the 
JRoman Catholic religion, and the conversion of the savages, 
under his auspices. Fathers Lallemant, Masse (who had 
survived the disaster in i^cadie), Fran9ois, and Gilbert, of 
the Order of Jesus, were chosen and equipped for the work. 
On their first arrival in Canada, the Jesuit Fathers had to en- 
counter a hostility systematically encouraged by the Huguenot 
merchants. Emery de Caen received them with the chilliest 
civility. To the RecoUets they were indebted for temporary 

shelter in their convent on the River St. Charles. In 

1626 ^^^ following year they were joined by Fathers Noyrot 
A.D. and Anne de Noue, whr brought with them several 

workmen. They were soon independent of the hospi- 
tality of the "gray gowns." The establishment they raised 
formed quite an addition to Quebec. Still, outside the floating 
population during the open season, there were not more than 
fifty-five actual residents, agriculturists, artisans, and labourers, 
in the habitation. 


7. It will uow be conveuient to relate the events tha* occurred 
iu Aca4ie after the descent of Argall upon Port Royal. Bien- 
court still held possession of the country, and claimed to be its 
commaudant under the French King. With his lieutenant, 
young Charles de la Tour, he lived among the Micmacs, dressed 
after tlieir fashion, and with them fished and hunted. Aid and 
encouragement were sent to him by his friends in France. 
When the RecoUets established themselves in their convent 
(1620) on the St. Charles, they sent missionaries to the Nepi- 
siguit, to the mouth of the St. John, to Port Royal, and to Cape 
Sable. They were the first Europeans who penetrated the un- 
broken wilderness between the Bay of Chaleur and the Buy of 

8. The expedition of Argall paved the way for the occupation 
of Acadie by the English. King James, in 1614, granted to Sir 
Fernando Gorges and other gentlemen, who formed the 
"Association of the Grand Council of Plymouth," all the 
territory from the 40th to the 48th degree of north latitude, to 
which the name of New England was given. In 1620 they re- 
ceived a charter. One of the members of this Grand Council 
was a Scottish knight. Sir William Alexander,^ gentleman 
iisher to Prince Charles, and a member of the Privy Council. 
He had an enthusiastic imagination and a patriotic mind. He 
saw a New Spain, a New France, and a New England established 
ou the American Continent, and he conceived the project of 
fouuding a New Scotland. 

f\ Through his influence with King James, he obtained a 
concession of Cape Breton and the Peninsula, and all 
the lands between the Bay of Fundy and the River St. 1621 
Lawrence, and from the River St. Croix on the west to a.d. 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence on the east. The charter 
was granted on the 20th of September, and the territory was 
called Nova Scotia. Sir William boasted that while other 
preceding patents had been imaginarily limited by the degrees 
of heaven, hk was the first national patent that was ever 
clearly bounded in America by particular limits upon earth. 

* Sir William ALixander. — Born 1580, 
died 1640. In 1(530 he was made a 
viscouut, and afterwards became Earl 

of Stirling. He was an intimate friend 
of the poet Drummond of Hawthorn- 
den, and was himself a sltilful versifler. 




Under his auspices the Scotch made a settlement and built a 

fort on the west side of the basin of Port Boyal, oppo- 

loJJ gj^e Goat Island. But they did not interfere with the 

^'^' French who were already settled in Acadie. 

10. The La Tours continued to occupy land within Nova Scotia, 

Claude, the father, built a fort at the mouth of the St. 

Id Jo John. When Biencourt died, CharleSj the son, suc- 

' * ceeded to the nominal dignity of Commandant of Acadie, 

and maintained himself in Fort Louis on the harbour of 

L'Omeron at Cape Sable. On the death of King James the 

1ft OK grant to Sir William Alexander was confirmed by 

Charles I. At this time the order of the Knights- 

Baronets of Nova Scotia^ was founded, and cou- 


' Knights-Bara.iets of Nova Scotia. — 
The first order of Baronets was insti- 
tuted by James I. in 1611, in connection 
with a scheme for the colonization of 
Ulster, in Ireland. The Baronets of 

Ireland were created in 1619, and those 
of Nova Scotia in 1625. Since the Irish 
Union (1801), all Baronets have been 
styled in their patents Baronets of the 
United Kingdom. 



Bi'sted of one hundred and fifty members. They received ex- 
tensive grants of hind on condition of sending out settlers. 
Their patents were ratified by Parliament. The insignia of the 
order were designed. A gieat idea floated through the brain of 
Sir William. He would transplant the feudal institutions of 
his country to the New World. His Nova Scotia, divided into 
the provinces of CaleL onia and Alexandria, and separat'^d from 
New England by another Tweed — the St. Croix — would take 
a proud place among the young nations created by the old 
kingdoms of Europe on the American Continent. 

QiTKHTioNR. — 1. What were the causes 
of tlie precarious existence passed by 
Canada for some years? What duty 
did Champlain urge on the Associated 
Merchants ? How did they try to evade 
their obligation? 

2. Who succeeded the Prince deCond^ 
in the viceroyalty ? Who were the first 
regular settlers in Canada ? How did the 
Associated Merchants intrigue against 
Champlain ? What was the result ? 

3. In what condition did Champlain 
And Quebec ? What great abuses had 
the free-traders introduced? What 
prevented tlie fortifying of Quebec? 
How did Madame de Champlain occupy 

4. On what condition did the De Caens 
receive the trade monopoly ? How did 
the religious discord operate ? 

5. What new danger threatened the 
colonists ? What effect had the priva- 
tions to which Madame de Champlain 
was exposed ? 

6 By whom was the Due de Mont- 

morency succeeded? Wliat were his 
great aims? Whom did he send out 
for this work? What difficulties did 
the Jesuit Fathers encounter? How 
many actual residents were there in 
Quebec ? 

7. What became of Biencourt after 
the destruction of Port Royal? Who 
were the first Europeans who penetrated 
the forests between Chaleur Bay and 
the Bay of Fundy? 

8. For what did Argall'e expedition 
pave the way? To whom did King 
James grant a wide territory? To 
whom did the project occur of found- 
ing a New Scotland ? 

9. What concession did he obtain T 
What name was given to the territory ? 
Where did the Scotch make a settle- 

10. Who succeeded Biencourt as Com- 
mandant of Acadie ? What new order 
of knighthood was established in 1626 ? 
What great idea possessed Alexandei'a 
brain ? 





1627 to 1635 A.D. 

Unsatisfactory state of affairs. 
Cardinal Richelieu. 

New Company of vhe One Hundred As- 
War between France and England. 
Admiral Kirkt seizes Port Royal. 
Champlain refuses to surrender Quebec. 

French fleet captured by that of Great 

Quebec taken. 

Treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye. 
Restoration of Canada and Acadie. 
The last labours of Champlain. 
His death. 

1. When Champlain returned to Quebec he found that affairs 
had gone on very ill in his absence. The half -finished 
1627 stone fort was in the same condition in which he had 
A.D, left it three years before. It was evident to him that 
decisive measures ought to be taken to rescue Canada 
from the hands of the traders, and to put an end to religious dis- 
sensions. Either Huguencts or Catholics might form a colony 
by themselves ; but while tlie commerce was mainly in the hands 
of the former, .^nd spiritual affairs were in those of the latter, 
there could be neither progress nor peace. The founding of Nova 
Scotia and the creation of the knights-baronets had the effect 
of siirring up the frie'Td.» of New Fra,ncc. Champlain viewed 
with displeasure the pretensions of the English to found a New 
England 8,nd a New Scotland in territory which, he held, be- 
longed b} right of discovery to France. It was necessary to 
take ^teps to reassert he claims. A vivid representation of 
the feeble state of Oanada was laid before the Royal Council 
p.! Paris 

'^. Cardinal Richelieu,^ a statesman of enlightened views, 
and of liberal ideas when external grandeur was concerned, 
was at the head of affpirs in France. He approved of a project 

' Cardinal Richelieu. — The powerful 
minister of L)ui3 XIII. Born 1585, 
uied 1G42. lie was the great opponent 
of ihe Huguenots. Having crushed 
them, he devoted all his powers to the 

vork of humbling the House of Ansti a, 
then the greatest power in Europe. 
He founded the French Academy, and 
was a liberal patro's of men of letter* 
anf! science. 



iibmitteJ to him by a number of gentlemen of the priiac^pal 
owns of Frcince. Accordingly, a royal charter was granted to 
he " New Company of the Hundred Associates," ceding to 
hem all New France, including Florida, Canada, Acadie, New- 
oundland, and all the islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, on 
he feudal tenure of fealty and homage. Power was given 
hem to grant lands in large and small concessions, to give 
itles, and to erect duchies, marquisates, counties, and baronies. 
'hey were accorded the monopoly of the fur-trade in per- 
etuity, and of all other commerce except the fisheries for 
fteeu years. In return for these extensive privileges they 
(H-eed to send out three hundred workmen of all trades in 
628, and to increase the number to four thousand by the year 
653. Tbey bound themselves to eelect only Frenchmen and 
loman Catholics ; to house and support the settlers for three 
ears ; to assign to them cleared lands, with implements of cul- 
LU'e and seeds ; and to maintain for fifteen years three priests 
1 every habitation. They entered into an agreement, subject 
a penalties in the event of their not fulfilling it, to send out 
fteei hundred settlers during the first ten years. The ^ ^ ^ ^ 
Let confirming the establishment of the New Company ^"^o 
eceived the assent of Louis XIII., and was proclaimed 
y an edict dated 6th of May, given in the camp before Rochelle. 
3. Fourteen months before, an expedition undertaken by the 
)ukeof Buckingham 1 to relieve the Huguenots of that " proud 
/ity of the Waters "^ had failed disastrously at the Island of B\i6. 
'here being theu a state of war between France and England, 
lir William Alexander thought it an opportune time to make 
limself master of the country which had been granted to him. 
Jnder his patronage David Kirkt, son of a Scotchman natural- 
zed in France, received a commission from Charles I. to seize 
Quebec and all the French forts in Acadie. Along with his 
irothers Louis '>n 1 Thomas, and with the assistance of his 
riends, he equipped a dozen vessels. He seized Port Royal, 

' Duke of Buckingham. — George Vll- 
iers, the profligat'5 favourite of Jsi^^eA 
., the " Steenie" of Scott'? Fortunes of 
Hgel. Born 1592, died 1628. He went 
r' Portsmouth to superintend tho pre- 
arations for tL^ deprture of a sec id 

expedition to La Rochelle, While 
there, John Felton, a half-cazed officer 
whom he had disappointed, stabbed 
him, and he died almost immediately. 
'■* Proud City of the Waters. — La Roch- 
elle. See Macaulay's ' ' Battle of Iv vy. " 


and took formal possession of the country for Sir William. 
In the Gulf of St. Lawrence he captured a vessel fitted out by 
the New Company to aid Quebec, on board of which was Claude 
de la Tour. 

4. Champlain, at Quebec, was anxiously awaiting the arrival 
of ships from France, when he heard with dismay that there 
was an English fleet at Tadoussac. A peremptory summons 
from Admiral Kirkt to surrender was conveyed to him. As- 
suming a confidence he scarcely felt, he indignantly refused to 
give up his post. Kirkt, deceived by this bold tone, sailed off, 
leaving a threat behind that he would return in spring. 

5. Scarcely had this danger disappeared when a swift-sailing 
pinnace brought Champlain intelligence that M. de Royemont, 
convoying several vessels freighted by the New Company, had 
arrived in the Gulf. Fast on the heels of this cheering news 
came the tale of disaster. The French officer, rashly disobey- 
ing the positive orders to relieve Quebec at all hazards and to 
shun the enemy, after lightening his vessels at Gasp^, went iu 
pursuit of Admiral Kirkt. He encountered the British fleet, 
and was defeated, with the loss of his ships. 

6. Champlain was now left in dire straits to face the long 
and dreary winter. After levying on the fields of the priests 
and of Madame Hebert, he could scarcely gather the scantiest 
subsistence for his people. In these circumstances Father Lal- 
lemant, superior of the Jesuits, embarked with the greater 
body of the establishment for France, with the intention of 
returning with succour in th«! spring. But he did not come 
oack to cheer the denizens of the rock. On his return voyage 
his vessel was wreckv^d off the Isle of Canceau, and of all the 
crew he alone escaped to find his way back to France. 

7. Champlain revolved in his mind many schemes for dis- 
persing his people until the return of better times. "With 
infinite trouble a small barque was fitted out, and Boulay, his 
brother-in-law, and thirty men, were despatched in the spring 

to France, with urgent demands for aid. Off Gasp^ 
1629 Boulay met Emery tie Caen, who told him that there 
A.D. was peace between France and England. Eeturning 
with the joyful news to Quebec, he fell into the hands 
ij of Admiral Kirkt, who was again in the Gulf or St. Lawrence. 



8. One morning in July, as Champlain sat alone in his fort 
occupied with melancholy musings, an English vessel appeared 
3ff Point Levi. He now received the summons to surrender 
IS a relief. He stipulated that he, with such of his people as 
were unwilling to remain under English rule, should be con- 
t^eyed to France. Then, for the first time, the red cross flag 
was hoisted above the rock of Quebec. Louis Kirkt remained 
in command. At Tadoussac the Admiiul received Champlain 
with, the greatest courtesy, but refused to believe that there was 
jeace between the two countries. He had been at very great 
expense in equipping his fleet, and he hoped that the capture 
)f Quebec would indemnify him. When he ascended the river 
;o vlow his prize, and saw some fifty half-starved people on a 
aare rock, and a few pieces of cannon and some old arms and 
irmour, he could not conceal his chagrin. 

9. Peace had been concluded between France and England 
it the Convention of Susa,^ on the 24th of April 1629; so the 
capture of Quebec was an act of piracy, and not of war. But 
the Eoyal Council was little disposed at first to demand its 
restitution. There was a party strongly prejudiced against the 
country, who held that Canada was no acquisition to France, 
rt required all Champlain's influence and most vigorous repre- 
seuuitions of the immense value of its furs, its fisheries, and its 
Forests, to meet these objections. He fortified his material ar- 
guments by showing that Canada oflfered a glorious field for 
proselytism ; and that if England were allowed to occupy both 
banks of the St. Lawrence, she would become all-powerful in 

10. Considerations of religion and national honour turned 
the scale. Louis XIII. demanded restitution of all the places 
captured by the English since the war. Out of the negotiations 
that eu.^ued grew the treaty that was signed at St. 
Oermain-en-Laye,^ on the 27th of March, by which 1632 
King Charles I. restored to the French Crown Canada a.d. 
and Acadie. 

11. The attempt of Sir William Alexander to settle Nova 
Scotia under his grand scheme was utterly unsuccessful. 

* Susa. — A town in the north of Italy, 
Bl miles west of Turin. 



' St. Germain - en - Laije. — A town in 
France, 10 miles north-west of Prtris. 



His knights-baronets did not carry out the object of their crea- 
tion. When Claude de la Tour was brought to England by 
David Kirkt (1628) he was caressed and flattered by Sir Will- 
iam, and persuaded, not only to change his own allegiance, but 
to engage that his son should do the same. Both the La Toui-s 
appear to have been men of enterprising and energetic char- 
acter, of fine address and persuasive manners ; but personal 
interest was their first consideration. Claude was 

1629 created a Baronet of Nova Scotia, with the title of Sir 
A.D. Claude Saint-Etienne, Seigneur de la Tour and Vaure; 

his son's name appeared on the roll as Sir Charles 

Saint-Etienne de la Tour, Seigneur de Saint-Deniscourt and 

Baigneux. The following year Sir William, then Earl 

1630 of Stirling, made them a free gift of the country from 
A.D. Cape Jebogue to La H6ve. Sir Claude married a lady 

of the Court. When he returned to Nova Scotia, he 
failed to persuade his son to accept the honours that had been 
conferred upon him, or to become a subject of King Charles. 
He consequently lost all credit in England, and was looked 6d 

with suspicion by his own countrymen. He was com- 

1632 pelled to accept shelter from his son. After the Treaty 
A.D. of St. Germair, Isaac de Razilli was appointed Com- 
mandant of Acadie. 

12. The New Company did not enter into full possession 
of New France until 1633. The Caens, who had lost much by 

the war, were accorded the privileges of the fur-trade 

1633 <^f the St. Lawrence for one year. Champlain was ap- 
A.D. pointed Governor of Canada. With joy and thanks- 
giving he returned to his habitation cf Quebec. Wit 

him came two hundred people of varied degree —priests, gentle- 
men, adventurers, artisans, and labourers. In memorial of the 
happy recovery, a chapel was erected to Notre Dame de Recouv- 
rance, close to Fort St. Louis. 

13. Champlain's days of adventure, discovery, and war were 
now over. He devoted himself to the interests of the New 
Company, extended the fur-trade, erected s<F'veral posts above 
Quebec, and sedulously endeavoured to exclude the English 
from Canada. In the intervals of his secular employment he 
gave himself to religious exercises. The formation of a mia- 




onary settlement in the Huron country, which had long 
ciipied his mind, was commenced by Fathers Brebceuf and 
auiel. His career was drawing to a close. The result of 
lirty years' devoted toil was not visibly great. He could not 
i coufideut that all danger was averted from his infant colony. 
.e could only hope that Providence, who had watched over it 
its darkest days, would preserve it in those to come. When 
le father and founder of Canada passed away on -^qr 
liristmas-day, every member of the colony felt that J-""0 
; had suffered a personal loss, and mourued for him * ' 
1 for a dear relation. The Indians among whom he had lived 
menibered with wouder the purity of his life. 

Questions. — 1. When did Chani- 
*in return to Quebec? For wliat pur- 
se did he see that decisive measures 
ire required? What effect liad the 
uation of the knights-baronets? What 
;p was taken to reassert tlie claims of 

2. Who was then at the head of affairs 
France ? To whom was a new charter 
anteu? On wliat conditions were its 
ncessions made? 

3. What project did Sir William 
lexander form? Give an account of 
irkt's expedition. 

i. How did Champlain ward off 
irkt's threatened attack? 

5. What good news soon reached 
lebec? By what tale of disaster was 

6. What were Charaplain's prospects 
r the winter? What plan was adopted 

to relieve the settlement? What was 
the fate of Lalleraant's expedition? 

7. On what mission was Boulay de- 
spatched ? What befiiU him ? 

8. In what circumstances was Quebec 
surrendered to Kirkt? 

9. What different views prevailed in 
France regarding the value of Canada? 

10. Which views prevailed? What 
was the main provision of the Treaty of 
St. Germain? 

11. What was the result of Sir Will- 
iam Alexander's grand scheme ? Wb at 
occurred during La Tour's residence in 
England? How were his proposals re- 
ceived in Nova Scotia? 

12. In what circumstances did Cham- 
plain return to Quebec in 1633? How 
was its recovery commemorated? 

13. Give an account of the close of 
Champlain's career. Where did he die ? 



i III 






1636 to 1649 A.D. 

M. de Montmagny. 

The Jesuit Fathers. 

Colleges, Seminaries, Hospitals. 

The Huron Mission. 

Founding of Ville Marie de Montreal. 

Incursions of the Iroquois. 

Dangers incurred by missionaries. 

Maisonneuve at La Place d'Armes. 

New Company fail to perform obliga- 

Deceptive truce with Iroquois. 

Continued prosperity of the Huron 

Its total destruction. 

1. Canada now entered upon a period of great trial. M. Bras- 
de-fer Chastefort administered the affairs of the colony 
1636 until the arrival of the new Governor, Charles Hiialt 
A.D. de Montmagny, Knight of Malta.^ Both by training and 
by temperament he was disposed to enter earnestly into 
the views of the Jesuit Fathers, who had now full sway in the 
colony. By order of the Hundred Associates, the Eecollets 
had been recalled, on the ground that their vows of perpetual 
poverty unfitted them for being missionaries in a country from 
which they could not draw their support. The power of the 
priest was now predominant. One of the Fathei*s said, to live in 
Quebec was t^ live in Heaven — in the bosom of God. Their small 
chapel was crowded every morning and every evening. The 
Governor-General and the gentlemen of birth and fortune who 
had accompanied him to Canada, with their wives and daughtei^, 
attended all the services. Absentees were noted and punished. 
A placard against blasphemy was posted on a stake near the 
church, and to the stake were attached a chain and a dog-collar. 
A wooden horse stood hard by, on which offenr^ers against the 
strict code of the Church were mounted. The liquor traffic 

* KnigJit of Malta. — The Kni,:ht8 of 
Malta, or Knights Hospitallers of St. 
John of Jerusalem, were a military- 
religious order, founded in 1099, during 
the first crusade, to afford shelter to 
the pilgrims at Jerusalem. When 

Jerusalem fell again into the hands of 
the infdels, they retired to Acre. 
After living successively in Acre, 
Cyprus, Rhodes, Candia, and Sicily, 
they received Malta from the Emperor 
Charles V. in 1580. 


ivas strictly forbidden. In these days the temporal and spiritual 
luthorities were united. Against the sentence of the priest 
ihere was no appeal. Some of the inhabitants chafed sorely 
inder this rigid control, and appealed to the Court for a mitiga- 
;ion of it. Their grievances were not listened to. The people 
jvere restrained by the power of the Church. 

2. The letters or " Relations " that Father le Jeune, the 
superior, sent annually to France aroused the enthusiasm of the 
aious ; and his appeals for aid called forth charitable endow- 
neuts from the wealthy. Within the following ten years the 
ariucipal colleges, seminaries, and hospitals of Quebec were 
■ounded. The Jesuit College, endowed by Ren^ Rohault, 
Tiandson of the Marquis of Gamache, was established in this 
^ear (1636). The next year the institution at Silleii — called 
ifter the founder, the Marquis Noel Bruart de Silleri — was 
commenced on a small clearing in the seigneurie of Beauport. 
A. dozen families of Christian Algonquin Indians were settled 
there. The Fathers had striven, ever since their arrival in 
Canada, to found a Hospital for the cure of the sick, and a 
Seminary for the instruction of young girls. The Duchess 
d'Aiguillon undertook the foundation of the Hotel Dieu, and 
engaged for the office of mercy the willing services of three 
hospital nuns of Dieppe. Madeleine de Chauvigny, Madame 
de ia Peltrie, a young and childless widow, who had adopted 
the religions life, devoted her wealth and her energy (in spite of 
the remonstrances of her friends) to the work of establishing 
the Seminary. A worthy coadjutress was found in Madame 
Guyart, afterwards known as Ste. Marie de i'lncarnation, 
whom the Fathers chose to be the superior, on account of her 
remarkable faculty for business and management. Quebec 
kept holiday when Father Vimond, appointed supe- 
rior in succession to Le Jeune, with Madame de la 1639 
Peltrie and the sisterhood, arrived. The devotion and a.d. 
courage of the nuns were severely tested soon after, 
when an epidemic spread in the town and the country aiouud, 
and filled to overflowing the roomd ol the hospital and of tha 
mission house at Silleri. A school for the instruction of Indian 
children was opened by Father le Jeune on his coming to 
Canada. He had only two pupils at frat, and never more than 



a score ; but he said that he would not exchange his post for 
a seat in the highest university in Europe. The savage in- 
stincts of his young scholars rebelled against restraint, aud 
they deserted him. The unwillingness of Indian parents to 
live separated from their children was an invincible obstacle to 
the success of the Seminary of Notre Dame des Anges, foiindetJ 
in 1630. 

3. The difficulties //) the way of establishing missions were 
very great ; and the result, except to the eye of faith, appeared 
quite disproportionate to the peril incurred and the misery en- 
dured. Father le Jeune followed a party of Moutagnais to 
their winter encampment. He endured, half-starved, the 
alternate scorching heat and biting cold, the blinding smoke 
and the tilth of their wigwams, and returned to Quebec in 
spring, a wreck of himself, without having made a single con- 
vert. The Indians generally were very docile, and gave ready 
assent to the truths that were told them ; but they quickly 
forgot them when out of the presence of the priest. Mis- 
sionaj'ies were in consequence appointed who lived with the 
wandering tribes, and followed them in all their hunting and 
fishing expeditions. 

4. The chief mission was in the Huron country, situated 
between the great lakes ; a position that made it an admirable 
centre for trade. Its people were the most intelligent and the 
most prosperous of all the Canadian tribes. They had a 
population of 20,000, distributed in thirty-two villages. Fathers 
Breboeuf, Daniel, and Davoust, settled first in Ihontiria or 
St. Joseph, near the site of the modern Penetanguishine. A 
rude cabin of bark served for a chapel, and for a dormitory 
and refectory, which were separated from each other by a 
door. This door greatly puzzled the savages who daily came 
to visit the Fathers^ only to sit smoking and silent for 
hours. The Fathers rose at four in the morning, and gave 
tlieir first hours to devotion in the chapel ; during the forenoon 
they were accessible to all ; they then went out to speak with 
the labourers in the fields, and to visit the sick. In the even- 
ing they again held service ; and for an hour before retiring 
consvlted over the prospects of the mission, wrote their lettei's, 
or instructed one another in the native language. Thej lived 


Hostility of the conjitreus. 87 

exiled from everything held dear by men of education and 
retiuement ; they endured persecutions, and abode in the per- 
petual fear of death from the most frightful tortures. 

5. There was an active heathen party in the country who 
clung to the ancient customs and superstitions, and who re- 
garded prayers, chants, and sacraments as spells that worked 
theiu harm. The medicine men or conjurers thought that 
their otHce was invaded, and were very hostile to the Fathers. 
They kept alive ridiculous prejudices : if a child that had been 
baptized fell sick, they whispered that it was in consequence of 
the rite ; and the parents looked upon the priests with an evil 
eye. Every misfortune that befell the nation after the coming of 
the " black robes " wjis attributed to them. But the Fathers, 
by their courage, their calmness, and their patience under 
provocation, by their great charity and tender care of the sick, 
won their way into the hearts of the body of the people. They 
did not escape the tongue of scandal ; their enemies charged 
them with making rich profits by the fur-trade. So pointed 
was the accusation, that the directors of the New Company 
thought it necessary to issue a refutation of the charge. In a 
few years Breboeuf and his colleagues were joined by other 
priests, and missions were established in all the four nations 
into which the Hurons were divided. 

6. During this period of spiritual fervour the foundf.tion of 
the city of Montreal was laid. It owed its birth to religious 
enthusiasm. The " Relations " of the Jesuit Fathers circulated 
'"n France, and awakened among the devout much interest in 
Canada. It is recorded that a M. de la Dauversiere and Father 
Olier, a priest of Paris, who had previously been strangers to 
each other, met in the gallery of the chateau of Meudon,^ and 
recognized each other, as by inspiration, as destined co-labourers 
in a great work. They communed together, and resolved to 
found on the Isle of Montreal a Seminary, Hotel Dieu, and 
College, to be consecrated to Christ, St. Joseph, and the Virgin. 
The zeal of the Baron de la Fauxchamps and other wealthy 
devoteee was kindled ; the Society of Notre Dame de Mon- 
treal, numbering forty-five members, was formed. They pur- 

' Meudon. — A small town on the I a royal palace and park. It has now a 
Seuie ; five miles wot of PatJ. It has | station on the railway to Vei sallies. 


chased the Island of Montreal from M. de Lausou, one of the 
Hundred Associates. They decided to confine their efforts at 
first to the establiahment of the Hospital. Paul de Chomedy, 
Sieur de Maisonneuve was appointed Governor, with forty-five 
men under him. He was a brave and experienced soldier, and 
a devoted servant of the Church. Mademoiselle Jeanne Mauce 
wjis called from the seclusion of a convent to be nurse and 
housekeeper of the colony. 

7. Previously to the departure of the expedition, the Associates 

met in the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris, and conse- 

1641 crated Ville-Marie de Montreal to the Holy Family. 

A.D. Maisonneuve and his band remained ayear about Quebec, 

and M. Montmagny betrayed some symptoms of jealousy 
at the honours paid to the Governor of Ville-Marie. Attempts 
were made to deter him from proceeding further, by representing 
the dangers to which he would be exposed from the attacks of 
the savages. But he exclaimed, that he had come to found a 
colony, and he would go though every tree were an Iroquois. 

8. In the following spring he ascended the river, accompanied 
by the Governor-General, Superior Vimond, and Madame de la 
Peltrie, who entered with enthusiasm into the spirit of the 
work. On the 17th of May they landed on a tongue of laud 
formed by the junction of the rivulet Caiiere with the St. 
Lawrence. Tents were pitched on a meadow, and an altar 
was erected in the open air. To the north-west rose the moun- 
tain, and green forests encircled their camping-ground. M. 
Montmagny formally handed" over the island to Maisonneuve ; 
and the superior commended the colony to the protection of 
Heaven, likening it to a grain of mustard-seed, whence would 
spring a tree which would grow until its branches overspread 
the earth. As the evening closed, fire-flies flickered over the 
meadow ; numbers were caught and strung into a glistening 
festoon which was hung upon the altar. 

9. When M. Montmagny first airived in Canada, the 
Iroquois kept comparative peace ; but now they commenced to 
carry terror throughout the colony, and to wage a war of ex- 
termination against the tribes allied with the French. The 
great dread that the fire-arms of the French had first caused 
them had passed away, and numbers of the Mohawk warrors 


vcre supplied with carbiues by the Dutch traders of Man- 
lattan. Their war parties went out generally in the spring ; 
Kit as their audacity increased with success, and their rage for 
(laughter grew hotter, they did not wait for the melting of the 
mow or the breaking up of the ice. The Mohawks, or Lower 
[loquoib, ascended by Lakes Sacrament and Champlain and 
he Kiver Eichelieu ; while parties lay in ambush on the 
outheru bank of the St. Lawrence, and about the isles of 
^ike Sfr. Peter, and descended at Three Rivers and Quebec, 
)tliers made their way above the Sault, and crouched perdu 
)u some of the islands of Lake St. Louis, waiting to pounce on 
he Algonquins and Hurons coming down the Ottawa in their 
■anoes loaded with peltrie for the annual trade. The Upper 
loquois — the Oneidas, Cayugas, Onondagas, and Senecas, on 
he other side — crossed the eastern extremity of Lake Ontario, 
md made their way into the Huron country by Lake Simcoe ; 
hey ascended by the Georgian Bay of Lake Huron to French 
River and Lake Nipissing, carrying havoc over all the region 
)f the Upper Ottawa. They did not at first declare war 
igainst the Hurons ; but, on pretence of revenging private in- 
inlts, cut off detached parties, and destroyed small outlying 
ullages. A general feeling of insecurity was spread over the 
;oimtry ; and the people, instead of combining for defence, al- 
owed the insults to pass unavenged. 

10. The Iroquois, with a view of detaching the French from 
Jieir alliance with the Hurons, made overtures of peace. M. 
Montmagny, anxious to secure repose for the colony, met their 
lelegates at Three Rivers. The orator assured Ononthio, as he 
called Moutmagny (a name which the Indians gave to all suc- 
ceeding Governor-Generals) that his nations had nothing so much 
it heart as to live in amity with the French. While he was 
jpeaking a party of Algonquins appeared ; the Iroquois broke 
ip the solemn conclave and made a rush upon the canoes, and, 
the intense mortification of Montmagny, despoiled them be- 
tore his eyes. The Jesuit Fathers were exposed to dreadful 
langera in their journeys between Quebec and the Huron 
:;oiintry, both from the climate and the foe. Anne de None 
perished in a snow-drift. Father Jogues was captured by a band 
3f Mohawks, and carried to their canton, where he was treated 






r^:"^ . %is 





S 1^ 111112.0 











with maligu cruelty and indignity. By the aid of a Dutch 
officer he escaped, and made his way to France. The story of 
his sufferings, to which his body bore testimony, excited lively 
sympathy at Court. Two years afterwards he returned to 
Canada. Father Bressani was taken by a party of the sanM 
warriors, and abused with surpassing malice; their hungry 
dogs were set to devour their food on his naked body. But he 
also survived the horrors of his captivity, and lived for nianv 
years afterwards, and often thrilled by his eloquence crowded 
congregations in his native Italy. 

11. Ville-Marie enjoyed a brief period of repose. The pious 
fervour that created it did not subside. Objections v/ere raised 
by persons who were not in a state of spiritual exaltation that 
fetes and ceremonies occupied time that might have been spent 
in tilling the soil ; but they were disregarded. By the treachery 
of a Huron Indian the weakness of the settlement was dis- 
closed to the Iroquois. Thenceforth there was no peace for its 
people. They could not walk in the meadows, or go into the 
forest to cut fire-wood, unless at the risk of their lives. They 
were mewed up within their fortifications. Under the super- 
intendence of M. d'Ailleboust walls and bastions were substi- 
tuted for the frail wooden palisades. 

12. The weakness of the colony excited the contempt of 

the Iroquois warriors. They boasted that they would 
1644 carry off the "white girls "^ and drive the Frenchmen 
A.D. to the sea. Ten war parties went out to cut off th de- 
tached settlements at one swoop ; but, happily, they 
were frustrated in their attempt. On the 30th of March the 
trained watch-dogs of Ville-Marie bayed the alarm, and gave 
warning to the Frenchmen that Indians were in the woods. 
The French rushed into the presence of M. Maisonneuve, and 
cried out for him to lead them forth. Against his better 
judgxiient, he consented to go and seek the enemy. There was 
snow on the gi'ound ; the road was heavy ; few of his people 
liad snow-shoes, and those who had were maladroit in their use. 
When Maisonneuve and his party penetrated the forest, no foe 
was to be seen. Suddenly from the coverts there blazed forth 

* White girls. — So the Indians called the nuns. 

ttACfi D*ARM£!S. 91 

fire, followed by sharp rifle cracks. Then the Mohawk warriors 
rose with tierce yelh, and as suddenly sank out of sight. Un- 
used to the Indian st} le of warfare, the Frenchmen, as they stood 
huddled together, only presented a mark for the hostile fire. 
Several fell, then they grew confused and alarmed, and looked 
back upon the way they had come. The order was given, and 
picking up the dead and wounded, crest-fallen they retreated, 
the triumphant Mohawks following covertly on their trjick. 
Maisonneuve brought up the rear, holding a pistol in each 
hand. Two chiefs, eager to take a prisoner of such distinction, 
hed forward. He shot one dead ; and as the warriors 
crowded about to carry oH the body of their comrade, Maison- 
neuve and his men gained the shelter of their fortifications. 
The spot where the incident occurred was called "Place 
d'Armes," and the city grew around it. 

13. The New Company, considering the great show of 
action they made on their incorporation, neglected Canada in 
a most incomprehensible manner. They totally failed to carry 
out the terms of their charter. They made large concessions 
of land to individuals^ on condition that they would send out 
colonists; but these grantees were quite as remiss as the 
Hundred Associates themselves. The fur-trade was the only 
object of value in their eyes, and they handed it over this year 
(1644) to the inhabitants of the colony for an annual rent of a 
thousand beaver skins. 

14. A peace was (joncluded at Three Rivers between the 
French and the Iroquois, and between the Iroquois and ^ ^.^ 
the allied Indians, and Canada enjoyed a brief interval '^"**^ 
of repose. But it was a peculiarity of the Indians ' * 
that they entered upon a treaty with infinite gravity, con- 
cluded it with imposing ceremony, and broke it on the 
slightest caprice. Not long afterwards, M. d'Ailleboust ^ ^ ^ — 
succeeded M. Montmagny, and the colony was again ^^"^f 
plunged in war. ' ' 

15. In the Huron country the Mission was now at the 
height of its prosperity. The chief station was at Ste. ^ nAo 
Marie, on the little river, now called the Wye, that *"^" 
falls into Matchedjish Bay. There the Fathers dis- * ' 
peused a bountiful hospitality ; there scattered parties of 



Algonquiiis of the region of the Ottawa, that had escaped 
the lage of the Iroquois, found shelter. No wayfarer was sent 
hungry or disconsolate away. The priests of the Missions of 
St. Louis, St. Ignace, St. Jean, St. Joseph, and St. Michel met 


The rage of the 

often in Ste. Marie for grave consultation, 
heathen party had spent its force. The country was peaceful ; 
but the Fathers viewed vdth alarm the apathy of the warriors, 
who lived careless and supine, although the security of their 
villages depeijded on their constant vigilance. 

16. The warriors of St. Joseph descended the Ottawa and 
left the village defenceless. At Three Eivers they repulsed an 
attack of the Iroquois. Returning in triumph with several 
scalps, no crowd of women and children flocked out to " caress " 
the prisoners, as was the custom. All was silence and desola- 
tion. The story is soon told. One sweltering morning in 
July the little chapel was crowded with devotees. Suddenly a 
fearful cry arose without — " They kill us, they kill us." Like 


ravening wolves the Iroquois had burst through the palisades, 
and were slaughtering the children and decrepit old folk. The 
people crowded round Father Daniel, who cried out, " Fly to 
the woods ; here I shall stay. We shall meet again in heaven." 
Alone, in hU flowing vestments, with gleaming face, the daunt- 
less priest stood by the altar and confronted the yelling fiends. 
He fell pierced by many arrows, and struck on the breast by a 
partisan, and his body was consumed in the pyre of the burning 
chapel. The Mission of St. Joseph was extirpated. . 

17. During the autumn and winter the Iroquois lurked in 
the woods. Hours before the sunrise of a morning in 
March a party surprised the village of St. Ignace, and 1649 
murdered the sleepers. They then stole in the gray a.d. 
dawn upon St. Louis, and, bursting the palisades, 
slaughtered the people and burned the cabins. Fathers Bre- 
boeuf and Lallemant were seized and sent under guard to St. 
Ignace. The reflection of the flames at St. Louis warned the 
Fathers at Ste. Marie of some dreadful calamity ; and their fears 
were too surely confirmed hy fugitives from the scene of 
disaster. A band of Huron warriors threw themselves before 
the advancing Iroquois. All day the tide of battle advanced 
to, and receded from, Ste. Marie; and as the night fell the 
yells of the combatants rose from the dark pine woods. The 
priests of St. Ignace were bound to the stake. The younger 
Lallemant was forced to witness the tortures inflicted upon 
Breboeuf. The elder priest stood, firm as a rock, unOer the 
most appalling suff'ering, while the fiends surrounded, mocking 
him. " You told us," they cried, " that the more we suff'ered 
on earth the greater would be our reward in heaven : thank 
us." Lallemant, after prolonged sufiering, was despatched with 
a hatchet. 

18. The destruction of all their chief stations among the 
Huron and " Tobacco " nations compelled the Fathers to 
abandon their mission. An attempt was made to reestablish 
Ste. M.arie on the Island of St. Joseph, in Matchedash Bay ; but 
the adventurers were driven from it by famine and the Iroquois 
to seek security by the banks of the St. Lawrence. At Sorel, 
near Quebec, the Huron Mission was founded. Complete 
desolation now reigned in tlie country of the Huions and 



Algonquius. The remnant of the people found shelter and 
became incorporated with the tribes dwelling by the lakes 
Erie, Michigan, and Superior. 

Questions. — 1. Who was the new 
Governor of Canada? V/ith whose 
views did he sympathize? Describe 
the mode in which the power of the 
Church was exercised. 

2. What was the result of the ap- 
peals to France for aid? Name the 
different colleges, seminaries, and 
hospitals founded at this time. What 
were the cavises of the failure of Le 
Jeune'a seminary for Indian children ? 

3. Describe Le Jeune's experiences 
among the Montagnais. What plan 
was adopted in order to keep the truths 
of religioA before the natives ? 

4. Which was the chief mission? 
Describe the mode of life of the 

6. With what difiiculties had they 
to contend? How did they overcome 

G. Narrate the circumstances which 
led to the foundation of Montreal. 

7. What ceremony took place in 
Paris before the expedition set out? 
W^hat opposition did Maisonneuve en- 
counter at Quebec ? 

8. Describe what took place when he 
obtained possession of the island. 

9. What native tribes began to harass 
the settlers? Against whom were 
their attacks first directed? Describe 
the routes of the Lower and the Upper 
Iroquois respectively. 

50. What o^'^rtures did the Iroquois 
make? Where did Montmagny meet 
them? What then occurred? Give 
examples of the sufferings which the 
missionaries endured. 

11. How did the Iroquois become 
aware of the weakness of Montreal ? 
What was the consequence ? 

12. Describe the encounter with the 
Mohawks in the wood" ^and the in- 
cident at "Place d'Annes." 

13. How did the New Company treat 
Canada? How did it deal with the 
fur- trade!' 

14. What gave Canada an interval of 
repose ? How long did it last ? Wliat 
peculiarity of the Indians in the 
matter of treaties is noticeable ? Who 
succeeded Montmagny as Governor? 
What followed? 

15. In what state was the Huron 
Mission at this time? W^hat filled the 
Fathers with anxiety ? 

16. Describe the manner of the de- 
struction of the Mission of St. Joseph. 

17. Describe the attack on the other 
chief stations. Give an account of the 
martyrdom of Brebceuf and Lalleniant. 

18. What were the Fatliers then 
forcedl to do ? Whither did they trans- 
fer their mission? In what state was 
the country of the Hurotis and the Al- 
gonquius left? What became of the 
remnamt of these tribes ? 





1648 to 1663 A.D. 

The New England Colonies. 

Proposed Treaty of perpetual peaoe. 

Its failure. 

M. de Lauson. 

State of Canada. 

Jesuit Mission in Onondaga. 

Viscomte d'Argenson. 

Insolence of the Mohawks. 

Portents and signs in the skies. 

The liquor traffic. 

The great Earthquake. 

New Company surrenders its Charter. 

1. About this time the New England Colonies sent- greet- 
ing to Canada. Since the Puritan Fathers had landed at 
Plymouth on the 11th De-iomber 1620, and since the second 
baud of Pilgrims had founded Salem, eight years afterwards, 
several colonies had taken root between Casco Bay and the 
Connecticut Elver. Their people had struggled sorely under 
an inclement sky, with sterile soil, with pestilence and the 
Indians. They had been torn by internal dissensions. Though 
the Puritan Fathers had fled from England to enjoy civil and 
religious freedom in the wilds of America, they drove from 
their midst such of theii brethren as maintained liberty of 
conscience. An outcome of this persecution, the colony of 
Providence was founded in 1636. Community of interests, 
and the necessity of combining to defend themselves against 
tlie Indian tribes, and againyt the encroachments of the Dutch 
of New Netherlands, and the French colonists of Acadie, im- 
pelled the provinces of Massachusetts Pay (including Maine 
and New Hampshire) and Plymouth, New Haven and Con- 
necticut, to enter into the confederation of " The United Col- 
onies of Now England/' in 1643. 

2. They made a proposal to the Governor-General of 
Canada, that there should be free trade and per- 
petual amity between the French and the English 1648-51 
colonies, even in the event of the mother countries a.d. 
))eiug at war. M. d'Ailleboust received the sug- 
gestion with pleasure, and sent Father Druilettes to Boston to 





make a treaty. The negotiations were suspended, resumed, 
and finally broken off, because the New England Government 
refused to assent to the condition demanded, — that they should 
ioin with the French in waging an exterminating war against 
the Iroquois. The cautious Puritans would not make enemies 
of that powerful people, whose country lay like a b" Tier be- 
tween them and Canada. Instead of a treaty of perpetual 
peavc being concluded, the foundation was laid for future 
war. Father Druilettes won over the Abenaqui Indians to 
the French interest. For over a century that people main- 
tained a firm alliance with Canada, and by their cruel and 
harassing warfare on the frontiers, they roused a rage in the 
breasts of the New Englanders that was not calmed until 
French domination was swept from the American Conti- 

3. M. de Lauson succeeded M. d'Ailleboust. Beyond the for- 

tifications of Quebec, Montreal, and Three Rivers, 

1650-58 there was no safety. In the open field the sud- 

A.D. den bolt of death sometimes struck the labourer, 

and with a loud yell of triumph, the Iroquois 
warrior fled into ambush with the trophy of his savage on- 
slaught. In those days of trial, the strength of the people of 
Canada lay in their religious fervour. Annalists say that they 
displayed an integrity <,hat contrasted brightly with their con- 
duct in later days. There were no courts of justice in the 
province : there wits no need of them. Fraud and dishonesty 
were unknov^'n, and it seemed as if all things were in 

4. A number of Jesuit missionaries, whose field of labour 
had been narrowed by the destruction of the Huron Mission, 
now left Canada. But there still remained not a few, who, 
braving every danger and hardship, won their way among 
the tribes of the far west and of the frozen regions of Hudson 
Bay. Their mission was religious and secular. They made 
known to the heathen the name of Christ ; they extended the 
empire of France over distant nations; they promoted com- 
merce by inducing their savage neophytes to cairy their peltry 
to the magazines of Tadoussac, Quebec, Three River-s, and Mon- 


5. The Jesuit Fathers sedulously strove to gain a foothold 
auiong the Five Nations. The warlike fury of these 
nations being now directed against the tribes dwelling 1653 
by the great lakes, they were disposed to make peace A.D. 
with tlie French. In the following year they utterly 
extirpated the EHes. Father le Moyne went amoug 1654 
the Mohawks, but made no stay, as his life was in con- a.d. 
stant danger from their caprice. The Onondagas prayed 

the Governor- General to send them priests. Accordingly, 
Fathers Mercier, Frtsmiu, Mesucard, and Dablon, with a body- 
guard of fifty soldiers, were deputed to found a mission. The 
jealous Mohawks attempted to cut this escort to pieces, but 
only succeeded in capturing a few canoes. Shortly afterwards, a 
party of the same tribe fell upon a band of Huron men, women, 
and children, who were working in a field on the Isle of Or- 
leans. They killed six, and took the rest captive. As they 
passed Quebec, they compelled their prisoners to sing aloud, 
and dared the Governor-General to seize them out of their 
hands. M. de Lauson tamely allowed this insult to pass un- 
punished. The audacious insolence of the Iroquoid increased. 

6. The position of the mission in the Onondaga country now 
became very critical. M. Dupuys, the commandant, receiviug 
certain intelligence that there was a conspiracy afoot to de- 
stroy it, ordered several light bateaux to be constructed. The 
people of the canton were invited to a great feast. Whtn they 
were completely gorged with food, and slept heavily, the French, 
in the wan light of a March morning, made their escape by way 
of the River Chouagen. The Iroquois broke into open hostility 
soon afterwards, and spread themselves over the colony. 

7. Ville-Marie did not prosper in the hands of the Society 
of Notre Dame de Montreal. The aid sent out was insufficient 
for its pressing necessities. To the great joy of the colony, the 
society ceded the island to the superiors of the Seminary of 
St. Sulpicius, a society of great repute and power, which num- 
bered among its members many men of talent and energy. 
Under their auspices, L'Abb^ de Quelus founded the ^ ^ _ ^ 
Seminary. Under the superintendence of Marguerite J-O"^ 
Bourgeois — of whom it is said that her religion mani- 
fested itself in an intense devotion to duty — the Institution of 

(i73) 7 


the Filles de la Congregation wa; opened, to give religious and 
superioi' secular education to the young girls of the colony. 

8. Viscomte d'Argenson succeeded M. de Lauson, and ar- 

rived in Quebec on the 11th of July. As if to show 

1658 their contempt, the Mohawks, on the following morning, 

A.D. fell on and massacred a party of Algonquins under the 

cannon of the fort. The cry "To arms !" rang out, and 
two hundred men rushed out in pursuit, but failed to find the 
enemy. Shortly afterwards, the Mohawks approached Three 
liivers with hostile intent. Under pretence of holding a par- 
ley, they sent eight deleg?^ 3s to take note of the state of the 
place. M. de la Potherie, the commandant, caused the spies 
to be seized. He shut one in prison, and sent the others to 
Quebec, where they were promptly executed. This decisive 
action induced the Iroquois to leave Canada in peace for a 

9. Certain abuses having crept in, it was deemed desirable 
to make some changes in the government of the Church in the 
colony. M. Francois de Laval, LAbb^ de Montmigny, Vicar- 
Apostolic and titular Bishop of Petrea, was appointed Ecclesi- 
astical Superior. Several persons in orders accompanied him 
to Canada. For a long time those cur^s were appointed to 
the parishes by commission, and were removable by the 
superior. Afterwards, when the appointments of the curds 
were made permanent in the rest of Canada, those of Montreal 
and the island remained on the old footing, under the jurisdic- 
tion of the Seminary of St. Sulpicins. 

10. Five years after the coming of M. de Laval, the Semi- 

nary of Quebec for the instruction of the priesthood 

1662 was instituted. Into the hands of its superiors were 

A.D. paid the tithes levied for the support of the clergy of 

the colony. They amounted at first to one-thirteenth 
of the produce of the land ; but on account of the poverty of the 
country, they were afterwards reduced to one-twenty-sixth, on 
condition that the tithes should be paid in grain, and not in 
the sheaf. The King supplemented the tithes by an annual 
grant of 7,600 livres from the royal treasury. The stipend 
of the cur^s was fixed at 400 livres annually. Eleven years 
afterwards (1670), the C}ivi?'ch in C^pada was erected ijjto ^ 


bishopric, in dependeDoe on the Papal See, and M. de Laval 
became the first bishop. The cliapter of tlie cathedral con- 
sisted of a dean and grand cliorister, appointed by the King ; 
ami of an archdeacon, theologian, and twelve canons, .appointed 
by the bishop. 

11. The Iroquois now resumed their warfare, and Canada 
was reduced to a state of dire distress. The Ursulines 

and Hospital nuns were compelled to fly from their 1660 
convents and seek safety in Quebec, which was held a.d. 
in a state of siege all summer and autumn. Many 
thought that it would be necessary to break up the colony and 
cross the sea. To add to their trouble, a luoital epidemic 
broke out. The alternate states of excitement and depressi<jn 
in which tlie people lived seem to have affected the minds 
of many. Imagination lent horrors to the time. Portentous 
signs of flaming crowns, burning canoes, and men entwined 
with fiery serpents, appeared to them in the skies; and in 
their ears strange voices cried lamentably. D'Argenson, 
pained at beholding the unhappy state of the colony, and un- 
able to procure it relief, demanded his recall. 

12. His successor, Baron d'Avaugour, was an energetic 
veteran oflicer, but of an irascible and obstinate tem- 
per. He visited all the posts, and expressed his sur- 1661 
prise that so grand a country should be so much ne- a.d. 
glected. Vigorous representations of its urgent need 

of aid were drawn up by him, and M. Bouchet was despatched 
to France to present them at Court. In answer, the King sent 
out a small reinforcement of forty soldiers, and a commissioner, 
M. de Monts, w^ho was instructed to draw up a report of the 
state of the colony. The joy caused by this mark of royal 
consideration died away amidst the excitement of fierce dis- 

13. The liquor traffic, which had been kept in check in the 
time of Montmagny, was surreptitiously carried on during that 
of his successors. To sell brandy was made a penal offence. 
A woman was convicted of breaking the law, and was con- 
demned to suffer. The Jesuit missionaries interceded warmly 
with the Governor-General in her behalf. Baron d'Avaugour, 
irritated bv their persistence, declared that, if the culprit were 


allowed to go free, no one should afterwards be punished for 
a like offence. He refused to retract his hasty words, and 
they were understood as giving permission to the tn.flic. With 
grief the priesthood beheld a flame of dissipation overspread 
the Cv)loiiy, and the demon of drunkenness invade the cabins 
of the Christianized Indians. Their painful labours of over 
twenty years were destroyed in an hour of reckless debaucJiery. 
In vain they attempted to interpose the barrier of their aut'»or- 
ity against the flood. The colony was now divided into the 
Ecclesiastical and "Libertine" parties. Certjiin wild French 
youths, who had lately come out, joined themselves with the 
residents, who had always impatiently borne the strict rule of 
the priests. They raised the cry that their free will was fet- 
tered, that their consciences were constrained. The thunder 
of the Church was launched at their head. In the fury of 
the moment, admonitions and threatenings were disre- 

1662 garded. Unable to bring the malcontents to reason, 
A.D. M. de Laval crossed the sea to lay his complaints at 

the foot of the throne. 
14. The annalists of those days give remarkable accounts of 
atmospherical phenomena and physical disturbances. To their 
minds heaven appeared visibly and sensibly to display its 
anger at the sins of the times. At Montreal a globe of fire 
was seen to detach itself from the moon, burst in mid-air 
with a report like that of a cannon, and disappear in blazing 
fragments behind the mountain. In the month of 

1663 January, a strange mist rose from the river, and three 
A.D. suns stood parallel with the horizon, each encircled by 

an iris which momentarily changed its varied hues. 
Twice was this strange appearance seen. These portents were 
the precursors of a fearful earthquake. On the 11th of 
February, a mighty rushing noise was heard throughout Can- 
ada, and the people rushed in terror from their houses to see 
the walls cracking, the chimneys swaying to and fro, the roofs 
falling in, and to hear the bells of the churches ring out. They 
were attacked by a strange giddiness and qualmifihness : when 
they essayed to walk, the earth seemed to rise and strike the 
soles of their feet. The accounts given (mainly on the authority 
of the "habitans" and Indians) of the convulsions of the land 






are very extraordinary. A huge mountain, they said, waa 
tori), from its place and cast into the river, where it took i-oot 
and became an island ; a forest slid from the banks into tho 
St. Lawrence ; fearful chasms of unknown depth disclosed 
themselves ; several rivers di8apj)eared, others changed their 
beds ; gentle streams were changed into falls ai 1 rapids, and 
falls atid rapids into gentle streams. 

15. The Jesuit Fathers, who give an account of these too 
strange incidents in their letters, state that not a single soul 
perished during the terrible convulsion ; and they dwell with 
satisfaction on the salutary effects of the terror it created in 
calming dissension and reclaiming many from their e^nl courses. 

16. In February of this year, the New Company of the 
Hundred Associates, then reduced to fort}* dve members, sur- 
rendered all their rights and property in New France into the 
hands of the King. They c^ totally failed to carry out the 
terms of their charter. All lands granted by them, and still 
uncleared, were recalled by a Royal Edict. 

Questions. — 1. What colonies about 
this time sent greeting to Canada? 
By what difficulties had they been 
liarassed? What led to a confedera- 
tion of these States in 1643? 

2. What proposal did the United 
Colonies make to Canada? How was 
it received? Why did the negotiations 

3. Who succeeded D'Ailleboiist as 
Governor? Where alone was there 
safety? In what did the strength of 
the colonists lie ? 

4. Where did missionaries labour 
after the destruction of the Huron 
Mission ? 

5. Among whom did the Jesuit 
Fathers strive to gain a foothold ? To 
which of them was a mission seut? 
How did the Mohawks insult the Gov- 

6. How d'.d the missionaries to the 
Onondagas escape ? 

7. To whom was the Island of Mon- 
treal transferred ? Who superintended 
the Institution of the Filles de la Con- 

8. Who succeeded De Lauson as Gov- 

ernor ? What decisive action checked 
the incursions of the Iroquois ? 

9. What ecclesiastical changes were 
about the same time introduced? 

10. How was the Church in the col- 
ony supported? Who was the first 

11. How was Canada once more re- 
duced to a state of dire distress? What 
effect had this on the minds of the 
people ? What did it lead D'Argenson 
to do? 

12. Who was his successor? What 
was the recult of his representations to 
the Court ? 

13. What was the cause of the dis- 
sensions which followed? Into what 
two parties was the community di- 
vided ? What step did De Laval take ? 

14. When did a great earthquake 
visit Canada? By what portents is it 
said to have been preceded? Mention 
some of the incidents of the visitation. 

15. What do the Jesuit Fathers say 
of these occurrences ? 

16. What step did the New Company 
take in 1663? What had they failed 
to do? 


D aULNAY and la tour. 


1632 to 1670 A.D. 

D'Aulnay and La Toxir, lieutenants 

under Razilli. 
Their feuds. 
La Tour disobeys royi.' command 

to appear in France. 
D'Aulnay'f, Fleet at Partridge Island. 
La Tour and wife visit Boston. 
D'Aulnay makes Treaty with Kew 


Madame La Tour's heroism and 

Death of D'Aulnay. 
His widow marries La Tour. 
Emmanuel le Borgue. 
The English seize Acadie. 
Grant to La Tour, Temple, and 

Acadie restored to the French. 

1. It has already been stated, that after the cession of Acadie 

to France by the Treaty of St.Germain, Isaac de Razilli 
1632 (who had been commissioned by his relative, Cardinal 
A.D. Eichelieu, to take possession of the country), was ap- 
pointed Commandant. He received an extensive grant 
at St. Croix, compri.iing the river and the bay. He held his 
residence at Cape la H^ve, and he built his fort at the head of 
the harbour, on a hillock of land. To this pL^ce he brought 
several families of French settlers. Along with Nicolas Denys, 
Sieur de Fronsac, he carried on the shore fishery at Port 
Rossignol. Under him Charles de Menou, Seigneur d'Aulnay 
(Jharnisay, acted as lieutenant of the western di^trint, which 
included all the country north of the Bay of Fundy to the 
Kennebec in the west. Charles de la Tour was lieutenant of the 
eastern district, which comprised the peninsula. 

2. On the death of Razilli, Nicolas Denys was appointed 

Governor of the country frora Canceau along the Gulf 

1636 shore to Cape Rosieres.^ Fourteen years afterwards he 

A.D. received a grant of this territory. There was now 

bitter strife between the lieutenants of the western 
and eastern districts. D'Aulnay, of an imperious, harsh, and 
ambitious character, strove to assume authority over the whole 
country. He obtained from Claude, brother of Razilli, a grant 

Cape EosUres. — Now Cape Gasp6. 

tiiEiR FEUDS. 103 

of the St. Croix, of Cape Sable, and La H6ve. He aftei-warda 
removed the Freuch settlers of the place to Port Koyal, which 
he made his residence. He thus maintained several posts in 
the district under command of La Tour. But La Tour held as 
his own possession the forts at the mouth of the St. John and 
at the Gemsic,^ within his rival's command. D'Aulnay vin- 
dictively sought to make himself master of these positions, 
which would have given him the command of the valuable fur- 
trade of the river, and in effect of the whole country. 
He received the royal instructions to live at peace with 1 Q 38 
La Tour, and to confine himself to one district, the a.d. 
limits of which were definitely laid down. 

3. La Tour's antecedents and connections were not such as 
were likely to be viewed favourably by the Catholic Court of 
France. He was the son of a Huguenot ; thougli he pro- 
fessed the t!)atholic faith himself, his wife was of the Huguenot 
persuasion, and he held commercial intercourse with the 
merchants of Rochelle, the stronghold of Protestantism in 
France. He sought to enoer into an alliance with the Puritans 
of Massachusetts, and made overtures to them proposing that 
they should aid him in dispossessing D'Aulnay of his fort on 
the Penobscot ; on tiie left bank of which river the English 
had a settlement. D'Aulnay, through his relations, had 
powerful influence with Cardinal Richelieu, and he succeeded 
in undermining his rival's credit at Court. He received the 
royal orders to command La Tour to embark for France, there 
to answer to the King certain charges that had been preferred 
against him. La Tour, disobeying the mandate on the ground 
that it was given on faloe accusations, fortified himself 
within his fort on the St. John, and defied the malice of hia 
enemy. The King in council revoked his commission. The 
efforts of his enemies to crush him completely were not success- 
ful. He also had many friends at Court. The charges preferred 
agninst him were not supported by any strong proofs of guilt. 
They derived their importance from the influence of the parties 
who pressed them. The quarrel between the lieutenants was a 
peiaonal matter, in whi^h the authorities in France had little 

* The Oeimic. — The Jemseg. 


interest. Though under a cloud at Court, La Tour was not 
debarred from drawing his sujjplies from France. 

4. D'Aulnay appeared in the spring of 1643, with two ships 

and four pinnaces carrying five hundred sokliers, at the 

1643 mouth of the St. John River, and blockaded tne har- 

A.D. bour. The position of La Tour was critical ; he was 

hemmed in, and ran the risk of being starved into 
surrender. He was daily awaiting the arrival of a ship from 
Rochelle with one hundred and forty immigrants, and with sup- 
plies on board. It might sail into the jaws of danger, as D'Au in ay's 
two ships lay to the south-west side of Partridge Island and his 
pinnaces on the south-east. When the long-expected ship 
appeared on the coast, a warning signal was made. Under 
cover of a dark night in June, La Tour and his wife were con- 
veyed on board. They sailed for the village of Boston, where 
their appearance at first created some alarm. Governor Winthrop 
received them courteously. The contentions of the two French 
lieutenants caused the New England Fathers some anxiety. 
Both sought their alliance, but to aid the one was to make an 
enemy of the other. The Governor and his Council debated the 
proposal made by La Tour that they should assist him, and 
concluded that they could not do so as a Government ; but they 
gave him permission to hire a naval and military force. 

5. La Tour chartered, for two months, five vessels, furnished 
with thirty-eight pieces of ordnance and a crew of fifty sailors. 
He enlisted ninety soldiers, and armed and victualled the force. 
As security for payment, he mortgaged to Major Gibbons all his 
property in Acadie. On the 11th of July he reached the mouth 
of the St. John, and attacked the ships of the enemy. D'Aulnay 
spread his sails for flight, and crossed the Bay of Fundy. In 
tlie basin of Port Royal he ran his two ships aground, and 
landed near a mill not far from his foi t. La Tour having fol- 
lowed him, assailed the position. After a brief combat, in 
which both sides lost three men each, the captain of the hireling 
soldiers refused to join in any further operations, and with a 
rich booty of furs he returned to Boston within the time for 
which his services had been engaged. 

6. The mortification of D'Aulnay at this check was intense, 
and he renewed, in France, his intrigues against his rival. 



The trausactions of La Tour with the Puritaus were repre- 
sented in such a light as to make him appear a traitor to his 
iiatioii and to his religion. He procured from the King a letter 
intimating the royal desire that the English and the French in 
America should live in peace. He despatched this document, 
with others prejudicial to the character of La Tour ; and 
through his commissioner, M. Marie, commenced negotiations 
for a treaty of peace with the New England States. 

7. Amidst the difficulties with which he was surrounded, La 
Tour had in his wife a valuable help-meet. Madame la Tour 
went to London to procure supplies for the fort. On the return 
voyage the captain of the vessel broke the terms of the 
charter, and instead of taking her direct to St. John, 1644 
lauded her at Boston after a devious voyage, in course a.d. 
of which the lady narrowly escaped capture by her 
husband's inveterate foe. She brought the captain to trial, and 
he was mulcted of £2,000 damages. After expending this 
money in stores and munitions, she sailed for St. John. In 
the following si)ring D'Aulnay attacked the fort, but was 
repulsed with some loss by Madame la Tour at the head of her 

8. D'Aulnay now concluded a definite treaty of peace v/!th 
the New Englanders, and detached them from all 
alliance with his rival. Hearing that La Tour, with 1647 
the greater number of his men, was absent on a distant a.d. 
trading voyage, he sailed for the St. John and besieged 

the fort, which was situated on the western side of the harbour. 
For three days Madame la Tour kept him at bay, until, 
through the treachery of a Swiss sentry, he gained access to the 
l)lace. The lady at the head of her soldiers was prepared to 
defend the ramparts. D'Aulnay, to avoid the disgrace of a 
jjossible defeat at her hands, offered such honourable terms 
that Madame, willing to avoid bloodshed, consented to capit- 
ulate. The victor basely broke his plighted word on viewing 
the weakness of the garrison. Sparing the life of one man on 
condition of his becoming the executioner of his comrades, he 
ordered all the captive soldiers to be hanged, and subjected the 
lady to the cruel indignity of witnessing the brutal sight with 
a halter around her neck. 


9. The ruin of the husband broke the wife's heart. The for- 
tunes of La Tour appeared now to be completely shattered. 
While his rival enjoyed his triumph and ruled over all Acadie, 
he led a wandering life in Newfoundland, Canada, and around 
Hudson Bay. At Port Royal, D'Aulnay reigned as a feudal 
lord over a body of serfs. He did nothing to increase the 
settlement of the country. His establishment was maintained 
n,t great expense, and he was plunged in debt. 

10. On the death of D Aulnay, La Tour emerged from obscurity 
into the sunshine of fortune. Not meeting the malign influence 

of his rival at Court, he easily cleared himself of the 

1651 charges against his character. He received a commission 

A.D. as Lieutenant-Governor of Acadie, and D' Aulnay 's 

widow restored to him the St. John fort. The position 
of Madame D'Aulnay was very difficult. Her estate was in 
debt some 260,000 livres t' one Emmanuel le Borgne, an 
eminent merchant of Rochelle, d La Tour claimed jurisdiction 
over her possessions in Acadie. She entered into a compact 
with the Duke of Vendome, Superintendent of Commerce and 
Navigation in France, by which his Grace, on condition that he 
sent out annual supplies, became co-seigneur with her, and co- 
partner in the fur-trade. This arrangement did not last long. 
To settle the question of the jurisdiction of La Tour, the 
widow married him. The Duke (who had a personal an- 
tipathy to D'Aulnay's successor) was much displeased with his 
fair business partner for taking that way of getting over a 
difficulty. His Grace was in debt 65,000 livres to ^^e Borgne 
for goods supplied to her. Through his influence, their mutual 
creditor obtained authority *o seize on Acadie, in order to 
satisfy the claim he held against the D'Aulnay estate. 

11. Nicolas Denys then possessed several fishing and 
trading posts. Le Borgne's first act on coming to Acadie was 
to attack his settlement at St. PieiTe, Cape Breton, and to carry 
him off a prisoner to Port Royal. After a rough confinement 
Denys obtained his release, and sailed for France. His claim 
to the country was reestablished by the New Company. 
Returning to Cape Breton, he compelled the officer in command 
at St. Pierre to deliver up the post to him. Le Borgne was at 
Port Royal making preparations to dispossess La Tour of his 



fort on the St. John when ho heard this news. He was on the 
point of setting out to recapture St. Pierre when new actors 
appeared on the scene. 

12. Oliver Cromwell was at war with the Dutch.^ He sent 
out an expedition to seize on their colony at Manhattan 

on Long Island, and he demanded aid from Massa- 1654 
cliusetts. While the Government was slowly raising a a.d. 
force of five hundred men, peace was proclaimed between 
the two countries. Secret orders were then given to Colonel 
Kobert Sedgwick to take possession of Acadie. The restitu- 
tion of that province to the French by the Treat}' of St. Germain 
had been displeasing to the Puritans, and they gladly seized 
the opportunity to regain it. They maintained that the French 
never had had a just title to it, as it had alvrays formed part 
of English dominion. Colonel Sedgwick easily made himself 
master of the forts at Penobscot and St. John. At Port Royal 
Le Borgne Was strongly posted, and had a garrison of one hundred 
and fifty men, well supplied with munitions of war ; but he was 
a man of un warlike character, and had no officer of experience 
to command. A party which he sent out ' o resist the landing 
of the English being defeated, he surrendered on condition of 
receiving honourable treatment. The captors then turned 
round and mocked him for his pusillanimity. Sedgwick after- 
wards took Fort la H^ve, where a son of Le Borgne commanded. 
The English now were masters of Acadie for the third time. 

13. Peace was restored between France and England by the 
Treaty of Westminster,^ 3rd November. I'he French 
Ambassador at London pressed Cromwell to restore to 1655 
France the forts taken by Sedgwick. The officers act- a.' y. 
ing n behalf of the Ijord Protector maintained that 

they ought to remain in possession of the English. The ques- 

' War with the Dutch. — This war be- 
gan in 1652 in consequence of the Navi- 
gation Act (1651), which forbade the 
importation of goods into England in 
any but English ships, and thus ruined 
tlie Dutch carrying trade. The Dutch 
Admirals were Marten Tromp (father of 
Van Tromp), and De Ruyter. The 
chief battles were off Portland (south 
of England), and off Texel (an island in 

the north of Holland;, in 1653, in both 
of which the Dutch were defeated. In 
the latter Tromp was killed. Peace was 
concluded in 1654. 

* Treaty of Westminster. — Negoti- 
ated by Cardinal Mazarin, the powerful 
minister of Louis XIV. of France, with 
Oliver Cromwell. It secured for France 
the cooperation of England again.«t 



tion was referred to commissioners. La Tour now displayed 
that enterprising audacity tor w)rch he was noted. On the 
strength of the grant made in 1629 to liis father and himself 
by Sir William Alexander, he proceeded to London and mrAe 
his claim clear to the satisfaction of Cromwell. He was a man 
who liked to sail with the tide. He made no account of this 
grant when in 1630 his father urged him to become an E^iglish 
subject, for he had some expectation then that Acadie would 
soon be restored to the French Crown ; now he was willing 
enough to change his allegiance. 

14. By letters-patent given by Cromwell, La Tour, in con- 

junction with Sir Thomas Temple and William Crowne, 

1656 came into possession of Acadie, including the country 

A.D. along the coasts, and a hundred leagues inward from 

Merliguesche to St. Mary's Bay, and along the shores 
of the Bay of Fundy to the little River St. George beyond the 
Penobscot. La Tour soon afterwards disposed of his interest in 
this grant to Temple, and retired to the fort of St. John, where 
he lived and died in obscurity before the complete restitution 
of the country to the French Crown was made. For a period 
of eleven years Acadie remained in the joint possession of 
the English and the French. Sir Thomas Temple was appointed 
Lieutenant to his Majesty of Great Britain. He built fortitica- 
tions, and carried on an extensive commerce. Emmanuel le 
Borgne was Governor under Louis XIV. The Acadians were 
allowed to remain in undisturbed possession of their lands. 
During this time Nicolas Denys removed to Miramichi, where, 
and also at Nepisiguit on the Bay Chaleur, he established 
trading and fishing posts. 

15. By the Treaty of Breda ^ Charles II. restored Acadie 

to Louis XIV. M. Morillon de Bourg was sent to take 

1667 possession. The French then claimed that Acadie in- 

A.D. eluded not only the peninsula, but also the country 

between the Bay of Fundy and River St. Lawrence, and 
west to the Kennebec River. Sir Thomas Temple memorialized 
the King, and argued that Acadie was only a small part of that 
extensive territory called Nova Scotia, and that his forts of 

* Treaty of Breda. — Between Eng- in 1667. Breda is in North Brabant, 
land, France, Holland, and Denmark, in Holland. 



Penobscot, St. John, Cape la K6ve, and Cape Sable were in 

Nova Scotia, and consequently were Eot included in the cession 

of Acadie. It v/as not till tnroe years after the signing of 

the treaty that the King sent positive commands for 

the surrender of the forts. On the 1st July, Temple 1670 

ordored his officers to deliver them into the hands of a.d. 

Cht'>^aHer de Grand-Fontaine. Charles II. promised 

Sir Thomrs ^16,000 as an indemnification for his losses. The 

money, it is said, was never paid to him. 

QuESTroNS. — 1. Where did De Razilli 
hold his residence? AVho were lieu- 
tenants under him ? 

2. Who succeeded Razilli? What 
relations existed between the eastern 
and western lieutenants ? What orders 
were sent to D'Aulnay? 

3. Why was La Tour not likely to be 
a favourite at Court? What alliance 
did he seek to form? For wliat pur- 
pose did D'Aulnay use his influence at 
Court ? With what success ? 

4. What hostile step did D'Aulnay 
take ? How did La Tour escape ? 

5. From whom did La Tour get 
assistance? What use did he make 
of it? 

6. How did D'Aulnay avenge himself 
on La Tour? With wl)o-a did he open 
negotiatir*ns for a treaty or peace ? 

7. How did Madame la Tour aid her 
husband? What was the result of 
D'Aulnay's attack on the fort of St. 
John ? 

8. What was the result of D'Aulnay's 
negotiations with the New Englanders? 
Of what perfidy was he guilty towards 
Madame la Tour? 

9. In what position were La Tour's 
fortunes ? What effect had this on his 
wife? What was D'Aulnay's position 
at the same time? 

10. When did La Tour's fortunes 
change? How did he settle the ques- 
tion of jurisdiction with Madame 
D'Aulnay? What authority was given 
to Le Borgne ? 

11. Narrate the doings of Le Borgne 
and of Denys. 

12. What led the English again to 
take possession of Acadie ? Relate the 

13. What claim did the French make 
in 1655? To whom was the question 
referred ? What audacious step did La 
Tour then take ? 

14. To whom was Acadie given? 
What was the end of La Tour ? In what 
peculiar position was Acadie during 
the next eleven years? Who was the 
English lieutenant? Who was the 
French lieutenant ? 

15. When was Acadie again restored 
to France? What point of difference 
remained to be determined ? When and 
how was it settled ? 





1663 A.D. 

M. Gauilols, "Royal Commissioner. 
The Sovereign Council. 
Governor-General — Bishop — Inten- 


Cl.aracter of the French Canadians. 
The West India Company. 

The Feudal System. 
The Fur-trade. 

T^z xCnglish at New York. 
Their Alliance with the Iroqucis. 
Rivalries between French and 

1. A new era now opened for Canada. Its state of utter 
enfeeblement and exhaustion touched the heart of the King. 
The conflict between the civil and the ecclesiastical authorities 
moved him to take the colony under his direct protection. By 
an Edict dated March 1663, a Sovereign Council was erected. 
M. Laval, L'Abbe Montigny, returned to danada in September. 
With him came Lx. de Mesy, late commandant of the citadel 
of Caen, the first Governor under the new constitution; M. 
Gaudoia, the Royal Commissioner; several military and law 
oflicers ; and one hundred families of colonists. M. Gaudois took 
possession of the country in the King's name, received the oath 
of fidelity of its inhabitants, pud made certain regulations re- 
garding the law courts and the police. He drew up a report 
of the state of the country, and returned to France. Baron 
d'Avaugour was exculpated from all blame, except for a some- 
what harsh enforcement of the laws and a too great obstinacy 
in adhering to his prejudices. He welcomed release from his 
post. On his return to Europe he entered the service of the 
Emperor of Germany, then at war with the Turks, and was 
killed at the siege of Serin, on the frontiers of Croatia. 

2. The Sovereign Council was composed of the Governor- 
General, the Ecclesiastical Superior (or the Bishop, when in 
1670 the Church in the colony was erected into a bishopric), and 
the Intendant. They had joint power to appoint four Coun- 
QJUors (who held office during their pleasure), and a Chief Clerk 


and Attorney-General. The imraber of Coniicilliira was after- 
wards iucreased to eight, and fiiijilly to twelve. Oue of the 
number received the title of Chief Councillor, au hoiiorary dis- 
tinction, to which a small salary was attached. The eiiiolumeuta 
bestowed by the King on the principal ofiicers of the colony 
were extremely moderate. This parsimony was sometimes the 
cause of corruption, as it induced the unscrupulous to enrich 
themselves by unlawful means. 

3. The Governor-General was the representative of the 
King ; he had power to make war and peace, and played an 
active part in the general government of the country. The 
Bishop had jurisdiction over ecclesiastical afi'airs ; on the ques- 
tion of taxation for the support of the clergy, however, wi on 
all temporal matters, he had only a single vote like the other 
members of the Council. The Intendant was an officer of 
gi-eat autliority. The Govern or-Geneial and the Bishop took 
precedence of him ; but he was President of the Council : he col- 
lected the votes, and gave the final decision on all subjects that 
came under discussion. The meetings took place every Monday 
in his " palace." In his hands remained tlie Kegisters in which 
all the Acts of the Council were recorded. All matters relating 
to the administration of justice and of police, to finance and 
marine, came under his direct supervision. Several Governor- 
Generals betrayed great jealousy of the powers intrusted to the 
Intendant. The prosperity of the colony depended in a great 
measure on the character, ability, zeal, and integrity of this 
officer. If he were like Talon — the first wlio held the office, 
a man of honourable principles and enlightened \ iews — he had 
scope to promote the happiness of the colony ; if he were like 
Bigot — the last, selfish and luxurious — he had many ways of 
enriching himself, and of oppressing and impoverishing the 

4. The Sovereign Council was constituted a Supreme Court 
to try civil and criminal cases. Justice was administered 
according to the laws of France and the custom of Paris, a body 
of unwritten laws established by long usage. These laws were 
modified when not found applicable to the circunistances of the 
country. From time to time the King issued Ordinance : they 
^ere entered on the Beffisters of the Council, and became the 



cliief code by which the colony was governed. Inferior courts 
of justice were established at Quebec, Three Rivers, and Mon- 
treal, composed of a Lieutenant-General, Sub-Lieutenant, and 
Attorney-General. Tor a long time the Superiors of the Semi- 
nary of St. Sulpicius maintained jurisdiction over the Island of 

5. The system of government was autocratic — the people 
had no voice in the direction or management of affairs. It 
suited the character of the French Canadians, who were a 
hardy, light-hearted, social race, with a very good opinion of 
themselves ; very fond of pleasure, but remark.ably free from 
vice ; obedient to authority ; devoutly attached to their Church, 
and rigid observers of all its rites and festivals; somewhat 
credulous and uninstructed, wedded to old customs and usages, 
and averse to harassing their minds with book lore. 

6. The urgent demands for aid to Canada were made at a 
time when the financial affairs of Franco were under the direc- 
tion of a great minister, M. Colbert,^ who was alive to the 
importance of extending the commerce and of adding to the 
strength and glory of the parent state by sustaining its colonies. 
On the extinction of the New Company, Louis XIV., by an Edict 
dated May 1664, established the West India Company; to 
which was granted for fifty years the monopoly of the tei*ritory 
and the trade of all the French colonies on the coast of Africa, in 
South America, and among the West India Isles, and of Canada, 
Acadie, and Florida. It was specially decreed that noblemen 
might take shares in this Company without derogation to their 
rank. The obligation to send out settlers and maintain priests 
was similar to that undertaken by the late New Company. 
All the rights and privileges that the West India Company 
possessed over this vast domain were held on the tenure of 
fealty and homage to the King. 

7. The Feudal System^ then prevailed in France, and it was 

' Colbert. — He gained the favour of 
Mazarin by the dexterity with which 
he managed some business on which he 
was sent to Rome. Mazar'n recom- 
mended him to Louis XIV. for the 
l)ost of Comptroller-General of the 
Finances. Some of the moat important 

buildings in Paris were erected under 
his superintendence. Born 1619, died 

* The Feudal System. — The system 
under which the rent or price of land 
was paid, not in money, but by mili- 
tary service. The feudal laws varied In 



transferred to Canada, but not in its extreme ritjonr, Tiands 
were granted by the Conij)any in large blocks to families of the 
Crown, to officers of the army, to gentlemen, to communities 
(like the Seminary of St. Sulpicius), who held them en seigneurie; 
that is, on condition of paying fealty and homage to the King. 
The ceremony of doing homage was annually observed, and 
took place in the Castle of St. Louis in Quebec. The seigneur 
or his representative, kneeling before the representative of the 
King, delivered up his sword ; which was gr-aciously returned. 
AH the most fei-tile lands on both banks of the St. Lawience 
for three hundred miles — from below Quebec to above M<mtreal 
— were soon granted away, and lield en seigneurie. The seign- 
eura enjoyed rights and privileges ; they had also obligations 
to meet and duties to perform. They exercised legal jurisdic- 
tion within their domain, except in cases of murder and treason. 
When any portion of the seigneurie was sold, a fifth of the pur- 
chase-money, called a quint, was paid to the King ; and the 
purchaser was entitled to a rabat, or reduction of one-tifth on 
prompt payment. These quints were a source of revenue to the 
colonial treasury. When lands passed in direct hereditary suc- 
cession no fines were paid by the heirs. 

8. A portion of the land was granted on a sort of freehold 
tenure, en franc alleu. Grantees under this tenure held their 
lands direct from the King, but enjoyed none of the rights pos- 
sessed by the seigneurs. Very little land was held en franc 
alleu. The seigneurs not being able to cultivate their extensive 
grants, divided them into lots having generally a frontage on 
the Eiver St. Lawrence of three acres, and an extension back- 
ward of eighty acres. These lots were granted en roture, or 
villenage, and the holders were called Censitaires. They paid 
a small annual rent in money, and some article of provision, 
such as a goose or a pair of fowls, or it might be a bushel of 
wheat. They were obliged to grind their grain at the seigneur's 

different countries, but their essential 
principle as everywhere the same — 
they regarded the whole land as the pro- 
perty of the king, who divided the greater 
part of it among his barons, who sub- 
divided it among their vassals. Each 
baron was bound to bring to the royal 

U73; 8 

standard a certain number of men-at- 
arms, who gave their services In return 
for their lands. The royal revenue was 
derived partly from the proceeds of the 
crown lands, and partly from feudal 
incidents: such iis fines, reliefs, for' 
feitures, aids, v rdsliips, marriage. 




mill, .'111(1 to pay to liiin a fourteeutli of the pi^.luce; to give a 
tithe, or the vahie of a tithe, of the fish caiiglit in their waters ; 
also to open up and repair the roads and build the bridges. They 
were also compelled to do military service. The seigpeurs, on 
the sale of lands within their seigneurie, were entitled to lods 
et ventes ; that is, a twelfth part of the purchase-money, which 
was exclusive of the sum paid by the purclniser to the seller. 
Though the value of the land to be sold might have been 
increased in value a hundredfold by buililings and improve- 
ments, the seigneurs were still entitled to a sum equivalent to 
a twelfth part of the purchase-money. 

n. By the law of inherit :..nce, on the death of a seigneur 
his estate was divided among his cliildren. The eldest sou, 
along with the title and manor horse, received a somewhat 
larger share than the rest of the family. This law of sub- 
division left, in time, some of the se'cjueurs with little besides 
their titles and their houses. By the same law the lots of the 
censitaires were parcelled out till each individual owner pos- 
sessed only the "shred of a farm." This extreme subdivision 
of the land became, in time, a crying evil. In 1664 the com- 
j^laint was made that the hal)itans were too much scattered, 
and that they were exposed, in their detached farms, to the 
attacks of the Iroquois. A Boyal Ordinance was passed, com- 
manding them to settle closely together for mutual protection. 
As the colony increased, however, the evils of this close settle- 
ment became palpable, and the French King issued a ma,ndate 
in 16^, forbidding, under a penalty, any one to erect houses and 
barns on lots of less than an acre and a half frontage and forty 
acres backward extension. This order had for a time a bene- 
ficial effect. 

10. The monopoly granted to the West India Company ex- 
cited the greatest dissatisfaction. All the people of Canada 
were interested in the fur-trade. It was their distinguishing 
occupation, and it directed the more active minds into a par- 
ticular channel, and had much influence in determining the 
future of the colony. It aroused and kept alive a spirit of 
adventure. As the beaver, the sable, and the mink became 
scarce in the country nearest the French settlements, it became 
necessary to penetrate far and wide into the wilderness, Th^ 


neceasiticH of trade promoted discovery, and extended the 
doraaiu of France over an immense stretch of territory, and 
made known to the world the magnificent resources and the 
splendid scenery of the northern part of the Continent of 
America. The active life of tlie fur-trader had the greatest 
chorms for the French youth. It imired them to haljits of 
eudnrai >, and disciplined them for war. It created a distinct 
class.— tlu Coureurs du Bois, or " Runners of the Woods,"— 
who, breaking away from the restraints of civilization, adopted 
the savage life. They became a scandal and a source of weakness 
to the Province. Through them the country was drained of its 
strength ; — the sober toil of agriculture, the foundation of a 
nation's wealth, was neglected ; the natural defence of Canada 
was weakened. Hundreds of her sons, instead of being settled 
on farms by the St. Lawrence, were, in the hour of danger, 
living in wigwams by the distant shores of lakes Michigan and 

11. The Company had the exclusive privilege of importing 
from France all goods used in the colony. It not only bought 
the furs which were brought to the magazines at the value it 
chose to put upon them, but it compelled people to purchase 
necessary articles at enhanced prices. A great outcry was 
raised. M. Talon, the first Superintendent under the new con- 
stitution, urged upon M. Colbert the necessity of permitting 
greater freedom of trade, if he expected to make anything of 
Canada ; a country which, he thought, might, under wise govern- 
ment, become infinitely useful to the kingdom. Upon these 
representations the people were allowed, a few years afterwards 
(in 1671), to import their own goods, and to buy the peltry from 
the Indians, on condition that they should pay a fourth of the 
beaver skins and a twelfth of the buffalo robes to the Company. 

12. The West India Company showed no greater interest in the 
colony than the Hundred Associates had shown. Its c'aarter 
was rescinded by a Royal Edict in 1674, ten years after its 
creation, and all the vast domain that had been "^ded to it 
became the direct possession of the Crown. The people of 
Canada were still allowed freedom of trade upon the conditions 
already mentioned. The collection of the "fourths" and 
" twelfths " of the beaver ,md bnffalo skins was leased out to 


officers called Farmers-General, who in time came to unite the 
duty of collecting the taxes with the profitable speculation of 
buying the rest of the furs at a moderate price. About thirty 
years afterwards (1701) the people became dissatisfied with tlie 
Farmers-General, and they were abolished by a Royal Edict, 
and a New Company was then formed, open to ail who chose 
to take sharer in it. In consideration of the privileges of trade 
granted by the King, it paid 60,000 livres annual rent into the 
colonial treasury. 

13. An event happened simultaneously with the erection of 
the Sovereign Council and the creation of the West India Com- 
pany, which not only affected the current of the fur-trade, but 
which had the most important influence on the course of politi- 
cal events in Canada. Charles II., claiming possession of the 
territory including the Delaware Bay and River, Long Island, 
and the Hudson, by right of the discoveries of the Cabots, 
coolly granted it to his brother the Duke of York and Albany. 
For fifty years, undisturbed by foreign claim, this country had 
been in the hands of the Dutch, who called it the New Nether- 
lands. There was peace between England and Holland, and 

the governor, Petrus Stuyvesant, looked for no enemy. 
1664 To his dismay, one day in August, four English 
A.D. frigates anchored within range of Fort "^"^ew Amster- 
dam. Being summoned to surreude^, hu was strongly 
tempted to reply by the cannon's mouth. But the clergy and 
principal inhabitants gathered about hira and induced him to 
forego his fell intent, an^l to accept the terms offered by the 
English commander. So the Dutch became free English sub- 
jects. They retained their property, tlioir laws and customs, 
and their own mode of worship. In honour of the Duke, the 
town of New Amsterdam was named New York ; and Orange, 
on the Hudson River, Albany. 

14. The first English Government formed in New York 
entered into a treaty with the Five Nations ; and that people 
submitted to Corlear, — as they called the English King and his 
representative, — and placed their lands under his protection. 
The importance of securing the alliance of the Iroquois became 
very soon apparent both to the English and to the French; and 
that astute people Avere quick to see the immense advantage 


the positiou of their country gave them, lying as it did between 
the rival colonies. Its proximity to Albany and New York 
compelled them to depend on the English for gunpowder and 
shot .and other indispensable supplies. Though their interest 
iuduced them to keep the treaty with the English pretty faith- 
fully, natural inclination diew them towards the French, who 
flattered their self-love by the consideration that they showed to 
tlieir feelings, and by their good nature and familiarity. The In- 
dians generally were repelled by the haugh!:iness of the English, 
who often scarce concealed contempt for theii* persons and 
scorn for their habits. The Iroquois, with great shrewdness, 
played the English against the French, and the French against 
the English. When offenaed with their *' brother " Corlear, 
they professed great regard for their " f?„ther " Ononthio. If a 
Governor of New York, presuming on the treaty, assumed the 
airs and acts of a master, their chiefs retired within themselves, 
and haughtily declared they w^ere free and independent, and 
the subjects of no monarch upon earth, and they sent dele- 
gates to Quebec to speak of peace with the Governor-General. 
On more than one occasion, when their hearty support would 
have enabled the English to drive the French into the sea, they 
grew cool, and failed to fulfil their engagements. They instinc- 
tively feared that their doom would be sealed if the English 
became sole mastf rs in America. 

15. The English strove 1^ divert to the Hudson River the 
current of the fur- trade that passed down the St. L? ^^rence. 
The Iroquois were not blind to the advantage they deri' ed from 
the transit of so profitable a traffic through their coujitry. At 
the instigation of the Governors of New York they intrigued 
with the tribes of Canada to induce them to sell their peltry to 
the English. When persuasion failed, they made war. The 
French, apprehensive that their trad3 would be ruined, sought 
by every means to humble or conciliate them. Id trading for 
furs A/ith the Indians, the English under-sold the French by 
giving higher prices, and selling better articles at lower nites. 
Many of the vagabond " Kunners of the Woods " carried their 
peltry to New York in preference to Montreal, as they were 
not met by tax-gatherei-s there. The rivalries and jealousies 
created by the fur-trade were a principal cause of the wars 



that desolated Canada and the frontiers of the New England 

Questions. — 1. To whom did the 
King intrust the govc jment of Canada 
in 1603? Who went out as Royal 
Commissioner? For what only was 
Baron d' Avaugour blamed ? 

2. Of whom was the Sovereign Coun- 
cil composed ? How many councillors 
had they ultimately joint power to ap- 
point ? 

3. What powers had the Governor- 
General, the Bishop, and the Intendant 
respectively? On which of these did 
tb3 prosperity of the colony chiefly de- 

4. By whom, and how, was justice 
administered? Where were inferior 
courts established ? 

5. What was the nature of the system 
of government ? What may be said in 
its favour ? What was the ch.^racter of 
the French Canadians ? 

6. When was the West India, Com- 
pany established? Who was French 
Minister of Finance at the time ? By 
what tenure did the Company hold its 
rights ? 

7. What system then prevailed in 
France ? How, under this system, were 
lands held in Canada? Describe the 
ceremony of doing homage. What 
were quints ? When were they paid ? 

8. What other tenure was there be- 
sides that of seigneurie ? How did 
seigneurs subdivide their lands ? What 
were the holders of these lots called? 

./hat duties were required of them? 
What where lods et ventes ? 

9. What was the law of inheritance ? 
To what great evil did it lead ? W hat 
was done to check it ? What mandate 
was issued in 1645 ? Why ? 

10. What feeling did the monopoly 
granted to the West India Company 
excite? In what trade were all the 
people of Canada interested? What 
benefits did that trade confer on the 
colonists ? How did its pursuit weaken 
the colony ? 

11. What proceedings of t'le Com- 
pany excited discontent? What sug- 
gestion did M. Talon make? What 
was consequently done ? 

12. When was the charter of the 
Company rescinded ? To whom was its 
domain transferred? Who were the 
Farmers-General? When were they 
abolished? What was the nature of 
the New Company then formed ? 

13. When and how did the English 
obtain possession of New York? To 
whom had it previously belonged? 
How did the change affect the Dutch 
settlers ? 

14. With whom did the English form 
an alliance ? What advantageous posi- 
tion did the Iroquois occupy? What 
use did they make of it? 

15. How did trade rivalries arise be- 
tween the English and the French? 
Which did the Irciuois favour ? 





1665 to 1672 A.D. 

M. de Mesy. 

Marquis de Tracy, Viceroy. 

Joy in Quebec. 

The Forts on the Richelieu. 

ppflant attitude of the Mohaw' i. 

paign against thorn. 

Je Courcelles. 

Missions at Ste. Marie and Michilli- 

The labours of M. Talon. 
The Tribes of the west, and the Crown 

of France. 
The Mississippi. 
Hudson Bay. 

1. M. de Mesy was not long in Canada before the flames of 
disseusion again burst out. M. de Laval believed that in the 
new Governor-General he had a man after his own heart, one 
who would sustain him in all his acts ; for the King had gra- 
ciously permitted the Abbe to select whom he pleased to fill the 
office, and his choice had fallen on his old friend, the Command- 
ant of the citadel of Caen, who had given proofs of exalted 
piety and of devotion to the Chrrch. But no sooner was 
M. de Mesy la possession of power than he opposed himself to 
the Superior and all his ecclesiastics, and sustained the party 
that clamoured for a reduction of the tithes for the support of 
the clergy, and that favoured the liquor traffic. He set his face 
against the Jesuits. Under the New Company the Fathers had 
exercised supreme authority in the colony ; they had per- 
formed signal service to it, and by aid of resources drawn from 
France had helped to sustain it in its darkest days. Under the 
new regime they still sought to maintain their rule ; but they 
were opposed by a party who deemed it too rigid and severe. 
To such lengths did the disputes at the Council proceed, that 
M. de Mesy caused two of its most respectable members — Sieur 
Villeray aad the Attorney-Gei eral Bourdon — to be arrested 
aud shipped off to France. He even marched with a body of 
soldiers to the residence of the Superior, as if he meant to lay 
violent hands on him. M. de Laval was amazed at the im- 
petuous temper of his pious friend, and promptly sought a 



remedy for the mistake he had made. He memorialized the 
Minister of France, made serious accusations against the Gover- 
nor-General, and requested his discharge from office. 

2. At the time when the complaints against M. de Mesy 
reached the minister, troubles were occurring in other French 
colonies. Alexander de Prouville, Marquis de Tracy, was 
commissioned by the King as his Lieu tenant-General and 
Viceroy in America, with plenary power to settle all disorders. 
He was directed, after visiting the Antilles and San Domingo, 
to proceed to Canada and place its government on a sure founda- 
tion, to restore internal quiet, and to reduce the Iroquois. 
Daniel de Eemi, Seigneur de Courcelles, the new Governor- 
General, and M. Talon, Intendant, were appointed with him 
members of a commission to investigate the charges against 
M. de Mesy, with authority to bring him to trial. But before 
they arrived in Canada De Mesy died at peace with his old 
friend the Abbd, and the complaints were allowed to drop into 

3. There was unwonted stir among the people of Quebec 

when the Marquis de Tracy landed. Their eyes glis- 

1665 tened and their courage rose when the splendid regi- 

A.D. ment of Carignan Salieres (which had acquired glory in 

Hungary against the Turks, and had come to conquer the 
Iroquois) paraded, and the town rang with the clangour of military 
music. The habitans gazed with admiration on the casques, 
and flowing plumes, and shining breastplates of the body-guard 
of the Viceroy, and on his footmen and pages in their gorgeous 
liveries. All this splendour was a visible manifestation of 
power, and it reassured them. With the soldiers came families 
of honest, industrious, pious peasants from Normandy and 
Picardy, and artisans and labourers, with horses, and oxen, and 
sheep. " It was a colony more considerable than that which it 
had come to replenish." The Indians stared at the horses — the 
tirst that had been seen in Canada ; to them the mounted 
officers seemed inseparable from the animals they bestrode — 
veritable centaurs. 

4. The Viceroy acted with promptitude. Detachments of 
soldiers, with a force of artisans and labourers, under Colonel 
Salieres and two officers — Messieurs Chambly and Sorel — were 


despatched to the Richelieu River. With great rapidity three 
forts were constructed ; they were called St. Therese, Sorel, 
and Chambly. They were not of much avail as checks agaiust 
the inroads of the Iroquois, for there were many by-paths 
through the woods by which they could reach the St. Lawrence 
unsus])ected by the garrisons. 

5. The report of the arrival of the Carignan regiment made 
a great impression upon the upper cantons of the Five Nations. 
The Cayugas, Onondagiis, and Senecas in haste sent deputies to 
make peace with the Viceroy. The Oneidas, after a struggle 
with their sullen dignity, also sought conciliation ; but the 
Mohawks, the fiercest and most implacable of all, stood proudly 
aloof. A company of soldiers was sent to chastise one of their 
parties. It fell into an ami iscade, and three officers — one of 
them M. de Chazy, the young nephew of the Marquis de Tracy — 
were killed. The news of this disaster reached Quebec when 
the deputies of the Oneidas were on the point of concluding a 
treaty. At the same time two Mohawk chiefs, who pretended 
they were ambassadors, made their appf .lance. Notwithstand- 
ing the angry feeling that the death of the officers had created, 
there appeared to be a prospect that peace would be concluded 
with all the Five Nations without further bloodshed. The 
Viceroy invited the Mohawks to his table. During the course 
of the dinner mention was made of young De Chazy, when one 
of the chiefs electrified the company by raising his arm, and 
crying out, " This arm cut off his head." In furious rage 
the French officers dragged the braggart from the hall, and 
handed him over to an executioner, who strangled him in sight 
of his brother chief. This incident determined the Viceroy to 
wage war, and preparations were made for a campaign against 
the Mohawks. 

6. On the 24th September, a force of 1300 men— compris- 
ing 600 of the Carignan soldiers, as many Canadians, 

and 100 Indians — was ready. The Viceroy, though 1666 
well stricken in years, was full of mental energy, and a.d. 
he resolved to command the expedition in person. He 
took the centre of the line of march. Accompanied by a 
brilliant suite of officers, surrounded by his body-guard, 
tended by his pages, and sitting in his easy-chair, he was borne 


through the wilderness. As if in an open country the French- 
men in all their bravery strode on, and startled the prime vi^l 
silence by the flourish of their trumpets* In the course of the 
long and toilsome journey provisions failed, and they plucked 
the green nuts from the trees a,s they encamped in a forest of 
chestnuts. By the treachery of an Algonquin scout the Mo- 
hawks had been warned. So when in order of battle, with 
ensigns flying and drums beating, the soldiers entered their 
chief bourgade, they found only a few old men and women left 
in the cabins. Before burning the bourgade to ashes they rifled 
the deep pits in which the Mohawks had stored immense quan- 
tities of corn. Spreading themselves over the canton, they 
found only solitude ; for, dismayed at the clamour and clangour 
of the Frenchmen's advance, the inhabitants fled to the covert 
of the woods. In after years the French dared not show the 
bravado they displayed on this expedition, for it would only 
have betrayed them to the Iroquois, who were not long deceived 
into thinking there was danger in drums and trumpets. 

7. The Viceroy would have punished the Oneidas but for the 
lateness of the season. The bleak winds, the cold rains, the 
falling leaves, and the morning frosts that " candied the streams 
with ice," warned him of the approach of winter. So the ex- 
pedition returned to Quebec. He was blamed for not mak- 
ing an assured peace by building a fort and leaving a strong 
garrison in the Mohawk country ; but, unfortunately, he believed 
tliat if the posts on the Eichelieu Eiver were well defended, the 
inroads of the Iroquois would be eff'ectually checked. The 
Marquis de Tracy, soon after he had established the West India 
Company in its privileges, left for France with six companies 
of the Carignan regiment. M. de Courcelles assumed the 
functions of Governor-General. 

8. Canada now entered upon the first period of real quiet 
that it had enjoyed since its foundation. The punishment the 
Mohawks had received produced a salutary effect not only 
upon them, but upon the other four nations. Unable, however, 
to restrain their passion for slaughter, they turned their arms 
against the Andastes and Chouanons, tribes living to the south 

!: and west of their cantons, and the fiercest of all the people they 

had as yet encountered. They petitioned Ononthio to send 




them missionaries. Fathers Bruyas, Fremin, Gamier, Carheil, 
;md Pearrou went to labour among them. There were peraons 
iu France who doubted whether any good was effected by mis- 
sions among the Indians. The untutored savages were naturally 
courteous ; they could not withhold their assent from any pro- 
position earnestly stated, though they did not in the. least under- 
stand it. They often went to chapel merely out of considera- 
tion for the priest, in order to swell the number of his congre- 
gation. The Fathers did not think that all who sought baptism 
were real converts ; they believed that among the Indians, as 
among all other nations, God had his elect. 

9. In the exploration of different regions the priest preceded 
the soldier and the trader. Nothing as yet was cei-tainly 
known of the country of the west and north. Thirty years 
before this time. Father Mesnard had followed a band of 
Ottawas to the borders of Lake Superior, and perished in the 
woods from the effects of ill treatment and starvation. Unde- 
terred by his tragic fate, Father Allouez accompanied a party of 
the same ferocious and superstitious savages to the Sault which 
was then first called Ste. Marie, at the strait between Lakes 
Superior and Huron. From thence he started along the shores 
of Lake Superior, until at its eastern extremity he came upon 
the Island of Chagouamigon, called by the French St. Michel 
There he met a band of the Christian Hurons who had fled 
from the wrath of the Iroquois, and eight hundred warriors of 
the numerous tribes dwelling about that region, as far north- 
west as Lake Winnepeg, and as far south as the Illinois River. 
There he erected a chapel and made many proselytes. At Lake 
Nipegon he found a wretched remnant of the once powerful 
tribe of the Nipissings. Moved by the sad condition of the 
Christianized Indians, he and Father Nicolas shortly afterwards 
founded two missions, and settled the Algonquins at Sault 
Ste. Marie, and the Hurons at Micliillimackiuac at a point on 
the south shore of the strait between Lakes Michigan and 

10. Great attention was now given to the general improve- 
ment of the country. On his first coming, M. Talon, the In- 
tendant, applied himself with energy to find out both its neces- 
sities and its natural resources. Hitherto the outlay on the 


124 talon's labours. 

colony had been greater than the return it had made ; and lie 
wtis very desirous to justify to tl e Court of France the opiuiou 
he had formed of its great capabilities, by showing that it was 
able to sustain itself. He had several objects in view : to add 
to the permanent strength of Canada by settling in it an indus- 
trious agricultural population, and to fuither this purpose by 
an enlightened system of colonization ; to develop the resources 
of the country, so as to create an external conmierce with other 
French colonies ; to bring under the authority of the Crown of 
France the northern and western regions of the continent ; to 
extend the fur-trade, and to give the j^eople generally an in- 
terest in it by breaking down the monoj)oiy of the Company. 

11. To encourage the people who had come out with him, 
and to show them the best \»ay of settling in the wilderness, 
he obtained a grant of land belovf Quebec, to the east of the 
River St. Charles. He caused the land to be stripped of its 
wood, the rough fields to be sown, and houses and barns to be 
erected. In this way were formed the villages of Charles- 
bourg and Louisbourg. After the people were pretty com- 
fortably settled on their own farms, he set them to woi^k to 
prepare adjacent lots for the reception of coming colonists. At 
his suggestion the Carignau regiment was disbanded in the 
colony. Grants of land were made 'en seigneurie" to the 
officers on the Richelieu River, and the common soldiers became 
ceusitaires under them. When ^the six companies that had 
accompanied the Marquis de Tracy to France returned, there 
were about twelve hundred military settlers in Canada. It 
cannot be said that they turned their swords into pruning- 
hooks ; for in those days every man was required to be a soldier, 
and to carry his rifle with his implements when he went to 
work in the fields. Talon placed soldiers on the frontier, to 
form a barrier against the Iroquois. They did not, how- 
ever, give Canada the complete protection that was expected 
from them. They could not be constantly under arms watching 
for the enemy, and ploughing at the same time. If they had 
not raised corn and wheat the colony would have starved ; 
and, after all, the risk of being attacked by the Iroquois was 
less than the danger of dying of famine. 

12. The accounts that had been given by travellers of the 

talon's labours. 125 

great mineral resources of Canada prompted M. Talon to take 
steps to verify them. On his first sailing up the Gulf, he lau<le(l 
at G{isp(5, where, he was told, silver was to be found ; but seeing 
no traces of the precious metal, he reembarked disappointed. 
He despatched M. Tesserie to explore the coasts of the Bay of 
St. Paul, opposite the Isle of Coudres. Traces of iron and 
copper were found, but no silver. Being satisfied that there 
were indications of mineral riches in the country about Three 
Fivers, Talon sent out a mineralogist, M. de la Potherie. After 
a careful examination he reported very favourably as to the 
fine quality and abundance of the iron ore to be found there. 
It was not, however, till many years afterwards tliat anything 
was done to turn the discovery to account. 

13. In the midst of his labo'.rs, M. Talon returned to France 
on urgent private business. He was dissatiafied with the con- 
duct of the Governor-General, who in personal intercourse with 
him was reserved. Though M. de Courcelles was very active 
ill military affairs, he was indolent in conducting civil matters. 
He rather obstructed than ncouraged the work of internal im- 
provement. Talon had also causes of complaint against the 
Ecclesiastical Superior and the missionaries. The Court of 
France expressed a desire that the young Indian children 
should be instructed in the French language, and introduced 
into French modes of living, as a means of consolidating and 
strengthening the colony. M. Talon urged on the Fathers the 
propriety of carrying out these instructions. They contended 
that it was impossible ; and that, even if it were possible, it woidd 
be inconvenient to do so. The Intendant was not satisfied with 
these statements, and attributed their unwillingness to Frenchify 
the Indians to a desire to retain their power over the savages, 
and to make themselves, as being the only power that could 
manage them, indispensable to the colony. He lent his ear to 
the grievances of the Libertine party, who still cried out that 
their consciences were constrained under the rigid rule of the 
Church. He obtained from the King an Edict reestab- 
lishing the RecoUets in Canada. The following year 1670 
he arrived in Quebec with Father Germain AUard, and a.d. 
three other priests of the order, and settled them in 
their old convent by the Biver St. Charles. The arrival of the 


"gray gowna" was tiailod with satisfaction by the enemies 
of the " black robes." With the Recollets there came back 
to Canadcv the six companies of the Carignan regiment that 
had accompanied De Tracy to France ; and a number of young 
women, who weie nent out to be wives for the «ettlcvi. On 
tlieir marriage they received a considerable present. In his 
anxiety to people the country, M. Colbert did not alwiiys send 
out persons of the best character. 

14. Active measures were now taken to establish French 
dominion in the northern and western parts of the continent. 
Nicolas Perrot, an intelligent and experienced traveller, who 
possessed an intimate knowledge of the native languages, and 
great iniluence among the tribes, received instructions to call a 
General Assembly of Indian delegates, to hear a message from 
Onontbio. He followed in the track of Father AUouez, and 
from the north-eastern shore of Lake Superior made hjs way to 
Chicago, the chief bourgade of the Miamis, at the southern ex- 
tremity of Lake Michigan. Thence he journeyed to Sault 

Ste. Marie, which he fixed upon as the place of gather- 

1671 ^^S' There, in the month of May, delegates of nearly 

A.D. all the tribes dwelling in the region around the great 

lakes met M. de Lousson, the Royal Commissioner. 
In a few words Lousson made them understand that he wished 
them to place their country under the protection of the Frennh 
King, and to become his subjects. When Father Alk ^z 
translated his speech into the Algonc .a tongue, the delegates, 
properly instructed, answ^ered with cries of " Vive le Roi." 
While choristers sung a solemn chant, a trench was dug in 
which a cedar cross and post wei-e planted. When the royal 
arms were affixed thereto, M. Lousson proclaimed that the 
ceremony was concluded, and that the country and people were 
nnder the protection of the Great Ononthio. 

15. At Sault Ste. Marie the Indians told Perrot of a gi-eat 
river — the Mechasepe, or, as others called it, the Mississippi 
— that flowed neither to the north nor to the east. The im- 
portance of ascertaining the direction of its outlet was at once 
seen by M. Talon ; for whether it flowed south to the Gulf of 
Mexico, or west to the Pacific Ocean, a channel of navigation to 
^he sea would be secured, He intrusted to Father Marquette, 





aud M. Joliet, a merchant of Quebec, the task of discovery. 
They made their way to Green Bay at the north-western ex- 
tremity of Lake Michigan. Tlie Indians of whom they sought 
information as to their route, drew friglitful pictures of the 
dangers they wouhl encounter. Treating with contempt this 
childish attempt to deter them from proceeding, they, with a 
crew of six men, launched two small canoes on the Fox River. 
Forcing a way with infinite toil up its numerous rapids and 
jiast its falls, they reached the source, aud made their way 
across a difficult country to the Wisconsin River. After a 
prosperous voyage the adventurers reached, on the 14th 
of June, the main stream of the Mississippi, the 
" Father of Waters." For many a league the river 
flowed through the richest country they had as yet 
seen. They saw flowery meadows, forests of stately trees, and 
prairies dotted with coimtless herds of bulfaloes. They passed 
the mouths of ilft great tributaries — the Illinois, the impetuous 
and turbid Missouri, the Ohio, the beautiful river — and were 
heartily greeted and hospitably entertained by the native tribes. 
When they reached the Arkansas River the Indians were not 
so friendly. There they received information that convinced 
them that the Mississippi did not, as they had at first hoped, 
flow towards the Pacific. Fearing that if they pursued their 
course to the Gulf of Mexico they would fall into the hands of 
the hostile Spaniards, they retraced their way. When they 
reached Chicago, Father Marquette remained to minister 
among the Miamis, and Joliet proceeded to Quebec. 

16. M. Talon took active steps to assert the right of France 
to the Hudson Bay Territory. Both the English and the 
French laid claim to it, on the strength of the voyages of Cabot 
and Verazzani. Henry Hudson,^ an Englishman, was the 
first who entered the Bay and viewed the awful desolateness of 
its rugged rock-bound coasts. He gave his name to the bay 
and strait. Other explorers — Buttons, Nelson, and Luxfox — 

^ Henry Hudson. — Born about 1560 ; 
made several voyages in search of a 
north-west passage ; on the last, redis- 
covered Hudson Bay (1610) ; on his way 
home, some of his crew mutinied, and 
forced hjm, his son, and the sick and 

frost-maimed into a small boat, which 
was cut adrift, and was never more 
heard of (1611). The Kiver Hudson 
(New York) was also named after this 
navigator, who discovered it in one of 
his earlier vovages. 



followed him, and gave their names to certain havLours and 
ports, but made no Hottlcment. In 1656, M. Bourdon took 
possession of the country in the name of the King of France, 
and opened up a trade with the Indians. Seven yea^ '« after- 
wards two renegade Frenchmen — Groaellibre and liadibson — 
conducted a i)arty of Englishmen, by way of the lliver Nemia- 
ceau, to th - southern extremity of St. Jimas Bay, where the 
expansive 8h(5et of the main bay is contracted. There, at the 
mouths of the rivers now called Rupert, Moose, and Albany, 
forts and trading-posts were established. 

17. In pnvsuauce of the in'jtructions given by the Intendaut, 

to find a short routy to Hudson Bay by the Saguenay, 

1671 Father Albanel, with M. do Simon and M. Denys — 

A,D. ascended to the source of that river in the Lake 

St. John. They encamped all winter by its borders, 
and made fiiends of the wandering tribes. When spring 
came, they explored Lake Mistissin, and descended the River 
Nemisceau to its mouth. Delegates from a dozen tribes as- 
sembled at the point where it discharged itself into the bay ; 
and in their presence Father Albanel took formal possession of 
the territory. 

18. About this time the French established themselves more 
firmly than they had hitherto done in Newfoundland. After 
the death of the brave Sir Humphrey Gilbert, the English ne- 
glected the settlement of the island for many years. Their 
vessels, in common with those of the French, the Italians, the 
Spaniards, and the Portuguese, frequented its coasts for the cod- 
fishing. In 1610, the "Company of London and Bristol Ad- 
venturers and Planters" was formed. Among its distinguished 
members was the famous philosopher, Francis Bacon.^ John 
Guy, acting on their behalf, founded a settlement at Conception 
Bay in 1616. This Company, like other famous companies of 
those days, promised a great deal more than it performed. 
Five years afterwards the population of this settlement num- 

* Francis Bacon. — Born 1561, died 
1626. In 1618 he became Lord Chan- 
cellor ; but a few years afterwards he 
was cl-arged with corruption in his 
high office, was degraded and heavily 
fined, but was afterwards pardoned. 

His fame as a writer, and as th« 
"Father of Experimental Philosophy,* 
rests on his great works, the Novum 
Organum, the "Advancement of Learn- 
ing," and the " Essays." Of these works 
the " Essays " ere the most popular. 



bered sixty-two souls, of whom fifty-four were males. The 
cod-fishery wjis iu a flouriahiug stute; two liuiidred nnd fifty 
sail of English ships, gieat aud small, were employed in it. At 
this time Captain Whitburn received a commission from the 
Admiralty that authorized him to impaunel juries, and correct 
abuses and disorders committed by fishermen on the coastt. 
He was the first of the " Fishing Admirals," tus they were 
Ciilled, who governed tho island from their vessel's deck. In 
10:22, Sir George Calvert, afterwards Lord Baltimore, obtained 
a grant c^ land in the south and east of the island — trom 
St. Mary's Cape to the Bay of Bulls — and (irected there the 
Province of Avalon. The English had then several F,tttle- 
nients on the eastern coast, from Cape Ilace to Conception. Bay, 
the principal of which was St. John's. The French occupied a 
post on the southern coast, at the Bay of Plaisance. This 
beautiful and commodious harbour was entered by a narrow 
strait, and defended by Fort St. Louis, which stood at the foot 
of a rocky height. The settlement remained in the hands of 
private individuals until the troubles in Canada awakened a 
fresh interest at Court in all the French possessions in Nortli 
America. The King sent out Sieur de Poyps with a commis- 
sion as his Lieutenant-Governor to take command of Plaisance. 
19. The French now claimed all the North American Con- 
tinent from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Pacific Ocean, and 
south to the Gulf of Mexico. The English occupied n stretch 
of country along the Atlantic coast, from Maine to Florida. 
They were hemmed in by the Alleghi^ny Mountains. As yet 
tliey did not feel that their energies were cramped within these 
narrow bounds. 

QuKSTiONS. — 1. Who had selected 
De Mesy for the office of Governor- 
General? Why? How were his ex- 
pectations disappointed? How did De 
Mesy threaten De Laval? What step 
(lid the latter take ? 

2. To what office was the Marquis 
de Tiacy appointed ? How did the quar- 
rel of De Mesy and De Laval end ? 

3. What event caused great joy in 
Quebec? Why? What means were 
taken to replenish the colony ? What 
excited the wonder of the Indians? 


4. What measure did the Viceroy take 
to check the Iroquois? Why were the 
fortsof little use? 

5. What led many of the Iroquois to 
seek for peace? Which tribe held 
aloof? How did De Chazy die? How 
was his death revenged? On vihat did 
the Viceroy then resolve? 

6. With what force did ho advance 
against them ? What bravado did the 
French display ? How did the Mohawks 
escape? What damage did the French 



7. What forced the expedition to re- 
turn to Quebec? For what was the 
Viceroy blamed? Who returned to 
France with hira ? Who was the new 
Governor-General ? 

8. Against whom did the Mohawks 
turr; their arms? Whom did they ask 
to bo sent to them ? Why did certain 
persons in France doubt the elflcacy of 
missions to the Indians? 

9. Describe the expedition of Father 
AUouez. What two missions did he 
and Father Nicolas found ? 

10. To what did great atteu .on then 
begin to be given? What objects had 
M. Talon in view ? 

11. What led to the formation of 
Cwarlesbourg and Louisbourf ? Why 
did Talon place soldiers on the frontier? 

12. What stops did Talon take to as- 
certain the mineral resources of Canada? 
What was the result? 

13. What causes of complaint had 
Talon against Courcelles? To what 
did he attribute the unwillingness of 
the Jesuits to Frenchify the young 
Indians? What edict did he obtain 
from the King? Whom did he take to 
Quebec when he returned from France ? 

11. For what were active measnrcg 
then taken ? Where did a general as- 
sembly of Indian delegates meet? 
What took place there ? 

16. Of what river did the Indians tell 
Perrot? To whom was the expedition 
in search of the Mississippi intrusted? 
What route did they take? Describe 
their journey. 

16. What territory was Talon anxious 
to secure for France? What other 
power claimed it? Who had taken 
possession of it in 1056? What footincf 
had the English obtained there? 

17. Whom did Talon send to the 
Hudson Bay Territory? By what 
route? Describe the scene at the mouth 
of the Nemisceau. 

18. Where, about this time, did the 
French establish themselves more firmly 
than before? Who was the first of the 
"Fishing Admirals"? Where were 
bhe English and the French settlements 
respectively? Whom did the French 
King send out as Lieutenant-Governor 
of Plaisance ? 

19. What portions of North America 
were at this time claimed by the French 
and by the English respectively? 





1672 to 1686 A.D. 

Firm rule of M. de Courcelles. 

The Fort at Cataracoui. 

Count Frontenac. 

M. Duchesneau, Intendant. 

Sleur la Salle. 

The Griffin on Lake Huron. 

Salle reaches the mouth of the Mis- 

sissippi — His sad fate. 
Frontenac in disgrace. 
Governor Dongan of New York. 
M. de la Barre. 
The Bay of Famine. 

1. Canada, under the rule of M. de Courcelles, continued to 
enjoy rest from war; but it required all his vigilance and 
vigour to preserve it in that happy state. He acquired a great 
ascendency over the Indians by the haughty resolution with 
which he enforced his commands, and by the justice of his 
dealings with them. He promptly met the first threat of 
danger. He heard that the Iroquois were intriguing with the 
Ottawas to induce them to carry their peltry to New York, 
i'earing that the commerce cf the country would be ruined, ho 
a.scended the River St Lawrence in a bateau, and confronted 
them in their own country. He succeeded in putting a stop to 
their scheming, but so impaired his health that he demanded 
his recall to Franca. 

2. The late influx of emigrants had let loose some bad 
characters in the colony. Three soldiers waylaid a Mohawk 
chief, who was caiTying a number of valuable beaver skins. 
They gave him too much brandy, and then robbed and murdered 
him. Three other Frenchmen treated six Mahingans in a 
similar manner. These crimes inflamed the Indians, and 
Canada trembled on the verge of a desolating war. The 
officers of justice traced the murder of the chief to the tliree 
soldiers. M. de Courcelles called on the Iroquois to send 
deputies to meet him at Montreal. After showing them that 
it was their interest to remain at peace, he commanded the 
culprits to be beheaded in their presence. This prompt stroke 
of justice satisfied them ; and the Mahingans were pacified 



by a promise that the murderers of their people would receive 
a like punishment. Shortly afterwards the Seuecas suddenly 
attacked the Pottawattamies, and took a number of prisoners. 
M. de Courcelles made a fiery and imperative demand for 
their instant restitution. The Senecas fiercely declared that 
they were not the vassals and slaves of Ononthio, and then 
sent him a few of the captives. He pretended to be satis- 
fied, for he knew it would be dangerous to press that fierce 
nation too hardly. 

3. The labours of the missionaries in the Five Cantons 
produced some good results. Among the Mohawks a band of 
neophytes displayed great fervour. The Superior, fearing that 
they would be exposed to danger from their own people, removed 
them to Prairie de la Madelaine, opposite to Montreal. M. de 
Courcelles the more heartily approved of this step, as he hoped 
that, in the event of war, they would be a check against the in- 
roads of theii" pagan brothers. 

4. The condition of the Indians, on the whole, was not im- 
proved. The poor red men in Canada dwindled away. Brandy 
and the small-pox made woful havoc. Whole tribes in the 
north were swept away. At Tadoussac and Three Eivers, where 
hundreds had been wont to assemble, only a few wretched in- 
dividuals came to trade. The Irotiuois, having exter- 

1672 minated the Andastes, grew restless for want of employ- 
A.D. ment for their arms. M. de Courcelles, fearing that 
sooner or later they would break the peace, conceived a 
ei^heme to keep them in check. He invited their chiefs to 
meet him at Cataracoui, at the *»CiStern extremity of Lake 
Ontario. The great calumet was passed from mouth to mouth, 
and the tree of peace was planted. After making gracious 
speeches and handsome presents, he told them it was his inten- 
tion to build a fort there, so that they might come and trade 
more conveniently with the French. They were delighted 
with the project, and expressed a hope that It would be soon 
completed. It did not strike them at first that the Governor- 
General would throw in soldiers when the fort was completed, 
and that, instead of its being a favour, it was meant to be a 
menace. De Courcelles returned to Quebec, and met Count 
Frontenac, who had been sent out to relieve him. The new 



Governor-General heartily adopted his scheme, and gave instant 
orders for the construction of the fort at Cataracoui. When 
completed, it was called Fort Frontenac. This name was also 
given to the great lake. 

6. Louis de Buade, Count de Frontenac, was a nobleman 
of high birth and powerful family connections. He was grand- 
son of a friend and comrade of Henry IV. His spirit was as 
lofty as his birth. There were some strange contradictions in 
liip character. He was regular in his life, and devoted in his 
religious duties, and he was adored by the people for his acts of 
kindness ; but he was imperious, jealous, violent, and vindictive. 
He possessed the power of commanding men in times of dif- 
ficulty and danger, but could not command his own ten oer. 
He was actuated by a desire to promote the public good, and 
gave his countenance to all schemes for the extension of the 
power of France in North America. He was opposed to all 
commercial restrictions, and was disposed to allow the people 
some voice in the management of their local affairs. If every- 
body, from the bishop to the bailiff, had bowed submissively 
to his will, matters might have gone on pretty smoothly. 
M. Talon would not submit to his imperious manners, and de- 
manded his own recall. Thereafter Canada, began to languish. 

8. Count Frontenac soon raised a great turmoil. He em- 
broiled himself with the Bishop. He favoured the Recollets, 
and opposed the Jesuit missionaries. He countenanced the 
liquor traffic, contending that it was necessary to permit it in 
order to gain over ibe Indians, and that the evils growing out 
of it had been very mu'*^ ^exaggerated. Its prohibition had, he 
held, been made a handle fcr persecuting those who opposed 
the domination of the priesthood. He threw Father Fenelon 
into prisoi, because he dared to preach against his acts. 

7. With M DuchOBUeau, tl'e new Intendant, he was soon 
at open and violent war. He was exceedingly jealous of the 
powers intrusted to that officer, who, as President, kept in his 
possession the book in which all Acts of the Council were 
registered, and who on every subject that was discmssed gave 
the final judgment. The Count was not content with his posi- 
tion as head of the Council, but he strove to invest in himself 
all it« powers. In the spirit of his King, Louis XIV., he was 


disposed to say " that the Council was himself.'* M. Buches- 
ueau, as fond of power, and nearly as self willed as the Count, 
refused to make the slightest concession. The lengths to which 
the Count carried his violence grieved even his warmest 
partisans in the colony, embarrassed his friends a^ Court, and 
drew forth a r^xnonstrance from the King. 

8. At this time a young gentleman adventurer, Robert 
Cavalier, Sieur la Salle, arrived in Canada, with his imagina- 
tion aflame with the dream of finding a way to Japan and the 
East Indies by penetrating the western wilds of the contiueut 
until he reached a northern sea. He was formed for arduous 
adventure. He was intelligent, ambitious, and daring, and had 
be cu disciplined by the severe training of a Jesuit college. No 
difficulty could daunt, no disappointment could depi iss him. 
In Quebec he heard Joliet's tale of the discovery of the Mis- 
sissippi. A great opportunity to accomplish the object of his 
desire seemed to present itself to him. He flattered himself 
that by descending the great river he would certainly reach the 
Gulf of Mexico, and by ascending its tributary the Missouri 
to its source he would find the north sea of which he was iu 
search, or that fortune would meet him whichever route he 
took. He unfolded his project to Count Frontenac, and won 
his heart by offering to rebuild his favourite foi-t at Cataracoui 
of stone, and on a larger scale. Armed with letters of intro- 
duction to persons of interest at Court, he passed over to France. 
Through the influence of M. Saignelay, Minister of Marine, and 
of the Duke of Conti, he obtained a grant of the seigneurie of 
Cataracoui, and the exclusive privilege of commerce in the west, 
and unlimited liberty to make discoveries. With Chevalier 
Tonti, a veteran officer, and Father Hennepin, a Flemish Ee- 
coUet, and thirty men, he returned to Canada. 

9. For a year La Salle busied himself in clearing land, 
building forts at Cataracoui, building ships on Lake Ontario 

and above the Falls of Niagara, and trading with the 

1679 Indians. On the 9th of August, with Father Henne- 

A.D. pin, he entered Lake Erie, on board the " Griffin," the 

first ship that had ever ploughed its waters. Traversing 
its length, he passed through the Detroit Strait into a beautiful 
lake, which he called St. Clair. A furious wind struck the 


Griffln on Lake Huron. The sailors, dismayed by the storm, 
dropped on their knees ; but the pilot swoie at La Salle for 
enticing him to leave the oce-in, which he had navigated safely 
for many a year, only to perish in a horrible lake. A calm 
came, and Michillimackinac was reached. Their voyage came 
to a close in the green bay of Lake Michigan. La Salle sent 
the Griffin, freighted with a rich cargo of f ura, back to Niagara. 
It was never seen afterwards. 

10 Chevalier Tonti went to live among the Illinois. The 
^cju-will of that people was necessary for the success of the 
.enterprise. La Salle secured the commerce of the west and the 
great lakes by For- Orevecour on the River Illinois, by 
fortified at St. Josep"-' anfl .1 Chicago, at Sault Ste Marie, 
at Michillimackinac and ? jL^etroit, and by his rer . forts 
at Niagara and Catara> oui. 

11. For two years La Salle, keeping his great project con- 
stantly in view, worked on encompassed by enemies. There 
were merchants in Canada who called him a creature of Count 
Frontenac, and who, envious of his trading privileges and of his 
success, attempted to destroy his credit. The Iroquois, insti- 
gated by the English at New York, invaded the Illinois 
country, and murdered his allies. His men murmured, 
mutinied, and attempted to poison him. But he bore a stout 
heart through all. He despatched Father Hennepin and 
M. Daccan lo find the source of the Mississippi. They ascended 
as far as the 45th degree of north latitude. They were stopped 
by the beautiful falls, which the Father called ** St. Anthony." 
There they fell among the Sioux, who held them captive a 
long time. 

12. At length La Salle launched his canoes on Illinois 
Eiver, and on the 11th of February entered the broad 
stream of the Mississippi. Sometimes receiving a friendly 168 2 
greetiug, sometimes saluted by a shower of arrows, he a.d. 
passed the mouths of the Missouri, the Ohio, and the 
Arkansas, and through the country of the Chickasaws, Taencas, 
Natchez, and Quinipissas. As he descended, flat, dreary, marshy 
meadows, exhaling the miasma of rank vegetation, extended 
as far as eye could reach. On the 19th of March he gained the 
mouth of the " Father of Waters." He celebrated his im- 



])()rtaiit discovery by great rejoicings. He took formal posses- 
si on of the country drained by the Mississippi, and named it 
Louisiana, in honour of Louis XIV. He then hastened to 
carry to Quebec the news of his success. His return voyage 
was very toilsome and dangerous, and he did not reach the 
capita] until the spring of 1683. 

13. La Salle was received with great distinction at Court. 
In the following year he sailed from Rochelle, with his nephew 
Moranger, and two hundred and eighty men, to find the month 
of the Mississippi by sea, and to found a settlement ; but 
having altogether miscalculated its longitude, he sailed two 
hundred miles past it. Intense was his disappointment when 
he discovered his mistake. Misfortunes accumulated on his 
liead. The ship bearing his chief supplies was wrecked in the 
Gulf of Mexico. The men grew mutinous. In exploring the 
interior of the country, a party of them, exasperated by priva- 
tions and by the haughty temper of Moranger, murdered both 
nephew and uncle. Chevalier Tonti descended to the mouth 
of the Mississippi in expectation of meeting La Salle : he did 
not learn his sad fate until long afterwards. 

14. For many years after La Salle's discovery, the French 
took no steps to establish themselves on the Mississippi. During 
his absence his patron fell into temporary disgrace. The 
King supported the Bishop, and prohibited the sale of liquors 
to the Indians. Count Frontenac was rebuked for attempting 
t centre all the powers of the Council in himself, and M. Du- 
chesneau was censured for the strong temper he had displayed 
when opposing the Governor-General's pretensions. Both were 
recalled. M. de la Barre, an old soldier, and M. des Meules 
were appointed in their room. Pending their arrival, events 
took place that boded ill for the future peace of the colony. 

15. Colonel Dongan was appointed Governor of New York in 
1682, and he commenced to intrigue with the Iroquois, in order 
to divert the fur- trade to the English. A Seneca chief wus 
murdered by an Illinois warrior, and all the Five Cantons rose 
in arms, to take revenge on the tribes in the west friendly to 
the French. Count Frontenac invited the Iroquois to send 
delegates to Cataracoui, with the view of settling the quarrel 
peaceably. Incited by Colonel Dongan, who wished to break off 

M. DE LA BARUE. 137 

all negotiations, the Onoudagas sent him word that he must 
come to the Chouagen River if he wished to speak to them. 
Frontenac then assumed his haughtiest air, and, in answer to 
their repeated insolence, formally declared that all the western 
tribes were under his direct protection, and that, if the Iroquois 
had anything to say to him, they must come to Montreal, where 
he would await them for a stated time. This proud bearing 
seemed to have an effect, for shortly afterwards a deputation of 
chiefs went to Montreal to confer with the Count. They made 
fair promises to keep peace with all his allies, and departed loaded 
with presents, and satisfied that they had amused Ononthio. 

16. M. de la Barre, the new Governor-General, found 
Canada in a state of great disquietude. A grand Council, com- 
posed of every person of note and position in the colony, met in 
Quebec, to consult with him on the best measures of defence to 
be taken. Acting on its unanimous advice, he made an urgent 
appeal to the King for three hundred soldiers, and for thirteen 
hundred labourers to till the soil, while the Canadians were left 
free to do military duty. He also prayed his majesty to make 
such representations to the English Court as would deter 
Colonel Dongan from aiding the Iroquois. The " Council of 
Notables " was convinced that Canada could not exist unless 
they were completely humbled. In answer to his petition, the 
King sent De la Barre two hundred men, and an assurance 
that Dongan had been instructed to forbear from hostilities. The 
aid was insufficient, and the neutrality imposed on the Governor 
uf New York did not prevent him from giving secret encourage- 
ment to the Five Nations. 

17. The Governor-General, not feeling confident that he could 
crush his enemies, made overtures of peace. The wily 
savages were very willing to send their deputies to smoke the 
great pipe with the French at Cataracoui ; but their insincerity 
was made too apparent by their acts to deceive any one but 
De la Barre. His policy was very generally condemned, and 
people about him said to one another that old age had made him 
credulous. The course he pursued was calculated to excite 
the contempt of the Iroquois, who attributed it to a conscious- 
iiess of weakness. The Ouondagas, Cayugas, and Oneidas 
amused him by entering into separate treaties of peace with 



him. De la Barre then flattered himself that he would be able to 
attack the Senecas alone, and crush them. That " nation " had 
made itself particularly obnoxious to the French and to their 
allies the Illinois. A force of nine hundred soldiers, militia 
and Indians, was raised. De la Barre lingered so long on the 
way that much of his piovisions was consumed before he 
reached the enemy's country. He crossed Lake Ontario, and 
encamped by a bleak cove, which the Frenchmen, in memory 
of their miseries, called the Bay of Famiue. There De la 
Barre still lingered, while sickness and death wasted his force. 

18. At this juncture the fortune ( f Canada trembled in the 
balance. If the Five Nations had united their forces, they 
could have destroyed its feeble guard. Governor Dongan, 
luckily for it, alarmed their proud spirit by an act that plainly 
showed that he considered them English subjects. He caused 
the arms of the Duke of York to be affixed to the cabins of 
their principal bourgades. The Jesuit missionaries used this 
act as an argument to convince the Iroquoi.s that it was not 
their interest to drive the French from Canada ; for, if the 
English became sole masters, they would not long be a powerful 
people. The astute savages saw the danger of allowing either 
English or French to become the dominant power. 

19. All the "nations" adopted the cause of the Senecas as 
their own. Their deputies visited the French camp, and bore 
themselves as men who knew their power. M. de la Barre 
received them in state. He sat in his easy-chair, surrounded 
by his officers and the Indians. He told the deputies /hat 
he had come to make peace; but he threatened them with 
destruction if they persisted in their perfidious courses. The 
chiefs, perceiving the weakness of the French, listened scorn- 
fully. Garrangula, the Seneca orator, after gravely walking 
five or six times around the circle, faced De la Barre, and said 
that he saw a great captain who spoke as if he were dream- 
ing ; who spoke of his having come to smoke the great pipe 
with the Senecas, but Garrangula knew that he would have 
knocked them on the head if sickness had not weakened 
the arms of his soldiers. De la Barre was intensely morti- 
fied at this sarcasm. He demanded that the Senecas should 
refrain from warring against the Illinois. "Not while a 




warrior of either nation remains alive," was the bold 
reply tluit crimsoned with rage the faces of the French officers. 
The deputies would only promise that their people, when 
fighting with the Illinois, would not " drop the hatchet on the 
head of any Frenchman." They demanded the instant de- 
parture of the French from their country as the preliminary 
condition to their signing a treaty of peace. M. de la Barre com- 
plied with the arrogant request. The mortification of the 
French officei's at the ignominious termination of the campaign 
was made more intense by the arrival, soon after, of Captains 
Montorlier and Desnos with a reinforcement of troops. M. de 
la Barre was recalled the following year. The report of the 
peace he had made caused an unfavourable impression at Court. 
No one in Canada believed that it would be of long continuance. 

Questions. — 1. How did De Cour- 
celles preserve peace in Canada? How 
did he check the Iroquois ? 

2. What crimes, perpetrated by 
Frenchmen, inflamed the Indians? 
How did De Conrcelles pacify them ? 

3. Which of the Mohawts were re- 
moved to Prairie de la Madelaine? 
Why? Why did De Conrcelles approve 
of the step? 

4. What was tho condition of the 
Indians generally? Why did the 
Iroquois grow restless? What plan 
did De Courcelles form for keeping 
tbom in check? 

5. Sketch the character of Count 
Frontenac. What was the state of 
Canada during his administration? 

6. What was Frontenae's quarrel 
with the Bishop ? W^hat were his views 
regarding the liquor traffic? 

7. Who was the new Intendant? 
What was the cause of Frontenae's 
quarrel with him ? How did the Count 
suff'er for his violence ? 

8. What young adventurer about 
this time arrived in Canada? What 
great project did he form? How did 
he win Frontenae's heart? What suc- 
cess had he in France ? 

9. How did La Salle busy himself after 
his return to Canada? Where did he 
then go ? What became of the Oriffin f 

10. How did La Salle secure the 

commerce of the great lakes and of 
the west ? 

11. What great dilliculties encom- 
passed La Salle? What befell Father 
Hennepin and M. Daccan? 

12. When did La Salle reach the 
Mississippi? Describe his voyage 
down the river. W^hen did he reach 
its mouth ? What name did he give to 
its bed? 

13. What expedition did La Salle 
undertake the following year? What 
was his sad fate ? 

14. How did the quarrel between 
Frontenac and Duchesneau terminate? 
Who were their successors? 

15. What brought the French once 
more into collision with the Five 
Cantons? How did Frontenac deal 
with them ? 

16. What advice did the "Council of 
Notables " give De la Barre ? What was 
the result? 

17. What policy did De la Barre resolve 
to adopt? What was thought of it? 
Whom did he resolve to attack ? Where 
did his men endure great miseries? 

18 What act of Colonel Dongan's 
excited the jealousy of the Iroquois? 

19. Describe De la Barre's meeting 
with the deputies of the Iroquois. What 
did they demand as a preliminary of 
peace? What intensified the mortifi- 
cation of the French officers? 





1684 to 1689 A.D. 

Mnrquis de Denonville. 

Treaty of Neutrality, 

Seizure of Iroquois Chiefs. 

The Senecas punished. 


Intrigues of Governor Dongan. 

Cataracoui besieged. 
Kondiaronk "the liut." 
Peace Itilled. 

M. de Calli6res in Franco. 
The Massacre of Lacliine. 
Hudson Bay. 

1 . M. DE LA Barre was succeeded by the MaxQLUis de Denon- 
ville, an accomplished cavalry officer. With him came M. de 
Calli6res, Governor of Montreal, — a better soldier France never 
sent to Canada. The new Governor-General was not long in 
the country before he saw the dangers that threatened it from 
without and from within. He concluded that it "was impos- 
sible to conciliate the capricious Iroquois, to win them over 
entirely, to make Frenchmen of them, as he had been instructed 
to attempt. A Frenchman readily became an Indian, but an 
Indian never became a Frenchman. The numbers of young 
men v/ho adopted the savage life brought opprobrium on the 
French character. Royal Edicts were launched in vain against 
the " Runners of the Woods." By their reckless, vagabond con- 
duct, they injured the trade and weakened the military force of 
the colony. The evils resulting from their wild course of life 
caused the Governor-General much anxiety. 

2. With the aid of soldiers from France, the Canadian 
militia, and the friendly Indians, De Denojivilk. resolye(L>to 
humble the Senecas. The time appeared favourable. There 
was perfect peace now between the Crowns of France and 
England. The Duke of York, as James II., had succeeded 

his brother Charles, "the meiTy monarch." He con- 
1687 Eluded with Louis, his magnificent friend, a Treaty of 
A.D. Neutrality, by which the two Kings agreed that per- 
petual peace should subsist between their colonies in 
North America. National antipathies and commercial jeal- 


ousies, however, could not long be restrained by such an agree- 
ment. It did not prevent Dougan from endeavouring to thwart 
the policy of the Governor-General. 

3. While De BeLonville made vigorous preparations for war, 
he .all the time professed anxiety for peace. In pursuing this 
course, he, acting on the command of the King, who wanted 
slaves to man his galleys, was guilty of treachery, getook 
advantage of the implicit faith that the Iroquois reposed in the 
missionaries. Without disclosing to them his object, h e requi red 
the^^hersjojpersuade certain of the first men to visit him 
at Cataracoui. When the chiefs were in his power, he ciused 
tT jm to be seized, ;,<.nd, loaded with irons, to he shipped off to 
France. It was an act both impolitic and cruel. It destroyed 
faith in French honour, and aroused the Iroquois from the 
sloth into which they were falling, to recommence their war- 
fare. Before intelligence of the perfidy reached their cantons, 
De Denonville arrived at the mouth of the Genessee with a 
force of two thousand men in two hundred bateaux. On the 
same day, (the 10th of June), M. Duvantye, Commandant at 
Michillimackinac, met him with a band of Frenchmen, Hurons, 
and Ottawas. The Indians drew auguries of success from this 
happy rencounter. 

4. The united force then marched through the country of the 
Senecas. Unopposed it passed through two deep and danger- 
ous defiles. When it emerged into the more open country, and 
was within pistol-shot of the chief bourgade, eight hundred 
Iroquois rose from their coverts and opposed its advance. Two 
hundred stole through the woods and fell on the rear of the 
French advance guard. Attacked on both sides, the regular 
soldiers, unaccustomed to forest warfare, fell into confusion. 
The Canadians and Indians remained firm, and gave them time 
to recover their coolness. After some brisk firing, the Iroquois 
broke and fled in all directions through the woods, leaving 
forty-six dead and sixty wounded warriors behind. The 
Ottawas, who had shown less bravery than the other Indians 
in the battle, mangled and tortured the dead and wounded 
with fearful ferocity when it was over. For ten days the 
French remained in the country. Though they ravaged it all 
around, they took no prisoners, for all the inhabitants had fled 




to the eastern cantons. The principal bourgade was burned to 
ashes, over a million biT^-hels of corn were destroyed, and an 
enormous number of hogs killed. Sickness broke out among 
the invaders, the allied Indians grew impatient to return home, 
and no De Denonville marched west to the River Niagara. 
There he caused a fort to be built, and left a hundred men to 
garrison it. He h.od done the Senecjis grievous harm, from 
which they never fully "f^covered. When they returned to 
their desolated country, famine and pestilence swept them oft' 
in great numbers. 

5. During the summer Canada was visited by small-poz. 
It made victims in every household, and committed fearful 
ravages among the domiciled Indians. Canada, in its time, 

- had experienced great suflfering, but it had never passed through J 
l^ darker days than those that now descended on it. 3 The 
chastisement inflicted on the Senecas united all the Five 
Nations to revenge it. Like packs of fami-Lhed wolves, bands 
of warriors spread themselves over the settlements. The habi- \ 
tans dwelling on the southern shore of the St. Lawrence werej 
held in a state of siege ; in every seigneurie there was a fortified 
enclosure, to which, with their household movables and cattle, 
they fled for safety. When they went to work in the fields, 
bands of armed men kept watch on the skirts of the wood.^ for 
the savages v ^'^ might be lurking there. 

6. Gover ongan encouraged the Iroquois to maintain a 
hostile ' ^ towards the French, and instructed them to 
listen t overtures oi peace except on the terms dictated by 
himself,-4^mely, that the Governor-General should restore to 
liberty the chiefs whom he had sent to France, that he should 
raze the forts at Cataracoui and Niagara, make good the dam- 
age he had done the Senecas, and restore the Christian Mohawks 
at Sanlt St. Louis to their nation^ A thousand warriors 
assembled in the chief bourgade of the Onondagas, as if deter- 
mined to force the French to accept those hard terms. Through 
the influence of Father de Lamberville, the Onondagas were 
induced to send deputies to Montreal to treat with the Governor- 
General. Five hundred warriors insisted on accompanying 
them. Arrived at Cataracoui, the deputies demanded that the 
Commandant, M. d'Orvilliers, should send an officer to accora- 



pany them. So, with Lieuteuant la Perelle they descended to 
Lake St. Francis, where the deputies found another baud of 
Iroquois as numerous as their own escort. They were now left 
to go to Montreal alone. In the presence of De Denonville, 
ILuiskouau, their orator, spoke proudly. Mucli as he loved 
Ouonthio, he said, he could hold out to him no hope of peace 
unless the terms dictated by " Corleax " were accepted. But'^ 
/ the Governor-General was not to be brow-beaton by bragga- J 
(^docio. He had several Onondaga prisoners. Giving theml 
their liberty, he confided to one the conditions on which he waa 
willing to treat with his nation, and then politely bowed out\ 
the deputies. 

7. In the meantime the impatient Iroquois had blockaded 
Fort Cataraconi, killed all the cattle in the fields, and burned 
all the hay by shooting into it arrow? tipped with burning tow. 
"W" en the Governor-General's envoy ascended to Lake Ontario, he 
saw L French barciue surrounded by hundreds of canoes. Two, 
filled with the most daring warriors, made a dash to board it. 
Several shots from its swivel gun scattered the whole flotilla ; 
and a favourable wind springing up, bore the vessel safely to 
Fort Niagara. 

8. The Indians never kept long to one course of action. 
Their capricious temper caused those who dealt with them 
much anxiety. At one time they would be all eager for war ; 
then, on a sudden, they would grow cool and seek for peace. 7 

/ The Iroquois now showed a disposition to treat with the Gover-J 
Lnor-General on his own terms. The Onondagas, Oneidas, and 
Cay u gas sent delegates to Montreal. Ta truce was agreed to,J| 
on condition that hostilities should cease at once ; that the Mo- 
hawks and Senecas should join with the other nations, and that 
all the Indian tribes friendly to the French should be included 
in the treaty; that the Iroquois should allow Cataracoui to be 
re victualled ; and that the Governor-General should raze Fort 
Niagara. /The delegates left, hostages behind, and departed | 
with a promise that accredited ambassadors should be sent toj 
conclude the treaty of peace. 

9. A new danger sprang iip to harass M. de Denonville. The 
friendly Indians heard of the proposed peace with displeasure. 
They said that the French had sacrificed their allies to save 


themselves ; and that the Iroquois would take advantage of tli3 
peace to make war upon them. The Hurous of Micliillimackinac 
descended to Cataracoui in expectation of war. When M 
d'Orvilliers told Kondiaronk, their chief, that there was a 
truce, and that the wisest course he could take was to return 
home at once, " the Bat " (as he was sur^amed) listened gravely, 
and departed without saying a word. Me had heard, however, 
that the ambassadors of the Five Nations would descend the 
River Chouagen on their way to Montrecal.JSo he and his war- 
ri«^rs lurked about the Bay ot Famine, and fell upon, and after 

^f ief fight, captured them. J The Rat then proceeded alone to 
Cataracoui, and spoke mysteriously to the puzzled Commandant, 
saying that they had killed the peace, and he should like to 
see how Ononthio could get out of the scrape. He then has- 
tened away to his prisoners. They asked him indignantly why 
he had so rudely stopped them on the errand of peace. With 
well assumed surprise he pretended to be utterly ignorant of 
their mission, and said that it was tne French themselves who 
had set him on. To prove his sincei ity, he released them, with 
the exception of one whom he kept to replace a Huron who had 
been slai a in the skirmish. Kondiaronk then journeyed with 
all speed to Michillimackinac, and reached it before the news 
of the truce arrived. He delivered up his prisoner to the Com- 
mandant as one who had been taken in regular battle. In vain 
did the unfortunate Iroquois, when taken to the place of execu- 
tion, protest that he was an ambassador. When he screamed 
out about the peace, the Rat gravely shook his head, and said 
that fear of death had turned the prisoner's brain.4_jWhen his 
victim lay dead, the crafty wretch went away and secretly re- 
leased an Iroquois chief vho had long lain in bondage. He 
spoke in terms of indignation of the sacrilege committed on the 
sacred person of an ambassador of peace, and told him to fly to 
his country and warn his people against the treachery of the 
French. | 

10. rThese machinations had their effect^ Governor Dongan, 
however, had as mi:ch to do with killing the peace as the Rat. 
He maintained that the Governor-General had no right to enter 
into treaties with the Iroquois, who were British subjects, with- 
out his intervention. It was not difficult for him to create 




suspicion ia the mind of that capricious people, that the French 
in seeking peace were merely meditating some act of treachery. 
Dongan, who had not acted '^ to the spirit of vhe treaty of 
neutrality, was now recalled. His successor. Governor Androa, 
very soon intimated to M. de Den'^nville that peace could only 
be secured on the terms Dongan had dicrtated. 

11. About this time M. de Calli^res passed over to France. 
He was indignant that the peace of so grand a country as 
Canada should be at the mercy of a ''handful of savages," 
who, he believed, were incited to war by the English for the 
purpose of destroying its trade. /Both he and De Denonville 
agreed in thinking that the presence of Frgnnh r^ pd Eng lish on 
the American Continent was incompatible with peavie| He laid 

/before the King a scheme by which he proposed to seize on 
I Albany and New York, which was then an unfortified town, 

containing only four hundred inhabitants capable of bearing 


12. While Canada had been struggling for its existence, 
a great event had transpired in Europe. The Bevolution^ had 
taken place in England. The despot James had fled to France. 
Lq ^is X IV. was preparing to do battle with the combined 
powers, and had declared war against England. He lent a 

Iwilling ear to any scheme that would destroy her power/ 
iu America. He recalled M. de Denonville iii order to 1689 
give him a command in one of his armies, and reap-y a.d. 
I pointed Frontenac in his place in Canada. The weight 
that the Count's high rank gave him, his experience in war, his 
resolute and daring character, and the intercession of his 
friends, induced the King to overlook the past. 

13. M. de Calliferes' scheme was set aside for a project that 
combined an attack o nffew York by sea and by land. I Two 
great wf.r-ships and a number of lesser vessels were detached 
for the enterprise, and the naval command was given to M. de 
la Caffinifere. It was resolved that the attack should be made 
iu early autumn, that Gaffini^re should blockade the harbour 


' Tke Revolution. — The great English 
Rovnlution of 1688, by which the Stew- 

arts were Anally drivtn from the throne 
James II. was then sncceeded by Will 



iam III. (of Orange), whose foreign 
policy was guided by uncompromising 
hostility to Louis XIV. of France and 
all his schemes. 





of New York, and hold himself in readiness to bombard the 
town as soon as he received certain intelligence that Frontenac 
and Calli^res, with all the available troops of Canada at their 
back, were in a position to cooperate with him. Much precious 
time was lost in fitting out the war-ships. Winds and wave? 
were hostile. When the expedition reached the entrance of the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence a calm and a heavy fog descended on 
it. ^t was the middle of September before all the ships met at 
Chedabucto, the place of rendezvous, and the enterprise was 

14. M. de Denonville waited long and anxiously for the ap- 
pearance of the peace ambassadors. On the 25th of August, 
"'bile the Island of Montreal was hushed in repose, t^C^elve 
hundred Iroquois warriors burst on the neighbourhood of 
Lachine, and massacred, in their first rage, men, women^ and 
children. J Happy were those who were killed by the first 
'stroke. Hundreds of prisoners were tortured with, appalling 
cruelty. The fiends spread themselves over the country, and 
advanced within a league of Montreal, burning houses and 
barns, wasting fields, slaying the people, and perpetrating the 
most abominable cruelties. On the first news of the invasion, 
the Governor-General ordered M. de Robeyre, with a small 
body of soldiers, to throw himself into Fort Koland, as he feared 
the enemy would seize upon it. Eobeyre held out until his 
last man was k'Ued, and himself was mortally wounded. 
The Iroquois remained on the island till the middle of 

15. M. de Denonville was reduced almost to despair by this 
dreadful catas" >phe.\ While the alarm and excitement were 
at their height, his successor arrived in Quebec. With a sense 
of infinite relief he handed over his command to old Count 
Frontenac. I One of his last acts had been to command M. 
d'Orvilliers at Cataracoui to abandon and destroy the fort 
if relief did not come before November. \ The Count, consider- 
ing the position of much importance, despatche^T an officer to 
countermand the order ; but before he arrived the solid stone 
works were ruined, and he heard the report of the explosion. 
All the munitions of war were thrown into the lake. \ 

16. During M. de Denonville's time the French 





gevoral successes in Hndson Bay.^ The Euglisli in 1G83 occu- 
pied all the trading posts on its coasts. In the following year, 
Kadisson and Grosellifere, who had helped to establish them, 
commenced to work against their interest. They returned to 
France, and were received with favour by the King. Through 
their instrura ^tality the Company of the North was formed 
in Canada, and they established a post which they named Fort 
Therese. It was not very long before mutual dissatisfaction 
grew up between them and the Company. The renegades again 
changed their allegiance, and transferred the fort to the Eng- 
lish. The fur-trade of the Bay was very rich and profitable, 
and was a prize worth contending foi( J The Company applied 
to De Denonville for aid to regain ^ jssession of their pos4 He 
sent Chevalier Troyea, M, d'Iberville, and eighty Canadians. 
They marched on snow-shoes from Quebec, reached the further 
end of the Bay, and surprised, and took in succession, the three 
English forts on the Kupert, Moose, and Albany rivers. 

17. When the treaty of neutrality was ratified (1687), the 
English and French monarchs intimated their desire that the 
trade should be free to both nations, and that Fort Nelson 
should be constituted a common port. National jealousies could 
not be restrained by royal decrees. When war was declared 
(1689), Frontenac received instructions to support the Company 
of the North. King William sent an officer to retake the forts 
captured by De Troyes. The English ships were caught in the 
ice in the Bay. D'Iberville, using stratagem, captured the 
greater part of the English force (which had landed), and com- 
pelled the officer to surrender. Freeing most of his captives, 
D'Iberville sailed with his prizes to Quebec. 

Questions. — 1. Who was the new 
Governor-General? What did he per- 
ceive to be impossible? Whose con- 
duct increased the difllculties of the 
French Government? 

2. Whom did De Denonville resolve 
to humble ? Why was the time appa- 
rently favourable for his project? 

3. Of what treachery was De Denon- 
ville guilty? What was done with the 

chiefs? What were the effects of this 
conduct? With how many men did 
the Governor-General advance ? Whom 
did he meet at the mouth of the Gen- 

4. Whose country did they then in- 
vade? How did the Iroquois attempt 
to surprise them ? What was the issue 
of the battle? What damage did the 
invaders do in the country? What 

' Hudson Bay. — "The Governor and 
Company of Adventurers of England 

Trading to Hudson Bay" obtained a 
charter from Charles TT. in 1670. 




forced them to leave It ? What fort was 
built on their way back ? 

5. By what pestilence was Canada 
visited during the summer? How were 
the habitans on the right bank of the 
St. Lawrence harassed ? 

6. On what terms of peace did Gov- 
ernor Dongan advise the Iroquois to 
insist ? Where were these terms pressed 
on De Denonville ? How did he com- 
municate his own terms? 

7. What offensive measures had the 
Iroquois meantime taken? How did 
the French barque on Lake Ontario 
escape from them? 

8. What temper of the Indians made 
them troublesome to deal with? On 
what conditions did they agree to a 

9. Whom did the news of this truce 
alarm ? How did the Hurons "kill the 
peace " ? Of what treachery was Kon- 
diaronk guilty? 

10. What position did Governor Don- 
gan take up ? Who succeeded Dongan ? 

What did he intimate to De Denon- 

11. What was M. de Calli&res' scheme 
for giving peace to Canada? 

12. What great event had meantime 
transpired in Europe? Who was re- 
appointed Governor-General of Canada? 

13. How was De Callifires' scheme 
modified? How was the expedition 
retarded ? When was Chedabucto 
reached? What then? 

14. What terrible catastrophe oc- 
curred while the Governor - General 
was waiting for the peace ambassadors? 
What was the fate of the garrison of 
Fort Roland? 

15. In what circumstances was Fort 
Cataracoui destroyed? 

16. For what purpose was the "Com- 
pany of the North" formed? What 
aid did De Denonville send them? 
What was accomplished? 

17. What was the fate of the English 
expedition sent out to retake these 





1690 A.D. 

Canada in extremity. 
The three war parties. 
The first Congress. 

Capture of Port Royal. 
Montreal threatened. 
New England Fleet off Point Levi 
The rage of Frontenac. 
Kebeca liberata. 

[ 1. The great struggle for the possession of the continent now 
Qoramenced. It continued for sixty years, j Though between 
the first and the final efforts of the French and the English there 
occurred a long interval of peace, the feeling of national enmity 
never lost its bitterness. At the commencement of the struggle, 
the mother countries were too much engaged in mutual war in 
Europe to take active part in the strife in America. For a 
long time the war between the colonies was a series of useless 
attacks and counter attacks and cruel frontier skirmishes. 

2. M. de Denonville left Canada m a more distracted state 
than that in which he had found it. Count Frontenac had now 
an opportunity to display his great, powers and the better quali- 
ties of his character. He had been well advised by his friends 
at Court to curb his temper. It was no time to indulge 
selfish interests, or to give way to jealousy and suspicion, for 
Canada appeared to be on.the^point of a collapse. From 
Quebec to Montreal the people were almost paralyzed by terror ; 
the French had no hold on the country west of Lake St. Louis. 
After the destruction of the fort at Cataracoui, the people in the 
settlement around it fled to Montreal. The fort at Niagara 
was deserted. In the west, the Indians dwelling by the great 
lakes derided the military power of the French and contemned 
their allegiance, and made overtures to the triumphant Iro- 
quois. The Count had the great task set before him to restore 
security to the colony and redeem the honour of the French 
arms. ) He was well stricken in years, but though over three- 
score and ten, his vigour was unabated. | 





r i 

3. After the miscarriage of the expedition against New York J 
M. de Calli6res submittea a second scheme for its capturot 
Louis was too much enga rod with war in Europe to send men 
and ships to America. | He counselled Frontenac to remain on 
the defensive; and instructed the inhabitants to abandon all 
tfie' (letacEed settlements and gather in contiguous villages, for 
mutual defence against the Iroquois. ^ The royal mandates were 
totally disregarded. The habitans could not, like the peasants^ 
in old France, confine themselves within a narrow space ; the 

J^nature of the country and the necessities of trade forbade them.f 
The fiery old Coun^. would not remain on the defensive. He 
knew that if he did not attack the New Englanders they would 
attack him, and he determinod to strike the first blow. Be- 
sides, he felt compelled to do something to win back the respect 
of the savages for French prowess. 

4. yin January, Count Frontenac despatched three war \ 

\ parties, from Montreal, Three Rivers, and Quebec, to / 
1690\ carry fire and sword through the English settlements.^ 
A.r. ^ A number of the members of the "noblesse" in the 
/6 / Y paint and feathers of Indian braves accompanied them. 
Tliough they were only witnesses of the atrocious deeds com- 
mitted by their savage allies, in the hearts of the English who 
suffered by them there was stored up bitter hatred to their 
nation and class. The party from Montreal, commanded by 
Lieutenants Mantel and St. Hel5ne, had a general commission 
to ravage the colony of New York. After a harassing march 
through snow and shell-ice and water up to the knees, it arrived 
where two roads diverged right and left, to Schenectady and 
Albany. The French cried out to maich to Albany, but the 
Indians refused, asking, with a touch of sarcasm, how had their 
brothers become so bold all of a sudden ; so the road to the 
right was taken, f At midnight of a piercingly cold Saturday I 
the party rushed through the unguarded gates of Schenectady; 
and with a horrid yell fell upon the inhabitants as they started 
aghast from their slumbers. A few soldiers threw themselves 
into a small fort, and defended it until they were all cut in 
pieces. For two hours the Indians tortured and murdered 
their captives. \At the first dreadful warning many of the 
people fled half naked in the direction of Albany ,\ and were 



caught in a snow-storm : some perished, and others lost the 
use of their limbs. /Leaving Schenectady in burning ruins, 
loaded with plunder, the party next day commenced its home- 
ward march./ Before it readied Montreal it was reduced to 
the direst distress ; but the survivors entered the town as vic- 
tors, and were rewarded for all their sufferings. 

5. Fifty men under M. Hertel left Three Rivers, and after 
two months' painful marcliing reached the village of _ Salmon 
Falls, o n tho eastern border of New Hampshire. The^hice 
was taken utterly by surprise. Its three forts were carried by 
assauR ; fiouaesTbarnSj stables were wrapped in flames ; and two 
thousand liead of cattle perished in their stalls. Fifty prisoners 
were taken. iSertel sent them off to Quebec under guard, and 
descended to the sea-coast by the route of the Kennebec Hi ver. 
There he joined M, Tortneuf, who had left Quebec with the 
third party. Theybesieged the fort that protected the settle- 
ment at Ca;Sco Bay. For three days the Commandant held out, 
but "surrendered at discretion when the French were on the 
point of firing his palisades. Scenes of rapine and ruthless 
destruction were enacted. A crowd of frantic prisoners was 
given over to the tender mercies of the Indians. The sur- 
rounding country was laid waste. While th^_jKhite_Jlag_9f 
Fran^fi_jloated from the f()rt, four vessels that had been sent 
from Bostou^fo^reTieve the place appeared off the coast : when 
that sign of conquest was seen, they sheered off to carry back 
the news of the disaster. 

6. In the meantime, Count Frontenac took measures to win 
back the tribes of the north-west to their French allegiance by 
flattery and presents. A grand conv oy was despatched to 
Michilli. EQackinac. On the way it was attacked by the Iro- 
QUOis, who weiFe defeated with loss. This was a fortunate 
encounter for the French, for it revived their credit among the 
people whom they were most anxious to propitiate. When 
Frontenac sent one of the prisoners taken in the fight to the 
Ottawas, they were delighted with the singular compliment 
paid to them, and burned the Iroguois warrior at the , itak^ jn^ 
order to show that they were^etermined to break ofi' all nego- 
ti ations with th e Five Nat ions. The tribes dweHhig. by the_ 
great lakes senX their delegates to meet tKe^convoy. To show 




their respect for Ououtliio, they despatched to Montreal, under 
guard of three hundred of their warriors, one hundred and 
ten canoes loaded with peltry, valued at 100,000 crowns. The 
8ucc,fig s^ of this negotiation raise d the spirit o f the French. But 
soon the alarm of invasion spread from Montreal to Quebec. 

7. The New England colonists had in the previous year 
determined to drive the French from New France. A valiaut 
captain, Rir "yyilliin^ ^^T^i went to England to seek asaist- 

. ance. King William had no forces to spare ; he required fdl 
he had nearer home: for James II., resolved to strike for his 
crown, had landed in Ireland, and was then marching north to 
Derry.^ After the murderous attack on Schenectady, a meet- 
ing of delegates from all the British colonies was 
1689 hurriedly called, and on the 1st of May the first Con- 
A.D. gress ever held met at Boston. The Governments of 
fhv^ Massachusetts and New York then determined to 
essay the conquest of Acadie and Canada a t the ir o wn risk and 

8. Acadie, after it was restoreu to the French by the Treaty 
of Breda, was very much neglected. Its only posts of any 
consequence were the forts on the rivers Penobscot and St. 
John. Within a period of six years they were twice seized by 
New England adventurers, and twice restored to the French. 
About the year 1680 a settlement was again made at Port 
Royal, which became the capital of the province. It was 
subordinate to the Government of Canada, and Count Frontenac 
appointed M. Chambly the first Governor. The value of Acad icL 
was well known to the Intendants, MM. Talon and Meules, 
who pei-sonally visited the country, and drew up reports of its 
condition and resources. With proper management it was 
capable of becoming the most valuable French colonj;4]i,jj2rth 
America. Tlie inhabitants devoted themselves principally to 
the fur-trade. They held close intercourse with the Indians, 

' Derry. — Londonderry, on the River 
Foyle, in the north of Ireland. It was 
the stronghold of the Ulster Protes- 
tants, and was besieged by James II, 
after his dethronement in 1689. The 
siege lasted three months, during which 
the citizens, encouraged by the Rev. 

George Walker, endured the worst 
miseries of famine. At last three ships 
from England broke the boom which 
the besiegers had stretched across the 
Foyle, and carried food to the starving 
garrison. The siege was raised the 
very next day. 


and fell into reckless habits. They occu pied^ the besjLinaJCah 
lands ; acquired grgait skill in buildii;g dikes ; and raised, with- 
out much laBour, corn, hay, and cattle ; but they totally neglected 
the rich uplands. The people of Massachusetts drew all the 
profits from the rich fisheries on the coasts. The Governors 
of Acadie, though the practice was expressly forbidden, issued 
licenses to them, and in this way increased their own miserably 
small salaries. 

9. In the time of M. de la Barre, 1682-1685, an effort was 
made to effect a reformation in the affairs of Acadie. Mis- 
sionary labours among the habitans and Indians were pursued 
with greater zeal. The claims of the New Englanders (who 
then established themselves at Pemaquid) to the River St. Croix 
as their line, were resisted, and strict orders were given to 
exclude them from the fisheries on the coasts. ^^Tji^^Bgrgigi: 
formed a company to prosecute the shore fisheries, and to briu^ 
the uplands into cultivation. Specim ens of the grain, vege- 
tjibles^^nd fruits raised on Acadian soilwere sent to Paris for 

exhibition, and were much admired by competent judges. But 
the avarice of the Governors, who still sold licenses, and their 
jealousy, interfered with the operations of the company. The 
principal fishing-station of Bergier and his associates was at 
Chedabucto. They obtained a grant for twenty years of ^Cape 
Breton, the Island^of St. John," and Magdalen Isles. At the 
time when the New Englanders threatened war, the population 
of Acadie did not exceed 900 souls. Its capital, Port Royal, 
was a small village defended by an insignificant fort, which 
had not a cannon placed on its batteries, and which was miser- 
ably in want of stores of all kinds. 

1 ^^' Jn the beginjiing of May, a fleet of eight small vessels,\ 
bearing eight hundred men, and commanded by Sir Wiliia'n 

;Pliips, entered the basin of Port Royal. When the alarm-gun 
was tired in the fort to notify to the inhabitants that an enemy 
was in sight, only three men answered the summons. Mf de 
Menneval, the Governor, had eighty men with him, but they 

\ could neither mount his cannon nor work them. Resistance 
was out of the question. When Sir William Phips sent him a 
summons to surrender, he assumed so bold a tone that he was 

/granted most honourable terms. The New England General, 



however, thought that he had been overreached when he saw 
the wretched state of the fort, and he repented his generosity. 
He soon found a pretext to break his word. Hearing that a 
few French soldiers had in a riotous manner entered the Gover- 
nor's store and appropriated some articles, lie declared that 
they had stolen the property of the English King and broken 
the terms of capitulation. He caused M. de Menneval and his 
garrison to be arrested and held as prisoners, and then sent 
them to Boston : he allowed his soldiers to plunder Pert lioyal, 
and compelled the inhabitants to take the oath of allegiance 
to William and Mary. Leaving an officer with a few men 
in the fort, he sailed off to pillage Bergier's station at Cheda- 
^bucto, and to destroy the post on the harbour of the St. John. 

11. On Phips's return to Boston, preparations were made ft)r 
the conquest of Canada. A force of twQ„thou sand men was 
raised in Massachusetts, and tliirtj^-five vessels, great and 
small, were collected in Kantucket harbour, for the captjica of 
Quebec. Eight hundred New York volunteers, under Colon el 
Winthrop, marched from Albany to^ta|t.^ . M.QPtrgal. Five hun- 
dred Iroquois were expected to join them at Lac Sacrament. 
Count Frontenac held his forces in readiness, about the mouth 
of the Kichelieu, to repel the invasion. He waited, but Win- 
throp did not come. At length a scout brought him intelli- 
gence that small-pox had broken out in the English camp; 
that three hundred of their Indian allies had been carried off 
by it, and that the rest had refused to advance further. The 
report was partly correct ; but the real trouble among the Eng- 
lish was the bad faith of the Iroquois, who had not joined them 
with the number of canoes and men that they had promised ; 
so W inthrop had niarched back to Albany. Fronten ac wa s 
hardly assureT tEat Montreal was safeTefore he was startled 
by^jthe news that an English fleet was '"ascending the St. Law- 
renc e. He huiried up to the post of danger, leavifig the militia 
of Montreal and Three Rivers to follow him. EJearrpzjed^n 
tim e to see that Quebe£^^was_^glaced m^^ajgosture of defence. 
The line of fortfScations around the Upper Town wasstrength- 
ened ; a battery of eight cannons was thrown up on the height 
on the side of the Castle of St. Louis ; the gr tes of the Lover 
Town were barricaded by barrels of stones and beams of wood. 

t i :i 


12. On the 5th of October, t he English fle et appeared _iiff 
Point Levi. The following day (^ir William Phips sent 

au officerjnto Quebec to demand, in the name of King 1690 
William, its instaiil'^surrenc[er. He was conducted a.d. 
to a ch. jtibeFwhere sat the Governor-General and all 
the members of the Council. The officer read his haughty mes- 
siige, and when he had finished he placed his watch upon a 
table, to mark the hour he would consent to wait for an answer. 
The august assemblage was transported with rage. The fienv 
ol d Coim t was cut to the quick, and spoke angrily, inveighing 
against Sir William Phips as a dishonourable and dishonoured 
General, and a traitor to his liege lord. King James. A man of 
his quality, he exclaimed, was not to be insulted with impu- 
nity ; he . wo uld give his a nswer bj the cannon's mouth. 

13. On receiving this rebuff, Phips ordered an attack on 
Quebec by land and water. Twelve hundred men, with six 
cannons, were landed on the low, marshy Beauport shore.^ The 
St. Chailes ran between them and the fortress. Count Fron- 
tenac, with the regular soldiers, was posted on the right bank 
of the stream ; on the left bank the militia, behind bushes, 
boulders, and trees, kept up a galling fire on the invaders. In 
the evening of the 8th, four English ships sailed up the river 
and opened fire upon the town. Their cannonade did little 
execution, but the batteries on the height and on the shore tore 
up their planks and cut up their rigging. Next night they 
dropped down with the tide and were moored again in the basin. 

14. The land force, under Major Whalley, remained inactive 
during the bombardment. The difficulty of marching and 
hauling cannon over boggy and miry ground was very great. 
The New Englanders were encompassed by invisible foes, who 
blazed away at them with deadly effect from their coverts ; and 
they cried out, in their rage, that the French fought like cowards 
and savages, behind hedges and fences. On the 10th they 
made a desperate effort to cross the St. Charles, and advanced 
to its left bank, driving back the skirmishers. A body of 
Canadian militia made a sudden attack upon their flank, and 
threw them into confusion. They retired to their camping 

* Beauport share. — See Map, p. 214. 




place. The evening closed in with rain and gloom. They were 
sick and half famished, and they ached all over from sleeping 
out, two bitterly cold nights, on the cold ground. The totHin 
of the cathedral in Quebec rang out with startling vehemence. 
Imagining that some great danger was approaching them in 
tne daik, they lost courage and rushed precipitately to their 
boats, leaving their cannon and ammunition behind. SjjfL- 
William Phips. utterly discomfit ed, sailed^away. A furious 
storm arose as he descended the St. Lawrence, and nine of hi s 
vessels sankamijdst the_\y^^ or were shattered against the 
roclcs. On the 9th of November he entered the harbour of 
Boston with the remnant of his fleet. He had the inexpress- 
ible mortification of being the bearer of the report of his own 
defeat and disgrace. 

15. The joy of the people of Canada over their deliverance was 
very great. In commemoration of the triumph of the French 
arms at Quebec, Louis XIV. commanded a medal to be struck. 
It bore this inscription: — Francia in Novo Orbe Victrix; 
Kebeca liberata A.D. MDCXC. The inhabitants mingled 
thanksgiving with their rejoicing, and erected in the Lower 
Town a chapel dedicated to " Notre Dame de la Victoire." 

Questions. — 1. What great struggle 
now commenced? How long did it 
last? What for long was the nature 
of the war? 

2. In what state did Frontenac find 
Canada on his return? What was the 
condition of the French power? 

3. What was Louis's advice to Fron- 
tenac, and to the colonists ? Was it 
followed ? Why not ? 

4. How many war parties did the 
Count despatch against the English? 
W here did the first party march ? W hat 
did it effect ? 

5. What did the second and third 
parties accomplish? What was done 
with the prisoners taken ? 

6. What tribes did Frontenac then 
endeavour to win back? What success 
attended his measures? 

7. When and where was the first New 
England Congress held? What expe- 
dition was resolved on ? 

8. What causes retarded the pros- 

perity of Acadie ? Who drew the profits 
of its fisheries ? 

9. What effort was made in the time 
of De la Barre? What success had 
Bergier's Company? 

10. What was the result of Phips's 
attack on Port Royal ? On what pretext 
were the terms of surrender violated ? 

11. For what new scheme wel-e pre- 
parations made at Boston? What 
caused the failure of Winthrop's expe- 
dition? What measures were taken to 
defend Quebec? 

12. What demand did Pbips make 
through one of his officers ? How was 
it received? 

13. What did Phips then order? 
Describe the attack by water. 

14. What great difficulties did the 
land force encounter? Why did the 
attempt to cross the St. Charles fail? 
What disaster befell the expedition ? 

16. How was the French viotory com- 
memorated ? 





1601 to 1698 A.D. 

The Iroquois Chiefs. 

Frontenac's policy. 

Expedition against the Onondagas. 

Naval fight in the Bay of Fundy. 

Baron St. Castine. 

Fort William-Henry captured. 

The Nachouac. 

Newfoundland and Hudson Bay. 

Peace of Ryswick. 

Death of Frontenac. 

M. de Callidres. 

Marquis de Vaudreuil. 

1. The war continued. For seven years there was perpetual 
skirmishing. Boston again WrefvEerfed Quebec ; and Quebec 
in return threatened Boston. The Iroquois gave Canada no 
peace. In Acadie, Hudson Bay, and Newfoundland, French 
and English mutually harassed each other, capturing and re- 
capturing forts, and destroying the fruits of each other's in- 

2. Count Frontena c. on his second coming to Canada, set his 
he art on win ning the friendship of the Iroquois. The chieis 
whom !be lienonvilleTlUd Bfiinr^o"JVance returned with him. 
They had been treated, not as slaves, but as guests. They had 
seen the " lions of Paris," and the splendours of the Court of 
Versailles.^ But grander to them appeared the woods, the 
rivers, and the lakes of their own country, and r'^arer to them 
was its wild liberty. On the voyage out, Frontenac exerted his 
remarkable powers of pleasing, in order to win their confidence, 
so that, when they went back to their own people, they might 
induce them to make a firm and solid peace. He was the more 
confident that his diplomacy would be successful, as he flattered 
himself that the Iroquois really esteemed him. He had fre- 
quently invited their chiefs to his table ; he had often met 
them in conference. The Indians, ever great respecters of the 
visible si^s of power, were impressed by his proud bearing, 
and admired the splendour of his body-guard. They were 

' Versailles. — A town 10 miles south- 1 completed by Louis XIV. in 1C87, and 
west of Paris, famous for its palace, | other magnificent buildings. 



i' iJ! 

flattered when they saw him arrayed like one of themselves, 
gravely moving in the measures of the dance, while singing Iiis 
war song, after their fashion. But--fi^Sil...amoug_jjntutored 
savages Self-in terest was the main motive ; compliments went 
for very little." It was their interest to prevent the tribes in 
the west from trading with the merchants of M':>ntreal, and to 
oblige them to carry their peltry through their country to New 

3. Count Fro ntenac was m o rtified when he fou nd that all h is 

^ij^jloni^cy had^begaiiih«aBaiLaway! He tooFstern meirs- 

1696 tfi^e*^ Se collected at Lachine two battalions of regulars 

A.D. and militia, each four hundred strong, commanded by 

M. Calli<^res and M. Vaudreuil, and a crowd of savages of 
every tribe friendly to the French. lu bateaux and ca noes the 
force ascended to Cataracoui and crosse3~the laKeT tip both 
banks and m the stream of the narrow and rapid Chouagen the 
party advanced, until one evening an impetuous fall barred the 
way. Hundreds of torches were lighted, and thre'v a glare on 
the wild scene. Soldiers and savages rushed into the water, and 
lifting the heavy canoes, bore them above the obstruction. As 
they penetrated the country, they abandoned the course of the 
river and struck into the woods. At an opening they saw sus- 
pended from a tree two bundles of rushes, of four hundred 
and thirty pieces. This was a challenge, according to the Indian 
fjishion, and signified that four hundred and thirty warriora 
awaited them to do battle. But when they advanced upon the 
great bourgade of the Onondagas, tliey saw it in flames, and 
found only a crowd of women and children. One old sachem, 
of over a hundred years, alone had refused to fly. As the 
Indians crowded around, mocking, he wrapped his robe about 
his shoulders, taunted them as slaves of the French, and died 
defiant of their tortures. 

4. The country_of_ the jOnondagas was laid_waste. Count 
Frontenac was urged by CafiiS^res and Vaudreuil to complete 
the work he had come to perform, by destroying the other can- 
tons ; but he refused. Ij[eJbhought h^^ jtad done eno ugh to 
humble the Iroquois, and so he returned to !lVIontreal. fiis 
enemiSS — and he had many — said that he had stopped half 
way in his vengeance, because if he had givan peace t-o Canada 



by completely crushing her inveterate foes, the King would 
have withdrawn the regular troops ; and his love of power and 
show, and concern for his own glory, were too strong to allow 
that step to be taken. 

5. The condition of the colony called forth, from time to 
time, the remonstrances of M. Ponchartrain, the Minister of 
France. He attributed the troubles to abuses growing out of 
the fur-trade. The " Runners of the Woods " at the distant 
posts in the west fomented feuds among the Indian tribes, and 
involved the French in constant trouble. The old complaint 
was made that Canada was drained of its strength, and that its 
progress was retarded by the numbers of its young men who 
foUov/ed the wild life. The Minister argued that the cause of 
t he host ility of the Iroquois wasjtlicir jealousy at seeing the'^f ur- 
trade drawn dowtTthe St. Lawrence instead of the BTudsoh, and 
tTiat peacew^onld be secured iTtliat cause were removed. ^ Count 
Frontenac was instructed to abandon all the trading posts west 
Q|^Jl|,onj^eaX "^Itoyal EclictM ^ere promulgated forbidding the 
inhabitants, under heavy penalties, f rpm„ ti'ading in the west; 
recaTTin?^ "The" Runners;" and commanding the people to settle 
closely together, and to devote themselves to agriculture. Fron- 
tenac resisted these Edicts. He thought they tended to diminish 
the glory of the empire, and to contract the bounds of the 
dominion over which he ruled. He persisted, against all 
counsel, in rebuilding his foit at Cataracoui. Tjie Ed icts 
against the fur-trade could not be carried out. There was not 
a family in Uauada tEat was iiot ihteresfed' in it. The King, on 
urgent representations, permitted a few forts to be maintained 
ill the west. The result ortfieconcessibii wjis that the fur-trade 
Was jjursued w ith greater activity than evei-._ 

6. In AcadTe, New?< "Tlland, aiuTIBCudson Bay. ^,he course of 
the war turned in favcur of the French After the capture 
of Port Royal by Sir William Phips, the Gggefnme nt of M assa- 
chus etts was not long able to maintain a garrison there, thougK 
it continued to claim the right of possessToh." 

aga, in into the hands of th e French, and under the jurisdiction 
of the Govemor-Cxeneral ofCanadaT M. Villebon was appointed 
Lieutenant-Governor. He, considering that Port Royal was 
too much exposed to the attacks of New England cruisers, re- 

< I 



moved his head-quarters to the St. John. The fort at its mouth 
had beeu destroyed by Phips, byjt th^ French had l ong possess ed 
posts at^e Nerepis and at the Jemseg, belo'y F^eneuse^ or 
Grand Lake. For greater security, Viilebon built a fort several 
leagues higher up the St. John, at the mouth of its mBatary 
the Nachouac.2 """^ 

7. Here, in this fastness of the wilderness, f or seven ye ars 
floate d the white flag of France. Here Viilebon was safe, at 
least from sudden attack. He had as much to fear from the 
freshets of spring, which flooded his fort, and piled great hum- 
mocks of ice against his palisades, as from the foe. His garri- 
son might in winter sit round the blazing logs, and in sum- 
mer doze in the shade, for the trained watch-dogs gave the alarm 
at the least sign of danger ; and agile scouts at the mouth of the 
river brought him swift intelligence of the appearance of English 
ships in the Bay of Fundy. He held correspondence with the 

* Governor-General in Quebec, and constant communication with 
the Indian village at Medoctec, where Father Simon taught his 
neophytes in peace and led them in war. At the Nachouac, 
the Abenaquis from the Kennebec, the Canibas from the Penob- 
scot, the Oupack Milicetes from the Grand Lake, and warriors 

. of Medoctec and Madawaska, assembled to feast and dance and 
hold council with Viilebon, and concoct schemes to destroy the 
New England settlements on the frontiers of Acadie that 
would give to war the aspect of midnight murder. Viilebon 
was often visited by Baptist e, a noted privateer, who, after a 
successful cruise among the New England merchantmen, would 
bring his prizes into the harbour of St. John, and take his prison- 
ers to the Nachouac for safe keeping. M. Bona venture, the naval 
commander on the coasts of Acadie, brought him despatches 
from M. d'Iberville, a famous Canadian captain who was much 
employed in harassing the English settlements of Newfoundland 
and Hudson Bay. 

8. The Government of Massachusetts, in 1692, built a stone fort 
I at Pemaquid, east of the Kennebec, on the sea-coast. It was a 
I strong quadrangle, with four towers, and at high tide was sur- 
• rounded with water. The Abenaquis viewed it with jealousy; 

' Lake Freneuae. — See Map, p. 76. ' Nachouac. — The Nashwaak. 


f and the French, to propitiate their faithful allies, resolved to 
/ destroy it. The plan of attack was arranged by Villebon and 
V D'Iberville. 

9. On a June day two French frigates from Placentia^ 
were anchored in the Bay of Fundy, in a fog. When 
the thick mist rose, they were descried by three small 1696 
New England war sloops, un der Captain E ams^that a.d. 
were making for the mouth of th6 St. John. A Qlie 

foremost craft, bore down on D'Iberville in the 
the Frenchmen opened their ports and poured ir a 
broadside, within musket range, that crashed in its timbers 
and brought its fore-mast tumbling over the deck. Its con- 
sorts sheered off and escaped amid the again descending fog. 
D 'Iberville, with his priz e, entered the harbour of St. JoIil. 
Taking Villebon and a troop of soldiers aboard, he sailed for Fort 
William-Henry at Pemaquid.^ When he reached Penobscot 
Bay, he was joined by Baron Sft. Castine and a band of. 
Indians. This Baron was a notable example of the ease v/ith | 
which a Frenchman could adapt himself to savage life. Born a 
nobleman of Oleron in the Pyrenees, he accompanied his 
regiment, the Carignan Saliferes, to Canada in 1665. He after- 
wards settled on a peninsula at the mouth of the Penobscot ; 
married, as one of his wives, the daughter of Madockawando, 
the great sachem of the eastern Indians. He acquired great 
ascendency over the simple savages, who, in return for the 
presents he gave them, made him a free gift of their richest 
furs. In this way he acquired heaps of gold. The Lieutenant- 
Governor of Acadie often received instructions from the Minis- 
ter of France to restrain him in his evil courses. But this inter- 
ference had little effect on the old Baron. 

10. M. d'Iberville, on the 14th of August, summoned Fort 
William-Henry to suiTender. Captain Chubb, the Command- 
ant, sent back a most valiant defiance. Besides the honour of 
his flag, he had a strong motive to defend his position to the 
last. A short time before, he had wantonly shot four chiefs 
whom the Abenaquis had sent to him on a mission of peace. 
He knew the Indian nature too well not to fear their revenge. 

^ Placentia. — On the south coast of I * Pemaquid. — Between the mouths of | 

Newfoundland, 70 miles from St. John's. | the Penobscot and the Kennebec. I 

(473) 11 i 



D'Iberville landed his cannon and bombs before the dawn of the 
following morning. Priest, soldier, and savage worked zealously, 
and by noon the cannon were mounted. The hearts of the 
New England soldiers began to sink when the great shells ex- 
ploded in the square, and when they heard the fierce yells of 
the beleaguering Indians. They became thoroughly alarmed 
when Castine sent a messenger to inform the Commandant that 
he would not be able to restrain the fuiy of his savages if he 
persist jd in a useless defence ; but he promised to guard his 
men from vengeance if he promptly yielded. Influenced by the 
clamour of his soldiers, Chub b capit ulated. All the garrison 
were liberated save four, who were" delivered into the hands 
of the Indians, one for every chief who had been murdered ; for 
D'Iberville was compelled to gratify their savage spirit of 
revenge. The walls a nd towers of Fort William- Henr y were 
blown down. 

ii. The Government of Massachusetts, on hearing of the 
capture of the Newport in the Bay of Fundy, despatched seven 
vessels to cruise in search of the French frigates. D'Iberville, 
from Pemaquid, very nearly sailed into their midst, and only 
escaped by hugging the coast towards Mount Desert. Villebon 
reached the St. John in safety. The destructio n of EortWilliam- 
Heury detennined the ^^JEuglaxide^ tat,ak§.ijista^trevenge. 
ColoneTBeniamin Church, a noted partipcin, with a. flnti],j(^, nf 
whale- boats-fwHof armed men, p ut forth f rom Piscataqua, an d 
ravagod the Acadian coasts from Passamaquo3(ly to TBeaii- 
'un hisTreturn up the bay he was aupersgfled by an 


officer sent by the^&overnment to meet him withias^a.vesiSES 
order to""inake an i^tejck on the fort at the._^achouac. Old 
Church was sorely displeaseo^ 

12. M. Villebon, timeously warned by his scouts of the 
threatened attack, looked to his defences, and summoned to his 
aid Father Simon and the warriors of the Medoctec. On the 
evening of the 18th of October the garrison assembled on parade, 
and the Governor, in a stirring speech, flattered their pride and 
aroused their courage. That night they slept under arms, 
warned by the restlessness of their watch-dogs, that seemed to 
scent danger. The night passed quietly. Early in the morning 
the alarm-gun was fired ; and -Villebon A^as called out of chanel 



by the report that strange sails were rounding the bend of the 
river. As soon as the red flag was distinguished, a brisk 
cannonade from the fort commenced. The vessels tacked about, 
and were brought to anchor behind a sheltered point of the left 
bank. The Nachouac stream was between the French and 
their foe, and they made no attempt to resist his landing. 

13. The Medoctec warriors, lurking along the right bank, 
skirmished with hostile Indians who appeared on the left. 
When the New Englanders were heard cheering as they 
advanced through the woods, the French answered them by 
counter cheers. As soon as they came within range of the fort 
they hastily threw up side- works to protect themselves from the 
fire, and placed three cannons in battery. Evening closed on 
the besiegers without their having gained the least advantage. 
As they crowded around their newly lighted camp-fires, a dis- 
charge of grape-shot from the fort forced them to quench the 
flames, and they lay without shelter through the chill and 
dark October night. In the early morning they were saluted 
by a volley of musketry from the fort. When the French opened 
fire in earnest one of their guns was dismounted, and an- 
other was made useless. It was evident that the fort could not 
be taken by the fire of one disabled cann '^ across the stream. 
Old Church was in the worst of tempers, and would propose 
no bolder measures. Five officers and twenty n n had fallen 
and half the force were suffering from the effects of the 
vious night's encampment. When the shades of another even 
iug fell the solitary cannon was dragged from the battery, 
and the New Englanders retreated to the point where their 
vessels were anchored, and lighted their camp-fires undisturbed. 
By noon next day they were past the Oromocto on their down- 
ward voyage. 

14. After the capture of the fort at Pemaquid, M. d'Iberville 
sailed for Newfoundland. Before his arrival, a French fleet, 
under M. Brouillan, Governor of Placentia, bound for Ferry- 
land,^ chased a solitary English man-of-war into the Bay of 
Bulls.'* Placing all his cannon on the broadside next the 



x.r B.^ ^.r K^^« 

alien, J 
3 pre- 'J 

' Ferryland. — On tho south-east coast 
of Newfoundland, 35 miles from St. 

' Bay of Bulls. — On the east coast of 
Newfoundland, 12 miles south of St, 





enemy, the gallant English captain fought furiously, until 
overpowered by surrounding fire. He abandoned his vessel in 
flames. He was followed to the land and compelled to surren- 
der. Brouillan destroyed Ferryland. D'Iberville joined him ; 
and an attack was made by land on the settlements of the 
eastern coasts. Advancing through the woods from Ferryland, 
they fell on St. John's on the rear, plundered and burned it, 
and sent off the principal inhabitants to England. The othei-s 
made their way to Carbonnear and Bonavista, which were the 
only posts left uninjured by the French. 

15. M. d'Iberville next year encountered three small English 

ships amidst the drifting ice of Hudson Bay. He com- 

1697 pelled them to strike their colours. A storm arose, and 

A.D. drove his vessels on the coast. In the pitchy dark one 

of his prizes was crushed against the rocks, and the 

English sailors esca ped to Fort N elson^ onlxjtp falLaga JDi wit h 

the place, into D'lbei ville's hands. The French had now pos- 

fsession of Hudson Bay, andlhe command, for a time, of the 

v^rich fur-trade of that frozen region. 

/^ 16. The war^ was concluded by the Peace of Ryswick,^ \ 
/ signed on the 20th of September. By the seventh article 

/ 1697 France and England mutually restored to each other f^U 
I A.D. their possessions in North America which had changed 

I hands during the strife. All the murder, the pillage, 

I the wreck and the suffering of eight years, had decided nothing. / 
\ The struggle was as far from settlement as ever. 

17. Count Frontenac died next year, in his seventy-eighth 
*► year. His lastacFwas a vigorous resistance to the claim put 
forth by the Governor of New York to English sovereignty 
over the country of the Iroquois. He passed away when these 
formidable foes seemed on the eve of placing themselves under 
the protection of France. On his second coming to Canada, he 
had found the French in a state of terror and prostration ; he 
left them with the bounds of their territory unimpaired, and 
with a sense of security such as they had never before enjoyed. 


* r/i« war.— Called by the English in 
America, King William's War. 

" Ryawick. — In the Netherlands, 2 
miles south-east of The Hague. By 

this treaty, to which England, France, 
Spain, Holland, and Germany were 
parties, William III. was acknowledged 
King of England. 



18. M. de Calliferes w as the next Governor^sGeneraL With 
great patience and prudence he succeeded in patching up a peace 
between the allied tribes in the west and the Iroquois. 
The final ratification of the treaty was made the occa- 1701 
8ion of a great ceremony. A wooden structure was a.d. 
erected in a plain on the Island of Montreal. As in a 
theatre, the Governor and his suite, and all the fashion and the 
beauty of the colony, sat in the boxes ; while within the railed 
areua habitans, Coureurs du Bois, and Indian warriors, in motley 
and gaudy garbs, stood in groups or squatted on the ground. 
The orators of all the tribes that were parties to the peace 
addressed Ononthio, and presented their wampum belts. The 
mirth of the gay and fair assemblage broke forth in rippling 
laughter as some stately sachem rose to speak, with an old 
powderless peruke on his head instead of his native flowing 
hair and feathers. The council was followed by a grand feast. 

rl9. The peace between France and England was of short 
continuance. Intelligence reached De Calli^res that England, 
Austria, Portugal, and other lesser powers, were leaguing 
themselves against Spain, France, and Bavaria. On the death 
of Charles II. of Spain, Louis XIV. proclaimed Philip of Anjou, 
his grandson, ^ g. The claims of the Archduke Charles,^ of the 
House of Hapwourg, were supported by the other side. 
War 2 was formally declared' on the 15th of May. It is 1702 
known as the War of the Spanish Succession. Through a.d. 
it the French and the English colonies were embroiled. 
De Calliferes died before active hostilities commenced. The 

I King appointed the Marquis de Vaudreuil his successor, in 

\jmswer to the prayer of the people of Canada. 

Questions.— 1. How long did the 
war continue? Where was it carried 

2. Whose friendship had Fronttnac 
set his heart on winning ? What policy 
did he adopt towards them? By what 
was it frustrated ? 

3. What measures did he then take? 
Describe the advance of his forces. 

4. Whose country was laid waste? 
What did Frontenac's enemies allege ? 

5. What Royal Edicts were issued? 
What rendered them necessary ? How 
did Frontenac treat them ? What con- 

' The Archduke Charles. — He was 
second son of the Emperor Leopold, who 
was grandson of Philip III. of Spain. 

" War. — Known in America as 
Queen Anne's War. In this war the 

Duke of Marlborough gained his great 
victories. — Blenheim (1704), Ramilies 
(1706), Oudenarde (1708), Malplaquet 
(1709). It was terminated by the Treaty 
of Utrecht, 1713 



cession enabled the fur-trade to be 
actively pursued? 

6. Wlio gained tlio upper iiand in 
Acadie ? Wlio was (.ppointed Governor- 
General ? Where did he remove his 
head-quarters ? Why ? 

7. How long did the French hold the 
St. John? What made their position 
there a secure one? By whom was 
Villebon visited there ? 

8. V'hat fort did the French resolve 
to destroy ? Describe it. 

9. Give an account of the naval iight 
in the Bay of Fundy in 1696. Sketch 
the career of Baron St. Castine. 

10. Who was commandant of Fort 
William-Henry ? What motive had he 
for holding out to the last ? What led 
him to capitulate ? 

11. What did the Government of 
Massachusetts do on hearing of the cap- 
ture of the Newport f What, on hear- 
ing of the fall of Fort William-Henry? 

12. What preparations did Villebon 
make for receiving the attack? Where 
did tlie New Englanders land? 

18. In what circumstances did they 
spend the first night ? What took place 
the following day? How did the ex- 
pedition end ? 

14. Where did Dlberville sail for, 
after taking the fort at Pemaquid? 
Describe the conduct of the English 
man-of-war. What further damage 
did the French do in Newfoundland ? 

15. Where did D'Iberville go the fol- 
lowing year? What sucress had he 
there ? 

16. When was the war concluded? 
By what treaty ? What effect had its 
terms on the colonies of North America? 

17. When did Frontenac die ? What 
was his last public act? In what state 
did he leave Canada ? 

18. Who was the nejft Governor- 
General? What treaty did he succeed 
in concluding ? Describe the ceremony 
at which it was ratified. 

19. What was the cause of a renewal 
of the war ? When was war declared ? 
Who died before hostilities commenced? 
Who succeeded him ? 




1703 to 1740 A.D. 

Canada and New England. 

Port Royal. 

The Bostonlana enraged. 

The French destroy Haverhill. 

Invasion of Canada checked. 

Nova Scotia. 

Annapolis Royal. 

Canada again threatened. 

The English Fleet shattered on the Egg 

The Treaty of Utrecht. 
Internal condition of Canada. 
Father Charlevoix. 
Marquis de Beauharnois. 

^ 1. The French in Canada were now in a more favoural)le posi- 
tion to sustain a conflict than they had previously been./ Success 
in arms had made them more confident than ev^ of their 
own prowess. The insolence of the Five Nations was much 
abated. The politic measures taken to arouse their jealousy of 
the English induced them to lean towards the French, and to 
maintain a sort of neutrality in the war. Canada was relieved 
from the inroads of these terrible barbarians. Never again did 
they perpetrate such atrocities as have made the name of La- 
chine memorable in the annals of the colony. 
/2. The English Colonies were now far more wealthy and 
populous than Canada. They could bring four men into the 
field for every one Canada could muster. They were divided 
into several separate governments, which were jealous of one 
another, and they were ruled over by men not always capable 
ci gr>verning discreetly. The advantage that union would give 
them was early apparent. A scheme of confederation v/as 
about this time proposed by Colonel Francis Nicolson, who had 
been at different periods Governor of Virginia and of New York. 
It received the approbation of King William, who looked upon 
it as a measure well calculated to consolidate the military power 
of the colonies ; among their people it met with no favour. 

3. Soon after the repulse of the New Englanders at Nachouac 
Fort, the French abandoned that place, and again made Port 
Koyal the capital of Acadie. M. Brouillan, Governor of 



Placentia, succeeded M. Villebon in 1700. The fort of Port 
Royal was built in the form of a regular square, with bastions 
of earth-work faced with sods .and surrounded by high pickets. 
It had a fine position on rising ground on a peninsula formed 
by two rivers ; it was protected in the rear by marsh laud, in 
which were cut deep ditches. The earthen fortifications were 
often in want of repair. The importance of the place, and its 
exposure to attack, suggested to the Governor the necessity of 
rebuilding it of stone. That, however, was not done. 

4. Brouillan was a brave man, but of a very irritable, despotic 
temper. In old Port Royal, where once the " order of the Good 
Time" reigned, hatred and envy prevailed. Watchful eyes 
noted, and ready pens described to the Minister of France, the 
failings of those in authority. The Governor, in self-defence, 
wrote also, to expose the jealousy by which his detractors were 
actuated. This system of scandal-mongering and mutual 
espionage waa sufficient to breed distrust and destroy all social 

5. On the outbreak of the war, the French privateers ravaged 
the coasts of New England. They even entered the harbour of 
Boston and cut out several vessels. On the other hand. Colonel 
Church, anxious " to do the enemy all the injury he could," 
ranged with his whale-boats from the Penobscot to the St. 
John, and crossed the Bay of Fundy to cut the dikes of the 
marshes of Minas and the throats of the cattle at Chignecto. 
Port Royal was several times threatened. The Government of 
Massachusetts sent an expedition under Colonel March to 
take it. So confident were the people of Boston of success, that 
they made preparations to celebrate the victory. Sickness 
weakened the New England forces as they encamped about 
Port Royal, and the place was strengthened by a body of 
militia from Canada ; so Colonel March was constrained to with- 
draw from it. Dreading to face the citizens of Boston, who 
were raging from disappointment, he sailed into Casco Bay. 
He was commanded by the Government to return to Port 
Royal. On his refusal another officer renewed the attempt to 
capture the place, but was defeated. 

6. M. de Vaudreuil took active measures of reprisal. A 
council of war was held in Montreal, at which the chiefs of 


the Abeuaquis and of other frieudly Indians were present. A 
course of " petite guerre " — of petty warfare — against the frontier 
New England settlements was inaugurated. Descending the 
Kiver St. Francis, and advancing by a route almost impracticable, 
M. Rouville d'Hertel, with a band of a hundred and fifty French 
and a "tail" of savages, surprised and captured the village of 
Haverhill on the Merrimac. This foray arous' d the country- 
side. At the call of the trumpet and the roll of the dium tlie 
people seized their arms, and rushed in a disorderly manner to 
cut off the retreat of the French. D'Hertel escaped, and carried 
his prisoners and spoils to Quebec. 

7. The people of Massachusetts now resolved to conquer 
Canada. Two officers of merit — Colonels Nicolson and Vetch — 
energetically pressed on preparations. Vetch had long brooded 
over the project. A few years previously he had visited Quebec 
on a mission regarding an exchange of prisoners, and had found 
an opportunity to sound the most difficult passages of the St. 
Lawrence. He went to England, and by the forcible repre- 
sentations he made of the importance of the conquest, and of 
the ease with which it might be made, he induced the Imperial 
Government to promise aid. 

8. On the first rumour of the intended invasion, M. de 
Vaudreuil, who had his forces assembled at Chambly to protect 
the head of the colony, resolved to anticipate it by an attack 
on New York. Through misunderstandings between himself 
and the Governor of Montreal, much delay occurred ; when the 
expedition set forth, it was frustrated by the insubordination of 
the soldiers. 

9. Colonel Nicolson, with two thousand men, advanced from 
Albany. Four of the Iroquois nations had promised him 
aid. Following out their astute policy, never to allow either 
French or English to gain a decided advantage, they showed 
themselves so remiss in fulfilling their engagement, that Nicol- 
son coiild not but doubt their sincerity. As his army encamped 
by the bank of a stream flowing to Lake Champlain, an epi- 
demic broke out His treacherous allies, it is said, had poisoned 
the water of which the soldiers drank, by throwing a quantity 
of raw hides into it near its source. There he heard news that 
forced him to retreat, and caused his exasperated soldiers to 


heap maledictions on the head of Vetch, though he waH not 
responsible for the circumstance that aroused their ire. The 
English fioet that had been i)repared for the expedition againf t 
Quebec did not cross the Atlantic. The Imperial Government 
suddenly despatched it to Lisbon to aid the Portuguese against 
the Spaniards. 

10. This check only made the New Englanders more deter- 

mined to accomplish their purpose. Colonel Nicolson 
1710 went to England to make renewed applications for aid. 
A.D. The Government again promised to send a fleet and an 
army to Boston. From her private purse Queen Anne 
defrayed the expense of arming four regiments raised in Massa- 
chusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. 
Through dilatoriness in fitting out the ships, they were detained 
in the English ports until the season was too far advanced. 
The attack on Quebec was postponed ; but there was time enough 
left to capture Acadie. 

11. M. Subercase was now Governor at Port Eoyal. Since 
the attacks upon it in 1708 nothing had been done to strengthen 
its fortifications or to reinforce its garrison. It was miserably 
supplied with war material. Two successive bad harvests had 
much diminished the means of subsistence. When Colonel 
Nicolson appeared with thirty-five sail at the entrance of the 
basin, M. Subercase found himself caught in a trap. He could 
receive no assistance, either by land or by sea. He held out long 
enough to give him a pretext to demand honourable terms. 
The fort was invested on all sides ; Avhen the fire from the New 
England batteries commenced in heavy earnest, he hung out 
the white flag of suiTender. Nicolson accorded him the con- 
ditions he asked ; but when he saw two hundred and fifty 
emaciated and ragged French soldiers file out of the fort, drums 
beating and colours flying, and found on entering it that he 
would be obliged to furnish the inhabitants with food to keep 
them from starvation, he, like Phips, felt that he had been 
over-reached, — but, unlike Phips, he religiously kept his word. 

12. The conquest of Acadie was final. It now became an 
English possession, under the name of Nova Scotia. In honour 
of Queen Anne, Port Royal was called Annapolis Royal. 
Colonel Vetch, with four hundred and fifty men, remained to 



liuld it. The French Acadiaus complained bitterly to M. de 
Vaudreiiil of his harsh rule, and prayed to be removed from the 
country. The Governor-General, being unwilling to abandon 
it, appointed Baron St. Castine (son of the old Baron) his 
Lieutenant in Acadie, and gave him instructions to drive out 
the English. Duri g the war the garrison of Annppolis was 
sorely harassed, and barely escaped extermination. 

13. Colonel Nicolson again visited England. He wished to 
crown his success in Acadie with the conquest of Canada. 
The times were not unpropitious. England was slackening 
her war efforts on the Continent of Europe. A Tory Ministry, 
at the head of which was Harley,^ Earl of Oxford, was in 
power. Seven of the regiments wliich had gained fame in the 
battles of Eamilies, Oudenarde, and Malplaquet, were selected ^ 
to take part in the enterprise against Quebec ; and the great 
captain, the Duke of Marlborough,^ was left to conduct a 
campaign in the north-east of France with diminished forces. 
The command was given to Brigadier-General Sir John Hill, 
brother of Mrs. Masham,^ tl<e then confidante of Queen 
Anne. A fleet of fifteen war ships and forty transports, 
imder Admiral Sir Hoveden "Walker, bore the land force and a 
number of Scottish settlers to Boston. A French privateer 
descried it when it was some sixty leagues from its destination, 

' Harley. — Robert Harley, born 1661, 
died 1724. He was introduced into 
the Godolphin Cabinet through the 
influence of Abigail Hill (Mrs. Masham), 
afterwards mentioned. He was created 
Earl of Oxford in 1704, and became 
Premier in 1711. In 1715 he was im- 
peached for holding treasonable corre- 
spondence with the Pretender, and was 
detained in the Tower for two years. 
On his release he spent his leisure in 
collecting the famous "Harleian Li- 
brary," containing 7000 manuscripts, 
besides many rare printed books. It 
was afterwards purchased for the British 
Museum for jBlO.OOO. 

" Duke of Marlborough. — John 
ChurchUl, born 1660, died 1722. He 
served for some time under the French 
Marshal I'urenne. He was a favourite 
of James 11. , who made him Viscount 

ChurchUl ; but on the arrival of WUl- 
iam of Orange in England, he went 
over to his party. His brilliant career 
from 1702 till 1711 is well known. In 
1711 he was dismissed from his employ- 
ments, and was charged with pecula- 
tion. He went into voluntary exile till 
1*714. He was buried in Westminster 

' Mrs. Masham. — Abigail Hill; she 
was cousin of Sarah, Duchess of Marl- 
borough, who obtained for her the 
place of waiting-maid to Queen Anno. 
She ere long supplanted the Duchess 
in the Queen's favour, and obtained a 
powerful asce'.iiiency over her royal 
mistress. She intrigued with the 
French for the euccession of the Pre- 
tender to the English throne. After 
the death of the Queen she retired into 
private life, and died in 1734. 






and carried tho tidings to Plaisance, Newfoundland. Costa- 
belle, the Governor, had in the meantime heard from an English 
prisoner of warlike preparations in Massachusetts, and he 
despatched a swift-sailing pinnace to warn Vaudreuil of the 
coming danger. In all haste the Governor-General placed 
Quebec -in a state of defence, and then ascended to Cha ably, 
where, with three thousand men, he awaited the invasion by 
way of Lake Champlain. 

14. On the 28th of August, Colonel Nicolson, with two thousand 

volunteers, left Albany : a month before, the English 

1711 fleet had sailed from Boston for Quebec. He had not 
A.D. advanced far upon his way when disastrous news over- 
took him, and compelled him to retrace his steps. In 

the darkness of a stormy night. Sir Hoveden Walker, though 
warned of the danger by a skilful pilot, had sailed too close 
to the northern shore of the St. Lawrence. Eight of his great 
ships were shattered to pieces among the Egg Islands. The 
corpses of hundreds of soldiers, sailors, and settlers, and broken 
timbers and bales of goods, were strewn along the coasts. This 
disaster dissipated the danger that threatened Canada. Ad- 
miral Walker returned with the remnant of his fleet to England. 

15. Next yeai^ on a rumour reaching Quebec that the New 

Englanders were preparing another enterprise against 

1712 it, the principal inhabitants presented five thousand 
A.D. crowns to the Governor-Geneial, to be expended on 

strengthening the fortifications. A most confident 
spirit now prevailed in the colony. The more devout, review- 
ing the m;xny dangers that had been averted from Canada, 
attribv ted its preservatio to the especial guardianship of 

r 6. As the war was drawing to a close, a neT7 danger for 
Car da spran^' up in the west. The French in 1701 had settled 
at Detroit. The possession of a fort in thfv^^ fine country gave 
them the command of the commerce of the great lakes, and 
placed in their hands the key that opened up to them the routes 
to the Mississippi and to 'iheir ntsVv and vast province Louisiana. 
The English of New York, eager to possess themselves of a 
position of so much importance, incited the Ottigdmies or Foxes 
to seize on Detroit. The Hurons, Ottawas, Sacs, and many 

nsM -tm 



other tribes, rallied for its defence. An interminable contest 
ensued. Long after the centre of Canada reposed in profound 
peace, the Foxes and kindred tribes made the western country 
diingerous to the French, and infested all the routes to the 
Mississippi and the Illinois. 

17. The final terms of peace between France and England were 
ratified by the "Treaty of Utrecht," ^ on the 11th of 
April. Louis XIV. ceded to the British Crown all 1713 
claim to possession of Acadie Hudson Bay Territory, a.d. 
Newfoundland, and the Island of »St. Christopher. He 
retained Cape Breton and the islands in the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence ; and reserved to the French fishermen the right to cure 
their fish on the coasts of Newfoundland, from Bonavista to 
Cape Rich. 

18. Cape Breton was now called " Royal Island." English 
Harbour, a sheltered and commodious bay on the south-western 
coast, was constituted the chief port. On a tongue of land ou 
the eastern side, the French commenced to fortify themselves, 
and "^o build a town, which they named " Louisburg." They 
also began to settle on the Island of St. John, which hitherto 
had been neglected. 

19. To Royal Island were removed the French of Placentia. 
The British Government contemplated transferring the Acadians 
in Nova Scotia to it. But the time was allowed to pass by 
when the removal might have been made with ease. In fact 
none of the parties concerned were anxious that it should be 
carried out. The English, jealous of the settlement in 
Royal Island, were unwilling to increase the power of their 
rivals ; the Acadians, being under a mild government, in the 
undisturbea possession of their property and in the enjoyment 
of their religion, were loath to leave their marshes, their fields 
and orchards, r id their chapels ; the French authorities, who 
fully realiz3d the magnitude of their loss when Acadie passed 
out of their hands, sought to maintain a hold upon it, and by 
means of the priesthood t" keep the simple habitaas true to 
their allegiance to the French King. 

20. Canada now entere 1 on a long period of peace. Fortu- 

' Utrecht. — A citjr of the Notb^rlAQas, 21 miles south-ei^t of Am^tsrclam. 



nately, the office of Tiitendant was at this time in good hands. 
The Messieurs Rtiiidot — father and son — divided the duties 
between them. They sought to reform disorder, to create 
internal industry, and to promote commerce. The habitans 
were excessively litigious : when they quarrelled, instead of 
fighting, they sought redress in the courts of justice. Law was 
cheap, and frivolous suits multiplied fast. While they disputed 
about the bounds of their farms, they neglected to till their 
fields ; and so the progress of the country was retarded. The 
Raudots settled summarily a number of cases, to the general 
contentment of parties concerned. The spirit of litigation being 
abated, the attention of the habitans was directed to the manu- 
facture of articles of domestic use and daily wear. Hitherto 
they had in a very great measure depended on the mother 
country for their supply of such goods. The high price of these 
"home" articles prevented the poorer people from buying; 
many were, like the savages, compelled to wear skins in winter, 
and to go half naked in summer. A disaster that had occurred 
in 1701 caused the Government to see the necessity of encourag- 
ing the inhabitants to grow flax and hemp, and to manufacture 
coarse linen and woollen fabrics. The " Seine,*' a large French 
store-ship, carrying M. Saint Vallier and a number of ecclesi- 
astics as passengers, had been captured by the English as it 
was making for Quebec. 

21. Attention was given to ship-^juilaing ; war ships and 
merchant vessels were constructed. Commerce with the old 
c ^try and with the French West Indies was encouraged.- Ships 
laden with lumber, mrsts, oils, flour and pork, were now cleared 
from the port of Quebec. The shore fisheries of the St. Law- 
rence were prosecuted by a company established on the south- 
eastern coast at Mount Louis River, within view of the Moun- 
tains of Notre Dame. The fur-trade continued to be the 
principal pursuit of the enterprising people of Canada. The 
great want of the colony was population. There was no free 
emigration. The Government c»f France did not now encourage 
the sending out of large bodies of settlers, as it had done in the 
days of Colbert and Talon. A scheme proposed by M. Vaudreuil 
to settle convicts in the country was not entertained by the 
King. 4t this time the French inrde settlements in T^ouisiana; 


22. Canada, in population and wealth, ranked below the 
English colonies. At the Peace of Utrecht its fighting force 
amounted to 4444 men; that of her rivals to 150,000. The 
fur-trade, which was the chief object of the Canadians, was 
with the English only an accessory. The wealth gained by that 
pursuit was ephemeral ; it did not permanently enrich the 
country. It was different with agriculture, which was the 
gi-eat occupation of the English. Year after year there was an 
iuflux of energetic men, who came to pu^h their fortune in the 
English colonies. There, land was far more easily obtainable 
tlian in Canada, and was held under an absolutely free tenure. 
Further and further the hardy pioneers penetrated into the 
wilderness, leaving smiling fields and hamlets in their track. 
The commerce of these colonies with England and foreign 
countries was already great. 

23. The long peace gave curious observer an opportunity to 
visit Canada, then truly a land unknown. Father 
Charlevoix, " Historian of New France," dashed ofi' his 1742 
impression of the country in a series of letters ; and no a.d. 
doubt he did something to dispel the prejudice against 

it in France. The first voyagers had visited Canada (and Acadie) 
in the hope of finding gold and silver : when no precious metals 
were found, people had ignorantly contemned it as a poor, bar- 
ren country ; holding as of no account those true mines of wealth 
— its teeming fisheries, its fertile soil, its grand forests. Exagge- 
rated accounts of the inclemency of its climate, and stories about 
the Indians, had created an impression that it was a region of 
perpetual snow and savagery. The Court had looked upon the 
colony as unprofitable, because the cost of its maintenance 
exceeded the amount of the revenue derived from it. Charle- 
voix ascribed the backward state of the colony to a want of 
persistent energy in the people. Either they had commenced 
projects for developing the resources of the country, which they 
had not carried out ; or they were discouraged by the jealous 
opposition which their schemes encountered. Tliey preferred a 
hfe of adventure and excitement, and the quick profits of the 
fur-trade, to the sober toil of agriculture. 

24. Though Canada was far less wealthy than the English 
colonies, it iijade a greater show with the riches it had. <^uel>eg 



was a mucTi gayer place than Boston ; there lived in it a greater 
number of persons who seemed to possess fortunes, and who 
spent them in maintaining handsome establishments. In the 
capital there was a Court in miniature; and in society there 
were all the gradations of rank that were maintained in France. 
The love of amusement was as great among the habitans of the 
country as among the officials of the city. Quebec then had 7,000 
inhabitants, Montreal 3 000, while the population of all Canada 
was about 26,000 souls. 

26. During the long peace, the rivalry between the French 
and the English colonies continued as active as ever. The 
French now by every means sought the friendship of the 
Iroquois. In 1717, the Tuscaroras, a tribe dwelling about the 
head waters of the Susquehannah River, entered the league, 
which was thenceforth known as the Six Nations. Missionaries 
were sent among the Senecas, and then a company of soldiers 
were stationed in a fort on the Niagara, within their coi ntry. 
The English remonstrated in vain with the Governor-General for 
occupying a post in a territory which was under the protection 
of their Sovereign. Governor Burnet of New York then boldly 
caused a fort and trading post to be built at the mouth of the 
Chouagen, now called the Oswego. The English were then in a 
better position than ever to intercept the fur- trade of the west. 
26. The New Englanders pushed forward their settlements 
along the eastern banks of the Kennebec, in the country of the 
Abenaquis. For many years Father Basle held a mission at 
Norridgewalk, and ruled the people at his will. The warriors 
stole around the English settlements, and bore off" many a 
horrible trophy of murders done. The Government c 

Massachusetts declared war against i.ll the eastern 
■"■'^^ tribes. For three years there were sia,ughters, and 

burnings, and ciuelties perpetrated along the frontiers. 
Norridgewalk was burned ; Father Rasle was killed with many 
wounds and indignities. M. de Vaudreuil at first opposed 
overtures of peace made by the Indians to the English, 

when the deputies of both appeared at Quebec. A 
** ^0 treaty, known as Dumner's, was afterwards signed at 

Boston, by which the Indians east of the Kennebec and 
those of Nova Scotia acknowledged King George's sovereignty. 



27. This same year Canada was overcast with grief. The 
royal ship "Le Chameau," bringiug to Quebec M. Chazel, 
the newly appointed Intendant, and military officers and 
ecclesiastics, was wrecked oif Loiiisburg. Not a soul escaped 
alive. Dead bodies and bales of merchandise were strewn along 
the coasts. Shortly afterwards, to intensify the sorrow that 
overspread the colony, M. de Vaudreuil died. His memory 
was long cherished by the Canadians. When in after years 
dark days fell upon them — when they were robbed and oppressed 
by corrupt officials, and threatened by their ancient enemies — 
they remembered the peace and prosperity they had enjoyed 
under his administration, and, fondly believing that there was 
virtue in a name, prayed the King to allow his son to rule over 

28. The Marquis de Beauhamois, a natural son of Louis 
XIV., succeeded Vaudreuil. For twelve years Canada 
enjoyed rest from actual war. It was the time of its 1726 
greatest happiness ; it was growing, though slowly, and a.d. . 
it felt its strength. But it advanced not by peaceful 

arts and industry. France held and extended her dominion by 
military power and by the influence of the Church. Beau- 
hamois' policy was by all means to confine the English behind 
the Alleghanies, i nd not to permit them to advance towards 
the St. Lawrence. On the western shore of Lake Champlain, 
at the foot of the Narrows between it and Lac Sacrament, he 
erected the fort of Crown Point, and overawed the advancing 
settlers of New York. 

QtjFr>riONS. — 1. In what position 
were the French in Canada now? Wliat 
were their relations with the Iroquois? 
What position did they maintain? 

2 In what respects were the English 
colonies superior to the French ? What 
scheme did Colonel Nicolson propose? 
What did King William think of it' 

3. Who succeeded Villebon as 
Croveruor of Acadie? How was Port 
Koyal strengthened ? 

4. What wei ,i the causes of the jeal- 
ousy that prevailed in Port Royal ? 

5. How was the wai carried on by 
the colonists ? What was the result of 
March's attack )n Port Royal? 

(473) ^ 12 

6. What kind of warfare did the 
French adopt ? Describe the exploit of 

7. On wLat did the people of Massa- 
chusetts ♦,hen resolve? Under whose 
direction were the preparations made ? 
What valuable information had Vetch 
acquired ? When ? 

8. On what plan did De Vaudreuil 
determine? How wa ; it frustrated? 

9. What caused the failure of Nicol- 
son's expedition? What had become 
of the English fleet? 

1(», Where did Nicolscn go for help? 
Whai aid did Queen Anne herself sup- 
ply? Why had the attack on Quebec 



to be postponed? What was there still 
time to capture ? 

11. In what state was Port Royal 
then 1 What was the result of Nicol- 
son's attack on it? ITow did he act 
when he was over-reached ? 

12. What change in the possession 
now took place ? What name was given 
to the colony? And to the capital? 
What effort did the French make to 
recover it? 

13. What scheme did NicoLson go to 
England to promote? AVhat forces 
were sent out to America ? How were 
the French forewarned? What steps 
did the Governor-General take ? 

14. What disaster dissipated the 
danger that threatened Canada ? 

16. How did the inhabitants of Quebec 
show their patriotism? What spirit 
prevailed in tlie colony? 

16. Why was the fort at Detroit so 
important to the French ? What struggle 
took place for its possession? 

17. When was peace concluded be- 
tween England and France? Wliat 
possessions were ceded to England? 
What did France retain? 

18. To what was the name of Cape 
Breton changed? What was its new 
capital called ? 

19. Who were removed to Royal 
Island? Why were the English un- 
willing to remove the Acadians ? How 
did the French seek to maintain a hold 
on Acadie ? 

20. On what d»d Canada now enter? 
What retarded the material prosperity 
of the colony? Wliat disaster led the 

Government to encourage niannfactnros 
in the colony':' 

21. What branches of industry were 
pursued? What was the great want of 
the colony? 

22. What shows the diflfereuco in 
population between the English and 
the French colonies? Wherein did 
they differ in the occupation of tl;e 
people? Wherein did they differ i)i 
the means of growth ? 

23. For what did the long peace 
afford opportunity? AVhat was one 
effect of Charlevoix's letters? What 
prejudices against the colony existed in 
the French mind ? To what did 
Charlevoix ascribe the backward state 
of the colony ? 

?.l. In what respect did the French 
excel the English colonies ? What was 
then the population of Quebec? of 
Montreal ? of the whole of Canada ? 

25. To what did the long peace not 
put an end? What means did the 
French adopt to secure the friendsliip 
of the Iroquois ? How did the English 
try to counteract their influence ? 

26. In what direction did the New 
Englanders push forward their settle- 
ments? What led to war between them 
and the eastern Indians? When was 
peace concluded? 

27. What calamity occurred in the 
same year? Who died shortly after- 
wards ? 

28. Who succeeded Vaudreuil? In 
what state was Canada during the next 
twelve years ? What was Beauharnois" 





1744 to 1748 A.D. 

The "War of the Austrian Succession. 

The Acadians. 

Du Vivier's stratagem. 

The siege of Louisburg. 

The great French Fleet. 

Due d'Anville. 

A series of casualties. 

The Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. 

1. England and France now again engaged in war.^ They 
took opposite sides in the question of the Austrian - -^ ^ 
Succession. The Emperor Charles VI., by the Prag- ■*■ ' ** 
matic Sanction, had solemnly declared that it was ?ns 

will that his daughter should succeed to the crown of the 
Austrian dominions. On his death Maria Theresa ascended 
tlie throne. But Charles Albert, Elector of Bavaria, was elected 
Emperor, and France and other powers drew their swords for 
him. England, Austria, Holland, and Saxony entered into an 
alliance against this coalition. The peace which the colonies had 
so long enjoyed was now broken. Canada was not disturbed 
by the events of the next four years. The brunt of the war 
was borne by Nova Scotia. 

2. Nova Scotia, after the Peace of Utrecht had transferred it 
to England, remained virtually a French province. Outside of 
Annapolis, besides the fishing station of Canso, there was no 
English settlement. The Acadians of Annapolis River, Minas, 
Piziqiiid, Beaubassin, and Chignecto had steadily refused to take 
the oath of allegiance to George I., without the reservation that 
they should not be compelled to bear aims against the King of 
France. They sought to establish for themselves a position of 

I neutrality in the event of the mother countries going to war. 
The British Government .would not recogrdze their claim, but 
took no steps to compel them to become British subjects in 
reality. The Acadians, generally aiuiable and tractable, lived 

I content under the mild British Government, but their «ym- 

fK«r. — CallQci bjrthe Enjjlish cojonists "King George's War," fpom Geovge || 



patliies were with Frauce. If they were inclined to waver, they 
were kept true to their allegiance by their priests, who looked 
to Louisburg and Quebec for instructions. 

3. During the long interval of peace the Fr^rch had fortified 
the harbour and town of Louisburg : so strong did the place 
seem, that it was called the Dunkirk^ of America. On the 
suri'ounding heights were erected batteries ; and batteries on a 
small rocky islet near the mouth of the harbour protected tlie 
' atrance. Lofty ramparts of stone, with bastions and parapets 
bearing one hundred and fourteen cannons, enclosed the squaie 
and streets of the garrison town. A wide, deep ditch lay around 
the walls. Louisburg was the place of refuge for the French 
naval squadrons and fishing fleets. In time of war, privateei-s 
were fitted out there to prey on the commerce of the New 
England colonies. To their merchants and fishermen it was a 
constant menace. To the Acadians it was a visible sign of the 
power of France ; and in it they found a market for their com 
and cattle, though the traffic was forbidden by the Governor of 
Nova Scotia. 

4. Immediately after the declaration of war, Du Quesnel, the 
^ Governor of Eoyal Island, sent M. du Vivier with nine 

1744 hundred men to r^eizo Canso and Annapolis. Canso was 
A.D. burned, and its small garrison were sent as prisoners 
to Louisbui'g. Returning thence, Du Yivier landed 
at Chignecto, and made a painful inland march to Annapolis. 
On their way, the French soldiers levied on the store-housea of 
the unfortunate Acadians, who cried out against the harsh exac- 
tions of their friends. It was their fate to sufier. For weeks a 
band of Micmacs had invested Annapolis. The fort was in a 
iuinous condition; its garrison was small, and poorly armed. 
Mascerene, the Governor, was an intelligent and resolute officer. 
Du Vivier harassed him by night attacks, and skirmishes hy 
day, till his soldiers were worn out by want of sleep. Unable 
to take the place by assault, the French captain tried stratagem. 
He sent in a flag of truce, and informed Mascerene that a naval 

* Dunkirk. — Or Dunkerque, a strongly 
fortified sea-port of France, 45 miles 
east of Dover. Tt was taken by the 
English in 1658, but in 1662 it was sold 

to Louis XIV. by Charles II. for 
£500,000. Louis then restored itsfnr 
tifictttions at a vast expense, and made 
it a great stronghold. 


force was comiDg from Louisburg which he could not reaist. 
llu offered hiin honourable terms if he would sign the articlcH 
of capitulation at once, but until the fleet arrived they were not 
to be carried out. He knew that the garrison was reduced to 
extremities, and anticipated that if Mascerene signed the 
articles he would be compelled to surrender immediately. The 
majority of the officers, despairing of succour, and anxious not 
to be sent prisoners to Quebec, urged the Governor to accept 
the terms. Mascerene, perceiving that Du Vivier wished to 
create dissension, firmly refused, and succeeded in convincing 
them that the Frenchman was practising a ruse. No fleet from 
Louisburg appeared. A furious rain-storm made his camp so 
uncomfortable that Du Vivier marched off without tap of 
drum, under cover of night. 

5. Incensed by the attacks on Nova Scotia, by the capture of 
tlieir fishing vessels, and the destruction of their commerce, the 
))eople of Massachusetts took the bold resolve to capture 
Louisburg. It was a venture that an experienced general 
might have hesitated to undertake ; but Governor Shirley, a 
lawyer, troubled his head very little about technical difficulties. 
He resolved to have the place, and thought that boldness would 
carry it. There were many citizens who remembered the 
events of the previous war, — how bold enterprises had been de- 
feated when success was confidently expected, — ho\v the proudest 
armaments had been shattered, — and they might well have their 

6. A force of four thousand men, mechanics and labourers 
for the most part, and without discipline, was raised. 

The command was given to William Pepperell, a mer- 174 5 
chant and colonel of militia, who had been very active a.d. 
in pressing forward the enterprise. Preparations were 
made with all secrecy and despatch, in the hope that the 
French would be taken by surprise. The British Government 
ordered Commodore Warren on the Newfoundland station to 
cooperate with his fleet ; and, much against his will at first, he 
sailed for Canso, where the New England force landed to wait 
until the coasts were c^'ar of ice. Here he conferred with 
Colonel Pepperell, and perfect harmony; so necessary to the suc- 
cess of a combined movement, was established between them. 


t«fi SlfiGE OP LOtlSUURG. 

7. The expedition sailed on a Sunday. "When the ships reached 
Gabams Bay, where the landing was to be made, the wind 
lulled. All hope of taking the French by surprise vanished ; 
alarm-guns along the coast were fired, the bells of Louisburg 
rang out, and all the people of the outlying settlements fled to 
the fortress for shelter. A heavy sea rolled into the bay, and 
the surf broke with a sound of thunder on the iron-bouud 
coast ; the path from the landing-place was steep, rugged, and 
difficult, and a French force stood ready to dispute the ascent. 
But with a cheer the English sailors swept the crowded boata 


through the surf ; with a rush the New Englanders carried the 
height, and gained the ground in rear of Louisburg. With 
infinite difficulty the siege guns and ammunition were landed 
from the ships ; with heavy labour they were drawn in loug 
sledges over the morasses, the men sinking knee-deep in water. 
The work was severe, the weather raw and gloomy, the 
bivouacs wet and cold, but a spirit of audacity and rollickiug 
good humour pervaded the force. 

8. A party marched through the woods, and in sight of the 
fortress saluted it with defiant cheers. A number of store- 
houses, filled with pitch, tar, turpentine, and brandy, on the 
north-east of the harbour, were fired. The thick smoke stifled 
the garrison of the Royal Battery, and hastily spiking their 
guns, they fled into Louisburf'. The New Englanders seized j 
on this commanding post, drilled out the touch-holes, aiiJj 



Opened a destructive fire upon the town. Nearer aud uearer 
they pushed forward their trenches towards the southern rani- 
j)arts. Great breaches were made in the walls. On the 7th of 
May, Warren and Pepperell summoned M. Duchambon to sur- 
render. The brave French Governor answered defiantly. His 
soldiers were sulky^; they had been shamefully used by the 
luteudantBigjit, who had kept back their pay. A frigate from 
France, carrying a regiment aud a quantity of stores, was cap-' 
tured when making for Louisburg. The New Euglanders 
dragged cannon ;;p to the Light-house Height on thewesi of the 
harbour, and silenced the battery on the islet that defended its 
mouth. Encompassed on all sides by a fire that swept destruc- 
tion through the town, Duchambon was forced to capitulate 
on the 15th of June. So Louisburg was taken. While the 
French flag still floated above it, two French East Indiamen 
making for the harbour were captured, with cargoes valued 
at ^60,000. The garrison and inhabitants, numbering 4,130 
persons, were conveyed to Fiance. Commodore Warren and 
(Jolonel Pepperell were promoted ; the one was made an ad- 
miral, the other a baronet. 

9. The capture of Louisburg was a glorious success for Massa- 
chusetts. A greater enterprise now busied the minds 

of Shirley and Pepperell. In the phrase of Cato,^ 1746 
the Governor exclaimed, " Delenda est Canada." The a.d. 
British Government could not spare a naval squadron, 
aud the New Englanders were soon compelled to look to their 
own defence. 

10. The French King would not submit to the loss of Louis- 
burg. A great armament was gathered in the port of Ko- 
chelle with the avowed purpose of recapturing it, taking posses- 
sion of Nova Scotia, burning Boston, and ravaging all the New 
England coasts. Fifteen ships of the line, twenty-four frigates, 
several fire-ships, and a crowd of transports bearing over three 
thousand trained soldiers composed it. Due d'Anville com- 
manded. When the citieens of Boston heard of the sailing of 

The phrase of Cato. — Cato the 
Censor, an illustrious Koman (146 B.C.), 
feared so much the rivalry of Carthage, 
that he was accustomed to conclude 
«very speech he made in the Senate 

with the words, "Delenda est Car- 
thago," — Carthage must be destroyed. 
At his instigation the Third Punic War 
was undertaken, and Carthage was 
razed to the ground. 







V c?x 

y <Sf M ^ 







U 11.6 














this graud fleet they crowded to the churches, and prayed that 
the great danger might be averted from their country. Due 
d'Anville's first destination was Chebucto harbour. Governor- 
( reueral Beauharnois despatched a force of Canadian militia to 
Ohignecto with the view of attacking Annapolis, when the 
French soldiers arrived to cooperate with it. On their way 
they defeated a party of English who were fortified at Minas. 

1 1 . Before D' Anville was well clear of the French coast two 
of his ships were captured off Brest by the Engli^'i. A furious 
wind dispersed others. Some convoyed merchantmen to the 
West Indies. When he entered the harbour of Chebucto in his 
fiag-ship the Northimiberland, with the Renommee, he found 
only one vessel of his great fleet at the rendezvous. His dis- 
appointment was intense. He died suddenly from a stroke of 
apoplexy ; but it was whispered that he had poisoned himself. 
Scurvy and dysentery broke out among the soldiers and 
sailors ; numbers landed to wander and die in the woods. 
Rear-admiral D'Estoumelle arrived with three ships on the 
afternoon of the day on which D' Anville died. He counselled 
the abandonment of the enterprise. l)ut the majority of the 
officers opposed him. Excited to delirium, when he retired to 
his cabin he fell upon his sword, and was found dead, welter- 
ing in his blood. M. de la Jonquifere (who had come out to 
succeed Beauharnois as Governor-General) took the command. 
With thirty vessels, great and small, he sailed to capture An- 
napolis ; but encountering a heavy storm off Cape Sable, he re- 
turned to France. The Bostonians held thanksgiving for their 
signal deliverance. Bajffled but not discouraged, the French 
prepared another great fleet, under the command of M. le 
George. Off Cape Finisterre^ he met a British fleet under 
Admiral Anson.^ After a hot engagement Le George struck 
hi« flag. Several of his vessels escaped, but a rich booty fell 

' Cape Finisterre. — A promontory of 
Spain, forming the north-west angle of 
tlie peninsula. 

'^ Admiral Anson. — George Anson, 
born 1G97, died 1762. In 1739 he com- 
manded an expedition against the 
Spanish settlements in South America. 
In 1741 he doubled Cape Horn, and 

three years later returned to England 
by the Cape of Good Hope, with only 
one ship, but that laden with immense 
booty. He had circumnavigated the 
globe. For his victory off Cape Finis- 
terre he was made Lord Anson. He 
was afterwards Commander-in-chief of 
the British Fleet. 



into the hands of the foe. M. de la Jouqui^re was made 
prisoner and takon to England. 

12. After these repeated d'-^asters the French Kmg thought 
no more of recapturing Nova Scotia or of burning Boston. 
Though defeated in America, he had gained advantages over 
tlie English in the East Indies. The capture of Madras v :is «,a 
oti'set to that of Louisburg. 

13. On the 18th of October peace was concluded by 
treaty signed at Ais-la-Chapelle.^ England gave 

back C Breton to France , Fiance restox^ed Madras 1748 
to England. The restoration of Louisburg to the French a.d. 
was a sore mortification to the people of Massachusetts, 
and to all in England who were interested in the New England 
trade. In its capture Old and New England had expended 
blood and treasure freely. The sacrifice had been made in vain. 
The British Government reimbursed the State of Massachusetts 
for the money it had expended ; but money was no complete 
compensation for its losses. Peace and security to conmierce 
were as remote as ever. 

Questions. — 1. When did war again 
break out between England an(f. France? 
What was the cause of the war? 
Wliich of the colonies bore the brunt 
of it? 

2. What position did the Acadians 
seek to establish for themselves? With 
which power were their sympathies ? 

3. Describe the fortifications of Louis- 
burg. What uses did it serve? 

4. On what expedition was Du Vivier 
sent ? By what stratagem did he attempt 
to take Annapolis ? How did it fail ? 

6. What bold resolve did the people 
of Massachusetts take ? By whom was 
it chiefly promoted ? 

6. Who commanded the expedition? 
How many men had he ? What naval 
force was ordered to cooperate with 

7. Where did the New Englanders 
land? What difficulties did they en- 

8. Tfow did they gain possession of 
the Eoyal Battel y? How did they 
silence the islet battery? In what spirit 
were the French soldiers? What was 
Duchambon at last forced to do? What 
prizes were taken soon afterwards ? 

9. What new enterprise engaged the 
thoughts of Shirley and Pepperell? 
Why had it to be delayed ? 

10. What steps did the French take 
to recover Louisburg? What success 
had the Canadian militia ? 

11. What befell D'Anville's fleet? 
What ^;as his fate? Why did D'Estour- 
nelle ^111 himself? How was De la 
Jonquifere's fleet scattered? What befell 
Le George's armament? 

12. What gain in the East did the 
French regard as an offset to the loss of 
Louisburg ? 

13. When was peace concluded? How 
did its terms disappoint the people of 
Massachusetts 7 


' Aix-la-Chapelle. — In German called 
Aoi'hen, a city of Rhenish Prussia, 40 
miles south-we-'t of Cologne. It takes 
its name from its mineral springs (Aix= 

aquas), and from the church or cathe- 
dral of Charlemagne, who was born and 
who died in the city. It has been the 
Bcen^ of two treaties (16()8 and 1748). 

iic ■• 






1749 to 1754 A.D. 

Territorial pretensions of France. 
Count de la Galissonnifire. 
Boundary Commission of Paris. 
M. de la JonquiCre. 
Oflicial corruption. 


Abb6 de Loutre. 

Fort r-aus^jour. 

Preparation for the coming struggle. 

Collision in the Valley of the Ohio. 

g- 1 . The Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle was merely a truce, a breath- 

1 iug time, during which the combatants prepared themselves for 

'' tho final struggle. The question to be decided was, Whether the 

greater portion of the North American Continent should belong 

I to France, or whether the rule of England should extend over 

' it ? whether it should be possessed by a race of people subject 
to an absolute Government that concerned itself but little with 
their material progress, or belong to a nation imlued with the 
spirit of independence, enjoying liberty of conscience and of 

^ political action, and devoted to all the peaceful arts by which 

\ nations grow and flourish ? 

2. ri yg^ aim of Fr ance was to confine the English (if it 
could not drive the stubborn people to the sea) to the t ract o f 
country lying east of the Alleghany Mountains, and stretcliiug 
from the Kennebec in the north to St. Mary's Rive£3a' the 
,south. AH tile rest of the continent, from the mouth of the 
St. Lawi'ence to the source of the Mississippi, and south to the 
Gulf of Mexico, France claimed as its own by right of discovery 
and conquest. Its magnificent territorial pretensions extended 
even to the Pacific. Though its claims were vast, its power in 
America was not strongly seated. The p opulation. ^ Ca^ jjdarr' 
its chief possession, was only aboat.fiQ^OO ; that of the I^jiglisl^ 
colonies was 1 .200,000, while their wealth andcleveloped re- 
sources were mrty "fold greater than those of their rival. >3Che 

skill of its ofiicers, m the aptitude of the people for,io««»8t-^¥rftr- ^ 
^ fare, in the vastness of the territory, and in the extreme dini- 1 




culty that an enemy found in conducting military operatiojia in 
it. The want of unity of action among the Gov^riiments of the 
English colonies, as it weakened their power for offensive war, 
was an advantage to the French. 

3. In consequence of M. de la Jonquifere having been taken 
prisoner by the English, Count de la Galissonrlere was ap- 
pointed Governor-General. In person he was diminutive and 
somewhat deformed ; in mind he was most intelligent and alert. 
He resolutely upheld the territorial pretensions of France. He 
wished to form a living barrier against the advance li the 
English pioneers into the valley of the Ohio. He advised the 
King to send out ten thousand peasants from the inland 
counties, and to locate them along the frontiers of what was 
called " the debatable territory." It was thought unadvis- 
able by the Court to depopulate France in order to people the 
wilds of America. Unable to carry out his policy, Galissonnit^re 
took steps to assert, at least, the sovereignty of France over the 
vast country claimed by it. Acting on instructions from him, 
M. de Celerin de Bienville, with a company of three hundred \ 
soldiers, traversed the region from Detroit to the Alleghanies, I 
and deposited at intervals beneath certain marked trees leaden ) 
plates, on which were engraved the royal arms/ He sent a 
regular record of his proceedings to the Governor-General, who 
transmitted it to the King. \This ostentatious assumption of) 
right to the territory alarmed the Indian* tribes^and arou*^ id 
tlie jealousy of the colonists of Pennsylvania ; the feeling was 
inflamed into rage when M. C^l^rin formally notified their 
Governor that all English merchants found trading west of the 
Alleghanies would be seized and their goods confiscated. 

4. Count de la Galissonni^re also took steps to assert the right 
of France to the country north of the Bay of Fundy and west 
to the Kennebec. Hisofficers heldj3ostsjon,.yie J^ 
a^idiiiJJbLfeJsthmus of_CKlgff5cTO. The English stoutly opposed 

this, assumption of authority over territory whicli~tTrey claiiaed 

as forming part of Nova Sci?tia. M. de la Jonquifere, 

when released from captivity by the peace, shortly 1749 

afterwards assumed the functions of Governor-General. A.D. 

Galissonnifere, on his return to France, was appointed 

d member of a Board to which was submitted the question of 





the disputed bouudaries. It was composed of Fveuch and 
English commissioners, and it met at Paris. Each side sub- 
mitted long historical arguments in support of the cbims of their 
respective countries. The chief debate was over Nova Scotia. 
The French commissioners maintained that it was confined to 
the peninsula, and that the country north of the bay and west 
to the Kennebec formed part of tlie cid Acadie, which had not 
at any time been ceded to England. Af ter arg^ui ng for three 
years nearly (1750-3) ov er the qu estions thajj Jixoagj ^the En glisIT 
corMrilsslouers withdrew from tHe Board leaving? them un- 

5. jM. de la J onquiere was a brave and experienced naval 
officer, but he was~iI11ittiS3^r the high position he held. On 
his first coming to Canada he was disposed to cultuiate.ftiendb 
relat ions with the English. He wa sjn structe ^to carry out the 
policy of his predecessor, to guard tTie val ley of theOhio. and 
to keep possession of the country north of the bay. Jonquiere 
then strengthened the guards on the St. John, and sent officers 
to hold posts on the Peticodiac, Memramcook, and Chepody 
rivers. He was not_actua^edLJ3yUJie_j>a^^ 
sonnifere, wlio had been solely anxious to uphold the grandeur 
of French empire in America. Jonquiere was old, and avarice 
had eaten out the noble passions. In his time the tide of 
official corruption set in, which sapped the internal strength 
of Canada and hastened its downfall. The salaries of the high 
officers were inadequate to maintain their rank. The Governor- 
General received about ^300 a year, and he was expected to 
support out of that sum a guard composed of a sergeant and 
twenty -five soldiers. His position gave him opportunities 
to enrich himself illegally. Jonquiere pushed this advantage 
to the utmost. In his lust for gold he showed himself 
cynically disregardful of the welfare of the people. He ap- 
propriated to himself the profits of the licences for the liquor 
trade. The evil of drunkenness spread widely. He surrep- 
titiously entered into the fur-trade. In conjunction with other 
officials, he sent, under the pretext of wishing to make an ex- 
ploration of the country west of the Mississippi to the Pacific, a 
party to barter with the Indians for furs. By this one specu- 
la, don alone he netted an enormous sum. While he amassed au 



immense fortune by such means, he denied himself the ordinary 
necessaries of life. 

6. M. Bigot had been appointed Intendant in 174S. He was-^^ 
more corrupt, if possible, than his chief ; but, unlike Jonqui6re,y^*»'fV^ 
he lived prodigally, and mocked the misery of the people by his / ^^ 
ostentatious licentiousness. He had his palace in Quebec, and 

his chateau at the foot of the Charlesbourg Mountain, where I 

he aped the sensual extravagance of his royal master, Louis XV. ! 

Bigot was not only unprincipled himseK ; his example en- 
couraged his subordinates to follow in his course. 

7. The inhabitants sent petitions to the Court, bitterly com- 
plaining of the conduct of the Governor-General. Jonquifere, 
conscious that he had acted in an indefensible manner, asked to 
be recalled. He died before an investigation of the charges 
against him could be held. In his last hours, when the shadow 
of death cast its gloom over his bed-chamber, his penurious soul 

was disquieted by the sight of wax tapers burning. He i 

ordered tallow caudles to be substituted ; " they were less ex- 
pensive, and they ga^^e sufficient light." He was succeeded by 
the Marquis du Qaesne. \ 

8. To turn to Nova Scotia. Before Louisburg was handed 
over to the French, "the L'>rds of Trade and Plantations" in 
England perceived the necessity of founding a settlement at 
some point more convenient and accessible than Annapolis 
Iloyal. Qhebuc to, a harbour on the south-eastern coast, ^;as 
pronoun cea by naval officers to be the finest that they had ever 

ItyKM-.E'^wJgirosea to Tie the site of the English power in 


N|gjat^.^cotia. A notification appeared in the Royal Gazette, 
London, holding out, on the part of the King, libern.l induce- 
ments to haK-pay officers, and soldiers and sailors disbanded 
after the war, and also to artificers and labourers, to become 
settlers at Chebucto. Grants of land ranging from fifty to six 
h'.mdred acres, free passages, arms, ammunition, working utensils, 
and sustenance for a year, were ofiered. The protection of a 
regular government and representative institutions were prom- 
ised. TlieHon. Edward Cornwallis was appointed Governor. 

9. On tKe^nH*ofTuWthe *^phynx," bearing Gover- _^ 
nor Cornwallis arid his suite, entered Chebucto har- *-i^^ 
hour, and was soon followed by a fleet of thirteen * ' 






^ m\ 

transports, having on board 2,500 persons, of various conditions 
and occupations. The country was an unbroken forest. On 
the western arm ot t\u. harbour the woods descended in a gentle 
slope for half a mile to a gravelly beach. ^ On this commanding 
and sheltered position the foundation of the town of Halifax 
was laid ; a name given to it in honour of the Earl of Halifax, 
President of the Board of Plantations.! 

10. Halifax presented a busy and a stirring scene. In 
the magnificent harbour rode men-of-war and the fleet of trans- 
ports. Between ship and shore crowded boats passed and re- 
passed. On board the Beaufort the Governor and his Council 
met. Th ey took m easures t o procl aim the sovereumt 
land over__thg^fiJijn^ Province : they despaiched Captain Eous 
to drivethe FrenclTfrom the River St. John : they summoned 
deputies from the Acadian districts to appear before them. 
When these deputies protested that they could not take the 
oath of allegiance to King George, without the reservation that 
they should not be compelled to bear arms against the King of 
France, the plain-spoken Governor reproached them with in- 
gratitude to the British Government, which had extended acts 
of kindness to them, and plainly told them that they must take 
the uncon ditional oath if they wished to coujjjiu^.^ the pos 
s^ion of their propert^affid'{lTi^"pTiTTteg^ 

11. The settlers v/orked steadily and laboriously. A few were 
carri(id oif by excitement, and loafed about drinking success to 
the rising town of Halifax ; for which the Governor abused them 
roundly. The Indians, hostile at heart, came to gaze on the 
scene. By the end of autumn three hundred log-houses were 
built : they were surrounded by a palisade of brushwood, and 
defeiide-I by two forts. 

1';. The jealousy of the authorities in Quebec was aroused. 
Nova Scotia appeared very precious to them when they saw 
that the English were taking decisive steps to prev^ent their 
ever regaining it. They kept it in a state of disquietude. They 
used iyi334j46-J*^''^j52 ^^ their instrument for this purpose. 
The Abbd was ambitious, vain, and restless. By the English 
he was detested as the instigator of the attacks that the Mic- 
macs of Shubenacadie commenced to make on Halifax, on Dart- 
Wiovithj and on the new German settlement of Lunenburg. B^ 

sntini !!' 



the Acadians he was regarded with fear and trembling ; for ou 
the least sign of swerving from their allegiance to France, he 
from the pulpit launched anathemas on their head, and more 
privately hinted to them that he would not be able to restrain 
the Indians from ravaging their farms. By his ecclesiastical 
superior he was looked upon coldly, for abusing his power 
as a priest for political purposes ; but he enjoyed the favour '>f 
the Governor-General. While the Board of Boundary Com- 
missioners was sitting in Paris, De Loutre asserted that they 
would decide in favour of the French claim, not only to the 
country north of the bay, but to the Isthmus of Chignecto, and 
to the country from Minas to Malagash Bay. A number of 
Acadians on the peninsula were induced by him to leave their 
farms and to settle north of the Missignash stream at Tantra- 
niar, and on the Island of St. John, in the belief that they were 
not abandoning their possessions for ever. The English called 
them the " deserted inhabitants." 

13. The French fortified themselves on the isthmus, and 
built F ortJBeausejOUr on a gentle elevation in the marsh. It 
was the Abbe s head- quarters, fromVnicn helield coiTCopond- 
ence with Quebec by the River St. John, and with Louisburg 
by way of Bay Verte. The Acadians of the peninsula sent 
their corn and cattle to Louisburg, and bix)ught back from 
thence supplies of French goods. The English had never been 
able to prevent this traffic. Governor Cornwallis now sent 
Colonel Lawrence to establish a settlement at Chignecto on the 
route by which the Acadians conveyed the produce that they 
intended to ship to market. F4)rt-4iawi:«ni5e_wa^ buil^^ 
sight oL-BeausidJaur. At. first Tn^itaw4-~rmM4f>wwtL wf^r^ inter- 
changed betwjefiii-th6~twa^Commandants, M r. How jjiiJLM, de 
I4 Coine.^How, anxious to recleem some English prisoners out 
of tire hands of the Indians, held interviews with De Loutre. 
While this affair was still pending, a French officer (or, an 
Indian dressed like a French officer) appeared in sight of Fort 
Lawrence, and waved a white handkerchief, the usual signal 
for a conference. How, advancing to meet him, was shot 
(lead by a party of Indians lying in ambush. The English at- 
tributed the murder to M. de la Coine ; the French offi-cers in- 
dignantly disavowed the dastardly deed, and accused De I^outre, 
















14. In Canada affairs were uowaj[y^)roa£liiu^a crisis. Tlie 
policy inaugurated by GaliSb-anni^Trecould only be carried out 
by force of arms ; the English would not consent to be ex- 
cluded, by a mandate from Quebec, from the grand country 
between the western slopes of the Alleghanies and the Missis- 
sij^pi. In anticipation of an early rupture, M. du Quesne 
organized as efficiently as he could the fighting force of the 
colony. All the male inhabitants were then compelled to do 
military duty, and were liable to be called upon at any time for 
active service. The habitans were required to make great 
sacrifices, and to endure severe ^lardships, and were treated 
with little consideration by their officers and feudal superiors. 
At the requisition of the Governor-General, the militia officers 
made a draft on the parishes. Each of the men chosen was 
furnished with a gun, a blanket, a cap, a pair of moccasins, a 
cotton shirt, a pair of leggins, and a capot,^ before being 
marched off to the scene of his duty. 

15. The Indians in " the debatable territory" viewed with 
alarm, not unmixed with wonder, the efforts made by the Freneli 
and the English to supplant each other in a country which 
they fondly believed belonged to themselves. A Shawnoe chief 
sarcastically likenetl his people to a piece of cloth between the 
blades of a sharp pair of shears. French and English made 
unceasing efforts to win the alliance of the Indians, especially 
of the Six Nations. After the Peace of Utrecht the Iroquois 
(the three upper cantons more particularly) inclined more and 
more to the French side. In order to form a barrier against 
the approach of the English to the St. Lawrence, the Mission 
of La Presentation, at the mouth of the Oswegatchie River, 
was formed. There in his fortified bourgade — where were 
gathered people from all the cantons — Father Paquet, half 
soldier, half priest, ruled with a high sway. The efforts of the 
French to win over the Iroquois in a body were counteracted 
by William Johnson. In his wild youth he fell into trouble, 
and from Ireland crossed over to America. He settled on the 
Mc»hawk River. He studied the language and the character of 
the Indians. By his honourable dealings, by the respect he 

^ Capot, a militaiy frock-coat, 



paid to their customs aud their prejudices, he acquired a won- 
derful ascendency over the Lowe.' Iroquois. He married 
Molly Brant, the sister of a Mohawk chief, and ruled like 
a potentate. The British Government had made him Super- 
intendent of Indian affairs. 

16. The French sought to defend their extensive frontiers by 
a system of connected forts, and grew bolder and bolder in 
their encroachments. Some men of capital in London and 
Virginia formed " The Ohio Company," and purchased a lai'ge 
tract of land within the " debatiible territory." They com- 
menced to build a post at the junction of the Monongahela and 
Alleghany Rivers.^ Ere the work was well finished, M. Con- 
trecour. Commandant of Venango Fort, with an overpowering 
force drove out the garrison, aud, completing it, named it Fort 
du Quesne, in honour of the Governor-General. Governor 
Dinwiddle of Virginia despatched a body of militia 

to demand restitution of the place, and to warn Con- 1754 
trecour against persisting in seizing English traders and a.d. 
disturbing the operations of the Ohio Company. George 
Washington^ (who afterwards became famous for great 
actions), on the sudden death of his superior officer, assumed 
the command. Contrecour, hearing of his approach to Fort 
(lu Quesne, sent M. Jumonville, with thirty-three soldiers, to 
warn him against trespassing on French soil. Washington, 
then in his hot youth and burning for action, on being apprised 
of the approach of the party, at once assumed that its intent 
was hostile. Guided by a friendly Indian, he, with forty men, 
marched through the dark of a rainy night in May, and at 
break of day surprised the Frenchmen as they lay encamped in a 
secluded valley. One account says that he fell upon them Avith- 
out warning ; another, that he ordered his men to fire whil ^ the 
French officer was reading a formal protest against his trespass. 
However it came about, Jumonville and others were shot dead, 
ar.d the rest taken prisoners. 

17. "Washington then encamped on the Little Meadows. His 






' The Monongahela and Alleghany 
Rivers. — At the junction of these two 
tributaries of the Ohio now stands 
Pittsburg (in the west of Pennsylvania). 


* George Washington. — Afterwards 
first President of the United States ; 
he was then in his twenty-second year. 
Born 1732, died 1799. 








lueu threw up a line of intrenchinents which he named Fort 
Necessity. There, with four hunch'ud militia, he held his gro ind 
for over a month. M. Villars, with one thousand troops, ad- 
vanced from Fort du Quesne to drive him off. The French, 
though mucli superior in numbers, did not attempt to storm the 
rude work, but surrounded the Virginians, and kept up a 
galling fire from behind trees and bushes. Owing to the heavy 
rains the trenches of Fort Necessity were filled with watoi-. 
Washington surrendered the now untenable position on honour- 
able terms. He knew not, when Villars read to him the ai-ticl'. s 
of capitulation in French, that his attack on Jumonville was 
termed " assassination." He did not understand the language. 

Questions. — 1. What was the real 
question at issue as regarded the North 
American colonies? 

2. What was the airn of France? 
Why was its power in North America 
not so strongly seated as that of Eng- 
land? Wherein did the strength of 
France lie ? 

3. What plan did De la Galissonnifire 
suggest for checking the westward prog- 
ress of the English? By what device 
did he assert the claim of Franco to 
tho western territory? 

4. In what other quarter did ha as- 
sert French claims? To whom was the 
question of disputed boundaries re- 
ferred? What was the chief subject of 
debate ? How long did the Commission 
sit? What was the result ? 

5. Wherein did De la Jonquifire differ 
in character from his predecessor? 
W^hat mal-practices did he encourage? 
What did he neglect? 

6. How did Bigot improve on his 
master'", example ? 

7. What led to Jonquifire's recall? 
What proof of his penuriousness did 
he give in his last hours ? 

8. Wliat site was fixed on for the 
new capital of Nova Scotia? What 
inducements were held out to settlers? 

9. When did the Gcvct'nor arrive? 
How many persons accompanied him? 
What name was given to the new city? 

10. Where did the Governor and his 

Council meet ? How did they deal wilh 
the Acadlans? 

11. How did the settlers work? What 
progress had been made before the end 
of autumn ? 

12. In what 8t.tte did the French 
keep the new seUlement? Whom did 
they use as their instrument for this 
purpose ? How was the Abb^ regarded 
by the English, by the Bishop, and by the 
Governor-General ? What did he per- 
suade a number of the Acad'ans to do' 

13. Where had the Abb6 his head- 
quarters ? What means did Cornwalli.s 
take to stop the traffic of the Acadians 
with Louisburg? What was the fate 
of Commandant How? Who wa.s 
blamed for the dastardly deed? 

14. How did Du Quesne act in an- 
ticipation of an early rupture? How 
were the habitans treated? 

15. What effect had the rivalry of 
the French and the English on tlie 
Indians ? What barrier did the French 
interpose between the English and the 
St. Lawrence? By ••vhom were the 
French schemes among the Iroquois 
counteracted ? To what office had the 
Government appointed Johnson? 

16 What was the origii\ of Fort du 
Quesne? Who were sent to deman<l 
restitution of the fort ? 

17. Where did Washington then en- 
camp? How long did he hold out? 
What compelled him to surrender? 





1755 to 1757 A.D. 

The Mai "'lis ''.3 Vaudreuil-Cavagnac. 
Capture of Fort BeausCjour. 
Braddock at Monongahelu. 
Battle of Lake George. 
Kxpulsion of the Acadlans. 

War declared. 

Loudoun Commander-in-Chief. 

Marquis de Montcalm. 

Fort Oswego taken. 

Massacre at Fort William-ITenry. 

1. The colli sion in the vallej of the Ohio was the r*'^nalipr a 
generaF conflict,* The' mbtlier countries were drifting 

into hostilities : no actual procl?mn.t' i of war was 1754 
made, however, for some time. In - ew of the inevi- A.D. 
table c itest, the Deputies of the English Colonies held 
a Convention at Albany, on the 14th of June, to consult on a 
measure of general defence. This meeting was at first called 
to iatify a treaty of peace with the Six Nations. In the case 
of the famous league of the Iroquois, the English had seen 
that union for a common purpose gave strength. It is said it 
suggested the first idea of a confederation of the English 
colonies. The celebrated Benjamin Franklin^ proposed a 
scheme of union, which would have vesteiTHie power of de- 
fence in a general government, and which would have enabled 
tlie English colonies to use their superior power to advantage. 
IJut through imperial and local jealousies it was frustrated. 

2. France and England now sent out military reinforcements 
to their colonies. The Marquis du Quesne, wishing to enter the 
naval service, demanded his recall. At the prayer of the people 
of Canada, who remembered his father's happy administra- 
tion, the King appointed the Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnac. 
The fleet bearing the new Governor-General and Baron Die- 

' Benjamin Franklin. — Born 1706, 
died 1790. In the struggle between 
Great Britain and the colonies he took 
an active part in the declaration of In- 
dependence. He signed, on the part 
of the United States, the treaty recog- 

nizing their independence, in 1783. 
From 1785 to 1788 he sat with Wash- 
ington and Hamilton in tlie Federal 
Convention whicli framed the Constitu- 
tion of the United States. He also won 
fame by his scientific i-esearches. 

It' W 


|v (1» 




■^ I 





skau, with several veteran battalions, was met off the coast of 
Newfoundland by an English squadron under Admiral Boa- 
c^wen. But for a thick fog tha* baffled pui^uit, ^. de 
Vaudreuil might never have reached Quebec. 

?j. About the same time Gener al Bi:addock arrived in 
America with the 44th and 48th Regiments, to cooperate witli 

the New England forces. A meeting of the Colonial 

1755 Governc)rs was held at Alexandria, and the resolution to 

A.D. capture the^Forts DuQuesne, Fre deric qt Crown P oint, 

Niagara, and Beaus^ur^ was a4opted. The possession 
of those places would give the Euglish a hold on all the debat- 
able territory. 

4. On the 2nd of June a force of two thousand men, under 
Colonel Moncton, arrived at the head of the Bay of Fundy. 
They crossed the Missignash, and erected batteries within six 
hundred yards of Beausdjour. M. Verger, the Governor, had 
a garrison of one hundred and fifty soldiers ; and tAvelve him- 
dreu Acadians from Chepody, Memramcook, Peticodiac, Bay 
Verte, and Poiat de Bute, came at his call. Many of them 
were " deserted inhabitants," who felt that they had been de- 
ceived and mocked by De Loutre. The fort was small, confined, 
and crowded. When the shells exploded, the Acadians were 
stifled by the smoke ; when they saw several of their people 
lying Head, they deserted. Verger did n'ot attempt to make a 
vigor' s sally. One morning, as some French officers were 
breals astiug with an English prisoner, a bomb-siiell burst 
through the caseniate, killing some of the party and wounding 
others. Before the day closed. Ver ger capitulated . De Loutre, 
ruined .'^jid disgraced, fled to the St. John ; and Colonel Mono 
ton and Captain John Winslow .^upped with the French officer 
in Beaus6jour, which they named Fort Cumberland. 

5. In the meantime, Major-General Braddock was wend- 
ing his way through the wilderness to Fort du Quesne. In 
temper Braddock was haughty, arrog ant, and unbending. He, 
knew noT^l]^ j^TJS^iaiiHry," o^^^ mod£of w arfare pro per 
to be pursue- 1 in^it ; and, wo^-st of all, he despise(i the counsel 
of those wh(/ cuuJd have instructed him. There was discontent 
among the colonial forces who followed him. The regulation of 
the service, which gavs the oflSicers of the regular army superior 




nink over the officers of the militia of the same grade, excited 
their jealousy, and spread among them a spirit of disaffection : 
they felt they weie depreciated, that their legitimate ambition 
was thwarted, and they soon exclaimed that they were sacri- 
ficed by the glaring incapacity of the generals sent out to com- 
mand them. 

6. Braddock reached the Monongahela on the 9th of July. 
He had pushed forward with twelve hundred men, leaving 
Colonel Dunbar to follow with the rest of the troops and the 
heavy luggage. He marched as if he were in the open coun- 
try, with fife and drum and flying coloui*s. He recked not 
that the Indian scouts might carry the news of his foolhardy 
advance to the Governor of Du Quesne, nor dreamed that two 
hundred French soldiers and a band of Indians were lurking 
among the tall grass in the gloom of the woods through which 
lie must pass. His advanced -guard marched through the 
river to the inspiring strains of the " British Grenadier," and 
})lunged into a defile. Suddenly from the dark ravine in front 
there burst forth a VoUey of musketry, and the Indians 
started up with a fierce yell, then sank again in the coverts. 
The van fell back in terror upon the main body, which was 
entering the defile, and threw it into confusion. In vain 
Braddock stormed and raged, and endeavoured to re-form the 
broken ranks of his soldiera ; in vain the officers exposed them- 
selves with noble gallantry, and urged their men to charge and 
clear the coveii: of the lurking foe. Braddock had five horses 
killed under him, and at length fell mortally WOUnded. Fast 
•hopped officers and men before the murderous fire ; utterly 
demoralized, the soldiers broke into uncontrollable flight, and 
rested not till they had reached Dunbar's camp, forty miles off. 
Col onel Washin gton (who had behaved with great courage and 
coolnegs) thre w himself with his Virgfn^'ans across t^ie Monon;^ 
gahela^an d checke d the__eriemy froni harasging^ t^i^ yfi ^ygfLfc^ 
The English lost sixty-three officers killed and wounded, and 
six hundred men. Braddock, the headstrong, as he lay dying, 
was heard to mutter, " We shall know better how to deal 
with them another time." I e did not live to profit by his 
7. This disastrous defeat spread dismay throughout the English 












colonies. The expedition against Fort Niagara was abandoned. 
By the influence of William Johnson alone, the Six Nations 
were prevented from deserting in a body to the French. With 

five thousand hardy back- 
woodsmen he advanced to 
attack Crown Point. Leav- 
ing a garrison at Fort 
Edward, he made his way 
to the southern extremity 
of Lake George.^ While 
there encamped, his scouts 
brought intelligence that 
Baron Dieskau, with two 
thousand men, was advanc- 
ing to attack Fort Edward. 
He sent one thousand men 
to check the French-Dutch 
General ; but they fell into 
an ambuscade, and were 
cut up with great slaughter. 
Dieskau, avoiding Fort 
Edward, now hastened to 
surprise Johnson. But that 
General, though he had 
never fought a battle, had 
chosen his ground well. 
Morasses covered his right 
and left flanks, his centre 
was protected by a barri- 
cade of felled trees, and he had two or three guns in battery. 
The French force was so disposed that the Canadians and 
Indians were placed on the flanks and the regulars in the 
centre. The flank skirmishers would not advance across the 
morass in face of the artillery fire. For a time the veterau 
soldiers stood in line and fired unavailing volleys. They were 
mowed down as they advanced to charge the barricade, aud 
the few survivors fled. Dieskau was found alone, leaning, 

' Lake George. — Previously called I George in 1765, in honour of the Eng- 
Lac Sacrament. It was called Lake | lish King. 




wuimded, against the stump of a tree. In the Battle^of Liike 
George tlie French lost six hundred men. On the scene of 
the victory Johnson erected Fort William-Henry. In reward 
for his services the King created him a baronet. The drooping 
spirits of the English colonists revived ; but they did not 
follow up their success. 

8. When the alarm over the bloody defeat of Monongahela 
was at its height, Governor Lawrence of Nova Scotia was con- 
templating a ^tern ^measure. That disaster decided him. The 
Acadians, buoyed up with the hope that their loved Acadie 
would be restored to France, still persisted in refusing to take 
the unreserved oath of allegiance to King George. As a body, 
they maintained their position of neutrality ; but they were 
doomed to suffer for the sins of those who gave open aid to the 
French. Their joy over Braddock's defeat was lively ; they 
could not help crying out, " Vive la France ;" it was naturtil. 
They were an amiable people, but by no means good British 

9. Governor Lawrence summoned their deputies to appear 
at Halifax, and commanded them to take the absolute oath. 
On refusing, they were warned of the very serious conse- 
quences, and put in prison to give them time for cool reflection. 
Still they refused, and were not allowed another opportunity. 
The final resolution t o remove the Aca diana^was taken 

on the 28th July. At the meeting of Council were 1755 
present A jmiral B oscawen and Savagg-^Mostyn. The a.d. 
measure was carried ouT^ itTTalJ secrecy and despatch. 
A numbei of transports were collected in the harbour of 
Boston ; Lawrence -ffini te circular-letters to the Gpvernors of 
the Colonies^J[ro m_Maine to Georgia, stating the necessity of 
the step, a^d requiring them to detain the people that would 
be scut to them. 

10. The deputies returned home, not dreaming of **le grand 
derangement " — " the great trouble " — about to befall their 
people. Kot until ships appeared in the Bay of Fundy, and 
entered the Basin of Annapolis, and were moored off the mouths 
of the rivers Canard and Gaspereau, was suspicion excited. Then 
many fled into the woods ; then commenced harrowing devasta- 
tions. In the beginning of September, the prosperous village of 







.■: - 


M 1 
1 ■ 

200 ^ THE SEVEN years' WAR. 

Beaupre, on the Basin of Minas, rested in autumnal repose. 
The liarvest was gathered in, and the barns were full to burst- 
ing. On the 5th, all the male inhabitants assembled in the 
chapel to hear a mandate from the Governor at Halifax. In 
firm and feeling words, Colonel John Winslow, standing at the 
altar, announced the stem decree, that their property was con- 
fiscated to the King, and that the ships in the bay were ready to 
bear themselves, their wives, and their families away to distant 
shores. Kesistance was useless ; the men were caged as in a 
prison, and armed soldiers stood on guard outside. With only 
their money, and such articles of furniture as the vessels could 
carry, they were forced on board. With wonderful patience the 
unfortunate people endured the spoiling of their households and 
their cruel banishment. In Chignecto, and at Peticodiac, and 
Memramcook, the habitans resisted the English party, and 
woful scenes followed : houses, b.'i ns, chapels, were given to 
the flames ; men, women, and child, n fled into the woods, — 
there some burrowed, others found their way to Miramichi, to 
Shipi^egan, to the Nepisiguit, to Quebec, where they were 
shamefully treated by Bigot and his creature Cadet. 
A 11- Three thousand of the Acadians were distributed 
/ among the English colonies. For reasons alike of policy and 
/ of humanity. Governor Lawrence's act was injudicious and 
\ harsh. It did not accomplish the object of giving security to 
I the Province, — if that alone was his object, — for many found 
I their way back, and, along with the Indians, sorely harassed 
I the English settlers during the war ; and it was so contrary to 
f natural feeling, that it aroused a sympathy that altogether 
\ overlooked the provocation that the Acadians had really 

12. War was formally declared by the British Government 

on the 27th of March. France made a counter declara- 

1756 tion in May. The great contest, known as " the Seven 

A.D. Years' War," now commenced in Europe. Frajice, 

Austrja^jim l Bussij JbiaDded thjeir selves agajnst Prussia^^ 

Supplied with the sinew»»of war By England, Frederick entered 

into the contest from which he was to emerge with the title of 

" the Great." England encountered France on the high seas, 

and in India ; but America waatneir chief^ battle-ground. 




13. Little energy was displayed on the side of the British 
ill carrying on the war. At the head of affairs was the Duke 
of Newcastle,^ notorious for his mingled vacillation ?.id pre- 
sumption. His spirit seemed to infect all operations. Under 
his administration men of talent and energy had no scope for 
action. Political favourites, however incapable, were preferred 
to ])oaitions of the highest responsibility at the most critical 
jjeriods. The resuh was disaster and disgi'ace. Thejaid of 
Loudoun, a competent civil administrator, but of no militiiry 
capacTty, was sent out as Commander-in-chief. In advance of 
him arrived M ajor-General Abercrombie, with the 42nd High- 
landers — the fani ous Black Wak ih — and the 35th Regiment. 

14. The French King, although his resources were strained 
by the war in Europe, sent out considerable reinforcements, 
and several experienced officers, — Louis St. Veran, Marquis de 
Montcalm/'^ General de Levi, and their aides-de-camp, M. de 
Bouganville ^ and M. de Bourlamaque. Montcalm^ skilled in 
all theajt^-jofjffai^lmdL^cqQi^ reputation in Italy, Bohemia, 
aiid^Ciergj^ny. His mind was cultiv^ated, his manner was re- 
fined and courteous. But he was haughty and impetuous ; he 
could brook no interference with his plans, and he was sometimes 
hurried into actions at variance with his judgment and humanity. 

15. The necessity of employing the Indians infused a savage 
cruelty into the warfare, which cast a stain on the fair fame of 
the French General. Terrible deeds were committed by the 
Indians in the open campaign ; but the worst aspects of the 
war were seen in the skirmishing on the frontiers of Pennsyl- 
vania,^^ew York, and the New England colonies, — in the mid- 
night surprises of lonely settlements, — in wholesale householdl 
slaughters of old men, women, and tender babes, — in scalpings,/ 




' The Duke of Newcastle. — Thomas 
Pelham, Duke of Newcastle, became 
Premier on the death of his brother, 
Henry Pelham, in 1754. He resigned 
in November 1766. The King was then 
compelled, much against his will, to 
send for Pitt (afterwards Earl of Chat- 
ham). He an! the Duke of Devon- 
s'lire held office till April 1757. New- 
castle was then recalled, but he was 
unable to form a Ministry without 

Pitt's assistance. The Newcastle-Pitt 
Administration (of which Pitt was the 
real head) lasted from June 1757 till 
May 1762. 

^ Montcalm. — Born 1712 ; died at 
Quebec, 1759. 

' Bouganville. — Afterwards celebrated 
as a circumnavigator. He was the first 
Frenchman that ever made a voyage 
round the world. This he accomplished 
in the years 1766-1769. 



burnings at the stake, and atrociois tortures. The sight of 
the mangled victims aroused in the breasts of the white men 
a maddening desire to wreak vengeance on the red demons. 

16. At the opening of the year the English Governors mer 
in New York, and concocted a grand plan of campaign. The 
forts at Crown Point, Niagara, Du Quesne, were to be captured ; 
and ven thousand men, ascending by the Kennebec and 
Chaudiere Rivers, were to threaten Quebec. Months p^issed 
away and nothing decisive was done. Individual officers, witli 
small parties, performed gallant actions ; but the Commander- 
in-chief seemed to have no determined purpose. 

17. The French were very active and enterprising. OswegO, 
the English naval dep6t on Lake Ontario, was their special 
object of attack. There were two forts on opposite banks of 
the river. Twice in the course of the year they were threatened. 
In August, Montcalm advanced in earnest with five thousand 
men and a numerous train of aitillery. He opened fire at 
midnight on Fort Ontario, and soon compelled Colonel Mercer 
and his garrison to evacuate it, and cross over to Little Oswego 
Fort. From the captured post Montcalm directed a hot, con- 
tinuous shower of balls and shells upon it. Mercer was killed, 
and the dispirited garrison capitulated. Fourteen hundred 
prisoners and an immense quantity of stores of all kinds, and 
many sloops and bateaux, fell into the hands of the French. After 
causing the forts to be razed to the ground, Montcalm moved 
with his force to Lake Champlain, and advancing eight miles 
beyond Crown Point, established himself in the fort on the 
rocky height of Ticonderoga. By this action the English were 
cut off from commiiTiication with the western lakes, and the 
gate of Canada was closed against them. The attack on Crown 
Point was abandoned ; and the English Commander concen- 
trated the chief part of his forces at Forts Edward and William- 

18. /The following year the Earl of Loudoun confined the 
V operations of the campaign to an attack upon Louis 

1757 'burg, leaving Montcalm at liberty to assault the forts! 

A.D. j on Lake George and the Hudson, and to threaten 

^ Albany and New York. A fleet of fourteen great 

ships of war, under Admiral Holborne, bearing seven veteran 



regiments, appeared in Halifax liarboiir. Much time waii lost 
iu playing at war, iu reviews aua snam rights. Troops were 
at leugth embarked for the e^iterprise ; but the Earl, hearing 
that the 1 :>rtress was defended by aix thousand soldiers, and that 
seventeen line-of-battle ships rode in the harbour, ordered them 
to land dgain. The English fleet cruised all summer between 
Halifax and lionisburg. Encountering a storm that wrecked 
one of his finest vessels, and drove others, dismasted, to seek the 
nearest ports, Holborne with the remainder sailed for England. 
19. While Loudoun was fooling away his time in Halifax over 
sham-fights. New York and the English colonies were thrown 
into a state of alarm. Montcalm, with nine thousand men and 
siege-batteries, advanced from Ticonderoga and invested Fort 
WiUiam-Henry. With two thousand five hundred men, and 
inefficient guns. Colonel Mnnro held the post. " I will defend 
my trnst to the last extremity," said the brave veteran, when 
summoned to surrender. At Fort Edward, Colonel Webb, with 
four thousand soldiers, remained inactive. Though earnestly 
entreated, he refused to attempt to succour his beleaguered 
brother-iu-arms. Hundreds of Indians swarmed about the 
French camp, prowled around the fort, and cut oflf the English 
foraging parties. The heights surrounding the pure waters of 
" Holy Lake " reverberated the thunder of Montcalm's cannon. 
For six days he poured in a shower of shot and sliell. Having 
fired away all his ammunition, and finding his position unten- 
able, Munro capitulated on honourable terms. He stipulated 
for an escort of French soldiers to conduct his force as far as 
Fort Edward, — many of his soldiei-s, unaccustomed to wilder- 
ness war, had a tenor of the red men. The temper of the 
Indians, balked of blood and plunder, was dangerous. As 
Munro with two thousand men, and the camp -following v' 
women and children, were filing through the woods, a thou- 
sand infuriated savages burst upon them. The fiends spared 
iiuither the tender babe nor the distracted mother : they pulled 
the soldiers out of the ranks by the skirts of their long great- 
coats, and despatched them with their tomahawks. There was 
a horrid clamour of shrieks and yells, and blood flowed like 
water in the path of the destroyers. The suddenness of the 
attack paralyzed the troops, and deprived brave men of their 






i If 






li ■ 

accratomed self-command. Too late to save hia honour from 
stain. Montcalm appeared to c<'>.iin the fnry of hip allies. 
Satiate^, with blood, they fell to plunder. Twelve hundred 
British soldiers, ic is said, were slai'ghtered or carried off as 
prisoners. The massacre of Fort WiUiam-Eenry aroused ia 
the English colonies a feeling of rage and revengeful fury. In 
England it created intense horror and indignation. It rested 
in the memory and stung the heart of the British soldiers, and 
it left with the French an uneasy sense of responsibility. 

20. Montcalm was deterred from marching upon Fort Ed- 
ward by ii sudden display of s])irit on the part of Webb, who 
rallied to his aid the hardy militiamen of Massachusetts and 
Connecticut. He returned with gi-eat spoils to Ticcnderoga. 

QuEHTiOMS. — 1. What vras the pur- 
pose of the Albany Convention? What 
scheme did Franklin then propose ? 

2. Why did Du Quesne demand his 
recall? Who was his successor? By 
whose desire was he chosen ? What 
narrow escape did he make ? 

3 What English General arrived in 
America about the same time .' What 
plan of action was adopted ? 

4. Describe how Fort Beausgjour be- 
came Fort Cumberland. 

5. Where, meantime, wasBraddock? 
What was the cause of the discontent 
among his followers ? 

6. How did Braddock advance? How 
was his advance checked ? What was 
the English loss ? 

7. What effects had this defeat? Who 
headed the expedition against Crown 
Point ? What befell the body he sent 
to check Dieskau? Describe the Battle 
of Lake George. How was Johnson 
rewarded ? 

8. What hope animated the Acadians? 
How did they receive the news of the 
Monongahela disaster ? 

9. What were the Acadian deputies 
at Halifax required to do? To what 
final resolution did their refusal lead ? 
How was the measure carried out ? 

10. Describe the scene in the village 
of Beaupr^. What occurred in those 

places in which the Acadians offered 

11. liow many of the Acadians were 
distributed among the English colonies? 
Why was this measure a failure? 

12. What war began in 176G ? Who 
were engaged in it? Where was the 
chief battle-ground ? 

13. Who was at the head of affairs in 
England? Who was appointed Com- 
mander in-chief in America? 

14. Who was the chief officer sent 
out by the Frfci»ch King? What was 
his disposition ? 

15. What introduced a feature of 
savage cruelty into the warfare ? 

16 Where did the English Governors 
meet? What plan did they concoct? 

17. Describe the capture of Oswego. 
What was Montcalm's next move- 
ment? What part of their plans did 
the English then abandon? Where did 
they concentrate most of their forces? 

18. How did Loudoun show his in- 
capacity ? What was the result of the 
Louisburg expedition ? 

19. What fort did Montcalm next 
attack ? What was the result ? What 
terrible tragedy followed ? What feel- 
ings did it engender in the English, and 
in the French ? 

20. What checked the further ad- 
vance of Montcalm ? 






1768 to 1760 A.D. 

Internal state of Canada. 
William Pitt. 
Louisburg captured. 
The Island of St. John. 
The last struggle. 
Bourlamaque bars the gate. 

Fort Niagara taken. 

Wolfe before Quebec. 

Battle of the Plains. 

Surrender of Quebec. 

Battle of Ste. Foye. 

M. de Levi's blockade raised. 

End of French Rule in Canada. 

1. During the campaignofJ757J.he_^^ 
in the ascendant ; tliat of England was obscured by clouds. 
Tlie conduct of the war in Europe and America had covered 
the Newcastle Ministry with disgrace. The temper of the 
people was gloomy and savage. Pamphlets prophesying the 
decadence of British power were read with a morbid satisfac- 
tion. For committing an error of judgment in not attempting 
the relief of Minorca when besieged by the French, Admiral 
Byngjpras made the scape-goat of an incapable Ministry, — was 
tried by court-martial, and sentenced to die. So great was the 
popular fury, that though Pitt, who in the meantime had come 
to power, pleaded urgently for the unfortunate Admiral, he was 
shot on the deck of the Monarque^ March 14, 1757. The re- 
turn of Admiral Holborne, with his shattered fleet, without 
attempting the reduction of Louisburg, filled the cup o ! popular 
discontent to overflowing. William Pitt,^ the great Com- 
moner, who proudly boasted that he alone could save England, 
was calledrio'the head of affairs, June 29, 1757. Tlie influence 
of hTs far-seeing, daring, and patriotic spirit was soon felt. Con- 
fidence began to revive. 

^ WilUam Pitt. —Born 1708, died 1778. 
He entered Parliament before he was 
twenty-one years of age, and soon took 
the lead against Sir Robert Walpole. 
He was made Earl of Chatham in 1766, 
and thus sacrificed the popularity he 
had enjoyed as " The great Commoner." 

While he maintninef' the abstract right 
of Parliament to tax the colonies, he 
opposed the American War ; but when 
peace was proposed on the basis of th(j 
independence of the States, he wai 
equally opposed to the dismemberment 
of the empire. * 


r 1 

- IS 





2. While the arms of France were victorious iu Canada, Mont- 
calm knew but too well that the colony had little intrinsic 
strength. It was a mere skeleton. Its places of defence were 
far distant from one another ; and when these were captured, the 
French had nothing to fali back upon. The vast western re- 
gion and the v.alley of the Ohio were held by two key-fortreaaes ; 
but if they should be taken the country would be conquered. Tl\g 
i nteriia l affairs of Canada were in a ruinous condition . Symp- 
toms were manifest in society that were portents of some great 
public calamity. Political corruption and private immorality 
were rampant. The Head of the Church castigated the sins of 
the times — the reckless gambling and debauchery. The ex- 
tremes of licentious luxuriousness and squalid misery existed 
side by side. 

3. The people had looked with hope to the Governor-Gene. .1 
for relief from the grinding monopoly of the Fur Company, 
and from the iniquitous exactions of the officials. M. de 
Vaudreuil had cruelly disappointed them. Though not charge- 
able with gross corruption himself, he seemed in their eyes to 
be an accomplice of those who were, inasmuch as he did not 
punish or oppose them. |They murmured loudly against him. 
Canada was in the clutches of the Intendant and his creatures./ 

/The rapcociuy of Bigot was shameless, and almost incredible. 
He seized on the supplies sent from France to the colony, and 
sold them at exorbi'v:int prices for his own profit. His subor- 
dinates at the distant trading-posts acted in the riame manner 

with the goods consigned to them. Owing to the oc- 

1758 currence of bad harvests, there was at this time 

A.D. scarcity and dire distress among the people. Yet Bigot 

compelled them to bring their grain to his granaries, 
and to sell it at his own prices. He exported great quantities 
of it to the West Indies, realizing large sums by the iniquitous 
transaction. When Quebec and Montreal were pinched by 
scarc'ty of bread, he relieved them by forcing the farmers to 
bring all their stock to market, and to sell it at a low i-ate. 
f He laid the train that exploded in financial ruin, by issuing 
sheaves of paper money under his own signature, made 
payable on the Eoyal Treasury of France. \ These notes be- 
came depreciated, and were eventually repudiated. iThe 



enemies of Canada within were as much to be feared as thoae 

4. There could be no doubt aa to the issue of the long-pro- 
tracted contest between the English and the French in America, 
when William Pitt was at the head of affairs in England, 
when his mind had grasped the determined purpose of destroy- 
ing the power of France in America, when in his lavish hands 
were the immense resources of England, and when he was free 
to choose the most efficient officers in her service to aid him in 
carrying out his design. Animated by the assurance that the 
British Government would back their efforts to the last man 
and the last shilling, and welcoming with joy the prospect of 
the decisive conflict, the English coh^nies raised a large force 
of militia, and gathered together immense stores of war ma- 
terial. (Pitt projected a bold plan of campaign : — to reduce 
Louisbnrg, and so deprive France of b^r only harbour on the 
Atlantic ; to take Fort du Quesne, and gain a hold on the val- 
ley of the Ohio ; to capture Ticonderoga and Crown Point, and 
so open up the way to Montreal, and prevent all hostile incur- 
sions from Canada against New York.*) The military command 
of the expedition against Louisburg was given to Colonel Jeffrey 
Amherst,^ a judicious, brave, and energetic officer ; and under 
him to Colonel James Wolfe,^ who, though young in years and 
frail in body, possessed an unconquerable spirit. 

5. After the siege of Louisburg in 1745, the fortifications had 
been allowed to fall into decay. Stones from the ramparts had 
fallen into the ditches ; many of the carriages of the cannon 
were so rotten that they could not bear the shock of discharge. 
Repairs had been hurriedly made when M. Drucour, the 
Governor, heard of the intended attack. (^But he trusted more 
to the bravery of his garrison than to the strength of his works.^ 
He had 3,500 soldiers, militia, and Indians. Five line-of -battle 
ships rode in the harbour. Three of his five frigates were sunk 
at its mouth; a strong battery on Goat Island further pro- 
tected it. 

I i 






' Jeffrey Ainherst. — Afterwards Lord 
Amherst ; born 1717, died 1797. 

'^ James IFo?/e.— Born 1726, died 17.')9. 
Pitt S3lected him for the command in 

Canada, though still comparatively a 
young man, because of hi ; distinguish 6<1 
services in the campaign is on the Conti- 
nent of Europe. 


6. Early in June a powerful fleet, under Admiral jioscawen, 

carrying l .^jQO British troops, arrived in Gabarus Bay/ 

Jane, and lay heaving at anchor enshrouded in thick fog. The 

1758 wild waves rolled in from the open sea, and broke iu 

JlD. angry surf upon the precipitous coasts, rihe appalling 

prospect caused even the officers who hau been specially 
selected to do a bold deed to redeem England's honour, to hesi- 
tate. \ The angry state of the water forced them to remain in- 
active for days, and to look on while the French busily fortified 
those places on the coast where landing was practicable. At 
dawn on the 8th, word was given that the attempt might 
be made. The British force, in three divisions, was rowed 
through the swell of the waves to difterent points. Many of 
the boats were swamped in the surf, and shattered agaiust 
rocks. vWolfe, on the left, with his Grenadiers and High- 
landers, landed in face of a rattling fire fro.n the French above 
at Cormaron Creek, scaled the rugged path, and seized the 
opposing batteries!^ The landing made, the French retreated 
hastily to Louibburg. M. Drucour commanded the outside bat- 
teries to be abandoned, and concentrated all his forces to defend 
the town. 

7. The weather continued stormy, the wind blew furiously, 
the rain fell heavily. The danger in carrying siege material 
from the ships to the coast was great, the difficulty of hauling 
it over the marshes enormous. Wolfe, with 2,000 men, march- 
ing north and east around the harbour, erected a battery on 
Light-house Point ; and Whitmore and Lawreuoj pushed their 
trenches closer and closer to the western ramparts. Boscawen, 
pouring shell and red-hot shot into the harbour, burned three 
of the great ships to the water's edge ; a party of sailors and 
marines, dashing in in open boats, destroyed a fourth, and 
towed out the fifth in triumph. Surrounded by a fire that con- 
tinued to grow closer and hotter, (Nl. Drucour, after a gallant 
resistance of seven weeks, surrendered at discretion \on the 
26th of July. I The inhabitants were conveyed to France; the 
garrison, with the sailors and marines, numbering 5,637 men, 
were sent prisoners of war to England. VCape Bretor came 

* Oaharua Bay. — See Map, p. 182. 



perniaiiouUy into the j)osaesaiou of tlic Crovvu of Eugland. I Two 
yeara afterwards the fortifications of Loiiisbiirg were razed to 
the ground; — not one atone of that fonni(hible alronghold, that 
had cost two powers ho much trejiaure to build and to destroy, 
was left standing upon another. Its destruction, haj)pily, ended 
tlie era of war between France and Enghmd in America. 

8. Along wit' Cape Breton, the Island of St. John fell into 
the hands of t English. Tlie inhabitantij then numbered 
4,100. They raised corn and horned cattle, for which they 
found a market in Quebec. After the fall of Louisburg, a j)art 
of Boscaweu's fleet, carrying Wolfe and his Grenadiers, ravaged 
the coasts of the Gulf and Kiver St. Lawrence, from Miramichi 
to Chaleur Bay, from Gasjx) to Mount Levi. A number of 
the unfortunate Acadians, who had fled fr(jm Nova Scotia, 
(h)ouied to ouffer on all hands, had to fly from their desolated 
farms into the woods. {The spirit of the war was remorselosa. ^ 

9. The triumj)!! at Louisburg wfus overclouded by a dreadful 
disaster. At Albany, in June, an army of 5,000 men assem- 
bled, under command cf General Abercrombie. Over a thou- 
sand bateaux bore them to the narrows between Lakes Cham- 
plain and George. Montcalm, at Ticonderoga, had early tidings 
of their approach. With his choicest troops — the Grenadiers — 
he prepared to defend the breast-work at Carillon that covered 
the fort on the rocky height. An embankment of earth, eight 
feet high, sloped gradually tiow n for a liimdred feet ; trees were 
era ^dded in it, with their sharpened branches pointed out- 
wards; a dreary swamp spread out before it. The country all 
around was covered with a close and thick wood, with tangling 
brush and underwood. A reconnoitring party under Bour- 
lamaque advanced from Carillon, but fell back on the approach 
of the English. A company lost their way, and becoming be- 
wildered, turned about, and encountered a division of their foe, 
who were also astray. A close and fiei-ce contest, face to face, 
and behind tree, and stump, and prostrate trunk, took place. 

(The French were routed and almost "annihilated.^ 

10. (The English were very gloomy over their victory ; lli'^ir 
leader, Lord Howe, had fa^llen at the first discharge."*) This 
young officer was much esteemed and beloved by the army, 
and his death cast a gloom over it. Nothing went right 

(473) 14 


m I- 



I'^v m 




m f^ 



after it. Disorder spread through the ranks. The soldiers 
had no coafidence in their General, who seemed to be bewil- 
dered, and to have no definite plan of action in his head. With- 
out knowing the strength of tlie position, without waiting for 
his artillery, he ordered an attack on the breast- work of Caril- 
lon. For hours, beneath a burning sun, the 55th and 42ud 
charged that impenetrable barrier. Scores upon scores of the 
devoted men were shot dead, or were staked upon the pointed 
branches. The impetuous and agile Highlanders tried to clam- 
ber over the barricades, and hacked furiously at them with 
their broadswords. In a different part of the field one regiment 
fired by mistake into another, killing some of their brothers-in- 
arms, and wounding many others. A panic spread throughout 
the army. The blood of hundreds of men reddened i' he pools of 
the oozy swamps ; the bravest had pierced their hearts upon the 
stakes in vain. Sheltered, and almost unseen, the French met 
each assault with a withering fire. The soldiers, throwing 
aw^ay their arms, broke into uncontrollable flight, and made for 
the landing-place. But for the coolness of Colonel Bradstreet, 
who checked them by the levelled muskets ,of a few men that 
retained their coolness, hundreds, in scrambling into the boats, 
might have perished in the lakes, f^early two thousand men 
fell dead or wounded in the disastrous attack on Cari"on.9iBy 
it Abtrcrombie lost his command and his character as a soldier.l 

11. The dis.f^race of the repulse before Ticonderoga was, from 
a military point of view, atoned for by the taking of the fort at 

c Cataracoui by Colonel Bradstroet in August, and of Fort du 
Quesne^\by Colonel Forbes in Novembei\ The capture of these 
two important posts gave the English a hold of the valley of 
the Ohio, and closed against the French the eastern pass to Lake 

12. The death-struggle was now approaching. M. de Vau- 
dreuil despatched M. de Bouganville to make representations 
at the Court of France as to the perilous condition of the colony, 
and urgently to crave aid. But the King, pressed by the re- 
quirements of the war in Europe, was unable to send reinforce- 
ments to Canada. *VWhen," said M. Berryer, his Minister, " the 

Fort du Quesne. — Then named 

" Fort Pitt," In honour of the English Pittsburg, 

Minister. It formed the nucleus of 



liouse is on fire, one does not mind the stables." " That," re- 
torted Bouganviile sharply, " will not prevent people from say- 
ing that you speak like an ass." | He returned to Quebec with 
Btars, decorations, and brevets of promotion for the officers, — but 
with neither men nor money. All that the King desired was 
to maintain a foothold in the country. His officers were thrown 
upon the defensive, and endeavoured to make the best of the 
means at their disposal. M. de Vaudreuil issued a spirited proc- 
lamation, calling on the militia to bestir themselves, and make 
a bold stand against the foe, whose purpose to conquer Canada 
was now declared. But there was sere distress in the country, 
and among the people chere wa.s little martial enthusiasm. 
Though the names of 11,000 men capable of bewaring arms were 
on the muster-rolls, they were much dispirited and miserably 
equipped. The chief defence of Canada was in the ten skele- 
ton regiments of French veterans, in the skill and energy of the 
commanding officers, and in the strength of the fortifications at 
Niagara, Quebec, and Montreal, which were the points now 

13. Great preparations were made for what the English 
Minister sanguinely hoped would be the final campaign. The 
Governments of the colonies were incited to fresh efforts 

to raise an adequate force. In the month of June, 1759 
three armaments were in movement against different a.d. 
points. ^ General Amherst, Commander-in-oh'>f, ad- 
vanced from Albany with 1,100 men against Montreal ;\Gcneral 
James Wolfe, with 8,000 soldiers, sailed with a great fleet, under 
Admirals Saunders and Holmes, from Louisburg for Quebec ;\ 
^while Brigadier Prideaux and Sir William Johnson, with two 
British regiments, a force of militia, and a crowd of Indians, in 
bateaux and canoes, made their way through the difficult 
country between the Schenectady and the shores of Lake Onta- 
rio, to attack Fort Niagara. "^It was intended, by the plan of 
campaign, that Amherst and Prideaux, after the reduction of 
Montreal and Niagara, should advance towards Quebec to co- 
operate with Wolfe in the reduction of that fortress, in which 
Montcalm had concentrated the chief forces of the colony. 

14. M. Bourlamaque was instructed to stay the advance of 
the English against Montreal. He mined the works at Ticou- 



•i ■ 



(lei'(>g;a, ami retreated to Crown Point. Wlieii General Am- 
herst's advanced-guard waa on the point of entering the fort, 
a tremendous explosioD was heard. While the ruins were still 
liot and smoking, an intrepid sergeant ventured in, and clam- 
bering up the height, unfurled the red-cross banner. ( Bour- 
lamaque, evacuating Crown Point, took up his position at the 
Isle aux Noix, at the northern extremity of Lake Champlain. 
There he was determined to make his stand, and bar the gate 
of Canada. ^ Amherst took possession of the rich country the 
French had abandoned. He moved forward with great cau- 
tion ; but he was checked in his advance from Crown Point. 
Four French armed vessels scoured the lake, and his foro 
could not traverse its length in open bateaux unless protected 
by a squadron fit to cope with them, precious weeks were 
spent in rigging rafts, in building and equipping tugs and 
sloops. Ji It was the 11th of October before the vessels were 
launched. Chill, cloudy, and boisterous weather set in. /"When 
all danger from the French fleet was overcome, a succession of 
storms prevented General Amherst from venturiiig to trust his 
open bateaux on the tumultuous billows of the lake. So he 
made his winter quarters at Crown Point. '^ 

15. Fort Niagara^ was invested closely. On the 19th of July 
Brigadier Prideaux had pushed forward his trenches a hundred 
yards from the covered way. Before the heavy continuous 
fire the shattered ramparts crumbled away. As he was stand- 
ing in the trenches, he was killed by a splinter of a shell fired 
from one of his own mortars. Sir William Johnson assumed 
the command. The situation of the garrison was desperate. 
One hope the stout Commandant, M. Pouchot, retained — that 
the siege would be raised. From the forts of Venango,^ Pres- 
qu'isle, Du Boeuf, and Detroit, 1,200 veterans and a great crowd 
of Indians w re advancing swiftly to his aid. Leaving his pro- 
vincials to guard the trenches and check Pouchot from sallying 
out on his rear, Johnson advanced with his British infantry 
and his Iroquois warriors to give them battle. Amid the boom 
of the cannonade, the rattle of musketry, and the. mingled 
clamour of the field, was heard the muffled roar of the mighty 

' Fort Niagara. — See Map, p. 285. ^ Forts of Venango, d-c. — See Afap, p. 220. 



Falls. From the woods the Indians rushed upon the red lines 
with an astounding yell : swiftly they fled back again before 
the steady fire of the cool British .soldiery, and vanished from 
the fight. With loud shouts, throwing all their energy into one 
impetuous charge, the French advanced, f nly to be driven back 
in formless rout./ With their defeat, the country of the Great 
Lakes passed away for ever from the dominion of France J 
/On the 25th, Pouchot and his garrison marched out of Fort 
Niagara, and laid down their arms on the banks of the lake.j 
The fierce Iroquois looked on, but stirred not a hand to molest 
them. Content with the victory, Johnson and his force rested 
on t' * • armSc 

1 . Volfe, before Quebec, looked, but looked in vain, for Am- 
herst and Johnson. \ Safely the fleet had passed the diflicult 
channel, "the traverse;" unharmed by sudden squall and 
treacherous fire-raft, the ships rode at anchor in the basin, and 
off' the west point of the Isle of Orleans. From his camp upon 
the isle the young General surveyed the grand scene, and the 
difficulties of his enterprise crowded on his mind, and for a 
moment depressed him. On the right of the French line rose 
the rugged fortress. Stretching from the Eiver St. Charles — 
whose mouth was guarded by sunken ships and hulks bristling 
with cannon — to ,ie Falls of Montmorency, there ran au irregu- 
lar crest of land, fortified at all points.^ Behind these works, and 
in the villages above, were gathered 1 2,000 men. Bands of savages 
lurked in the woods. The shoaliness of the water on the Beau- 
port shore, and the wide mud-flats, made landing on the face of 
the coast all but impossible. ^ But Wolfe decided to land a force 
upon the coast, attack the enemy behind his fortifications, and 
bring on, if possible, a general engagement."^ 

17.* The English army was disposed in three divisions. 
Brigadier Moncton, with four battalions, occupied Point Levi, 
from which he had driven the French ; a brigade under Generals 
Townsend and Murray occupied a camp on the west point of 
the isle ; Wolfe was posted, with his Louisburg Grenadiers, on 
the left bank of the Montmorency, close to the Falls, and at a 
height overiooi<:ing the enemy's intrenchments. | 

18. During the month of July the batteries from Point Levi 
poured shot and shell into Quebec. The lower and upper towns 







m 4 



( - 






were wra])ped iu flames, — hundreds of 'houses, churches, aud 
public edifices were destroyed : the fortifications remained un- 
harmed. / The position seemed impregnable. But within 
Quebec the people lived in continual alarm : they fainted for 
want of bread, and in their hearts all courage died out. 1' There 
grew up estrangement between the (Governor-General and the 
Commander. They disagreed over the plan of defence. ) /The 
haughty Montcalm contemned the military skill of M. de Vau- 
dreuil ; he deeply mistrusted the ability of the dispirited and 
miserably armed militia to cope with the British soldiers ; he 
would remain on the defensive, would not be drawn out of his 
intrenchments to tight, but would hold on and wait until ap- 
proaching winter should drive off the besiegers. | 

19. Watchful eyes within his own army criticised the move- 
ments of General Wolfe. The extreme favour shown him by 
the great English Minister, in appointing him, over many of his 
seniors in the service, to the command of so important an enter- 
prise, excited jealousy. Much was expected of him ; increas- 
ing anxiety and activity affected his feeble health. He spared 
himself no fatigue, no danger. Passing under the guns of the 




fortress, he ascended the river to find some point on the pre- 
cipitous coast by which he might land ; but he returned unsuc- 

20. On the 31st of July Wolfe at length essayed to attack 
Montcalm in his intrenchments. The soldiers detailed from 
Moucton, Murray, and Townsend's brigades, waited in boats on 
the north-western point of the Isle of Orleans for the word of com- 
mand. Admiral Saunders in the Centurion iriga,te, Wolfe in one 
of his transports, pushed in as far as possible to the shore. At 
a preconcerted signal, the ships, the batteries from Point Levi, 
and the height east of Montmorency, opened fire. The air was 
sultry, and the lowering clouds thi »'atened a storm. The plat;e 
of landing was a ford a little west of the Falls, defended by 
a redoubt. Montcalm moved up ti ops from the west to the 
east of the intrenchments where an attack was threatened. As 
the English sailors swept the foremost boats to the shore, the 
shot from the French batteries sank one or two ; the rest 
grounded on a sunken ledge of rock. This ac ' Jlent produced 
great confusion. By the energy of Wolfe they were rescued 
from their dangerous position, and a safe j^assage through the 
rocks to the ford was found. The thunder growled ominously, 
<and rain fell in torrents, as theJLtJiuisburg Grenadiers and Boy al 
Americans jumped ashore. Without waiting for the support of 
the remamder of the force, they charged, irregularly and im- 
petuously, the intrenchments on the crest of the rising ground ; 
but they stumbled on the slope, now slippery from the wet. 
In their ardour they had much under-estimated the strength of 
the enemy's position. They fell fast before a galling fire, and 
then they retreated. \ Over four hundred lay dead or wounded 
ou the fatal slope. (^The General sternly rebuked the survivors 
for their unsoldier-like conduct. * 

21. \This disaster broke down the health of Wolfe. His 
eager and ambitious spirit was housed in a sensitive, frail body. 
For days he lay in burning fever on his bed. He knew that his 
country expected much from him. He had been specially 
chosen by Pitt to command, in the expectation that no danger 
or difficulty would daunt him. As he tossed restlessly about, 
the burden of his unaccomplished ta«k oppressed him sorely. 
As if in sympathy with their beloved General, sickness broke out 

I. k!i 





i i 





in the army. For a time the gloom of discourage rneut rested 
upon it. \ 

22. When the fever began to leave him, Wolfe wrote to his 
Generals requiring them to consult over future operations. The 
obstacles to a successful attack by the Beauport shore were too 
great. lAnother plan, suggested, it is said, by General Towns- 
end, was adopted ; but it was kept a profound secret. V Health 
returned to the army amid the bustle of preparation. \At the 
end of August, Wolfe, now recovered, withdrew from his camp 
on the left bank of the Montmorency, and concentrated his 
forces at Point Levi.\ On the 12th of September his batteries 
opened on Quebec, and Admiral Saunders anchored some of his 
great ships within firing range of the Beauport shore. Mont- 
calm could see the British sailors and marines entering the 
boats, and he stood ready to repel another attack on his in- 
trenchments. IHis army was now somewhat diminished in 
numbers. \ A mutinous spirit breaking out among the militia, 
I he hanged some " to encourage the others : "^ many he had been 
compelled to send away to gather in the harvest. The reports 
of the capture of Fort Niagara and of the movements of Am- 
herst fiom Crown Point had disquieted him. M. de Levi was 
then at Montreal with a large force ; and Bouganville, with 
1,500 men, watched, above Cap Rouge, the movements of 
Admiral Holmes and his fleet. 

\23. While the cannon were thundering over the Beauport 
shore, the English army marched by the southern bank of the 
St. Lawrence eight miles above Quebec, to where the fleet was 
stationed. Thrilled with the expectation of a great action, and 
silently, the soldiers of the first division stepped into the boats. 
Wolfe was in the foremost. The night was starry and still. 
As the flotilla dropped softly down the tide, he relieved his ex- 
citement by reciting Gray's Elegy ;^ adding, when he had 
finished, " Now, gentlemen, X would rather have been the author 
of that poem than take Quebec." He was soon to prove how 
true it is that " the paths of glory lead but to the grave." On 
the beach of a cove, three miles above the city, Wolfe and the 
officers with him leaped. Fast as the boats arrived the soldiers 

' Orny's Elegy. — ' ' Elegy written in 
a Country Churchyard," one of the most 

perfect poems in the English language ; 
by Thoma? Gray ; born 1716, died 1771. 



lauded aud formed in rank. All night the boats passed be- 
tween the cove aud the fleet, which had now dropped down op- 
j)osite it, bringing over the other divisions. A narrow path, 
hidden by the boscage, ran tortuously from the beach up the 
face of the precipitous rock. Swinging themselves up by the 
branches, holding on by tufts of grass, the agile Highlanders 
clambered to the top, aud captured a French guard. Wolfe 
aud his whole army followed. When the gray dawn turned to 
a burning red, streaked with glittering golden bars, 4,828 British 
soldiers were falling into order of battle on the billowy and 
bouldered Plains of Abraham. V 

24. From the city an officer rode swiftly to Montcalm with 
the startling intelligence that Quebec was threatened on the 
west. Obeying only the impulse of his chivalrous spirit, he re- 
solved to give battle to the daring foe. Loudly the reveilld 
rang out, and roused his soldiers from their slumbers. Fast 
they were hurried over the bridge of boats across the St. Charles, 
and were formed for battle on a slope on the nortli-west of t)ie 
fortress. In his precipitation Montcalm threw away the ad- 
vantage that a superior artillery would have given him. He 
had only two light field-pieces ; but his foe had only one. He 
mustered 7,520 men under arms ; but hardly half of them were 
proved soldiers. Wolfe had none but veterans imder his com- 
mand. But his position was perilous : while a superior force 
faced him, Bouganville was advancing from Cap Eouge to 
attack him in the rear. 

25. The French advanced with great show and bravery. 
Strong parties of their skirmishers drove in upon the British main 
lines, — the light infantry which were posted in front. Wolfe, 
who was on foot near the centre of the battle, with the Louis- 
burg Grenadiers, strode along the ranks and counselled his 
soldiers not to fire until they saw the eyes of the foe. The 
French skirmishers retired, and with loud shouts the army ad- 
vanced in columns, Montcalm in the centre with the regiments 
of Beam and Guienne. Before their sharp fire the British 
soldiers fell fast. Wolfe was wounded in the wrist. When 
within forty yards the red lines povtred forth one simultaneous 
volley of musketry. It was decisive, — the militia fled. The 
French columns, shattered and reeling, wavered. Wolfe gave 



i' |i| 


m:ATl! OP WOI.I'E. 

the word to advance. As he led the way a shot struck him in 
the body; wounded again, in the breast, he Staggered and 
fell into the arms of a Grenadier officer, and was borne to the 
rear. Montcalm aiid his officers strove in vain to re-form their 
columns to withstand the charge of the British. Before their 
advancing fire, and the rush of the Highlanders with their 
keen clavmores, the French soldiers broke into irretrievable 
flight, and sought safety under the cariDon of the ramparts. 
Montcalm fell mortally wounded, and was borne through the 
St. John's Gate into Quebec. "See, they run!" cried out the 
Grenadier officer. — "Who run?" asked Wolfe. — "The enemy, 
sir ; they give way everywhere." — " Now, God be praised ; — I 
die happy." 

26. When the battle was lost and won, Bouganville, too late, 
appeared on the field. Before the firm front of the victorious 
host he hastily retired. In the short and sharp conflict of "the 
Plains " the English lost 55 killed and 607 wounded ; the French, 
1,500 in all. Wolfe was dead. Generals MuiTay and Monc- 
ton were severely wounded. General de Senezergues, the second 
in the French command, was killed. Montcalm died on the 
morning after the battle, consoled, as a soldier, by the fact that 
the spotless flag of France still waved over Quebec. 

27. On the first f-larm of the utter rout of the French army, 
M. de Vaudreuil abandoned the line of fortifications on the 
east, and fled with the militia to Jacques Cartier. On the 18th 
of September M. de Eamezay received instructions from M. de 
Levi and M. de Vandreuil to hold out to the last extremity, as 
they were preparing to march to his relief. But it was too late, 
—on that day the British army entered the capital of 
Canada. After an existence of one hundred and fifty yeai-s, the 
city of Cham plain passed away from the protection of France, and 
the British standard was unfurled from the Castle of St. Louis. 
Under the new rule the inhabitants remained in secure posses- 
sion of their property and in the free exercise of their religion. 

28. M. de Levi determined to strike one blow for the re- 
capture of Quebec. By spring he had 10,000 men of 
all arms under his command. On the 19th of April he 
advanced to Silleri, and took post at the village of Ste. 

Foye. The British army, wasted by disease and the suf- 




ii 1 


feriugs of a terribly severe winter, was reduced to a force of 
3,000 effective men. General Murray marched out of Quebec, 
and three miles from it came in sight of the advancing foe. 
With rashness unaccountable he deserted his strong position on 
tlie height, and dashed impetuously on the French in the 
valley. Outnumbered, overpowered, surrounded, he was com- 
pelled to force his way out and retreat hastily to the city. In 
this second battle for Quebec, the fighting was more severe, 
the loss was greater than in the first, made immortal by the 
heroism of Wolfe and the chivalry of Montcalm. 

29. The victorious French army sat down before Quebec to 
besiege it. Trenches were opened, and cannon mounted. But 
General Murray was not idle. He had now only 2,200 eff*ectiv9 
men, and his hospitals were crowde(' with sick and wounded. 
Every one who could do work went to it with a will. 'V\T^ien 
M. de Levi opened fire from his batteries, Murray replied with 
one hundred and thirty- cvro cannon from his ramparts. Both 
Generals anxiously expected aid from their respective countries. 
One day in May a war-ship appeared off Point Levi. There was 
painful suspense in Quebec, for it might be the herald of a French 
fleet. But when the Umon Jack was run up there was un- 
controllable joy. Officers and men mounted the ramparts and 
cheered lustily in face of the foe. After the appearance of the 
English fleet M. de Levi hastily decamped, leaving guns, stores, 
and ammunition behind him. He joined M. de Vaudreuil at 
Montreal. All the effective force of the colony was called in. ''^' ^ 
There it was determined that the final Stand should be made. 

30. During the summer and autumn three divisions of the 
British army, from three different points, slowly but surely 
converged on the city ; General Amherst and Sir "William John- || 
son descending from Oswego ; General Murray and Colonel |i 
Carleton ascending from Quebec ; Colonel Haviland making his iij I 
way by Lake Cham plain and the Eichelieu River. All met i !!| 
within forty-eight hours of each other on the Island of Mon- 
treal. On the 8th of September, 16,000 British troops were 
encamped around the city. On the same day M. de Vaudreuil 
surrendered at discretion. Over 20,000 soldiers, of all arms, 
were included in the capitulation. The regulars were sent to 
France; the militia were permitted to go to their own homes. 







The civil officers with their families and thei r movable projxji-ty 
soon left the colony. They were only required to leave such 
public documents behind as were necessary for the government; 
of the country. The people were secured in the enjoyment ot 
their property and the free exercise of their religion. 

31. The reign of Trench power in Canada now came to an 
end, and with it the era of colonial warfare, that had lasted 
for a century. Canada, ever since its foundation, had strug- 
gled on amid manifold perils. The military instinct of the 
French had been fostered and encouraged by the necessity of 
constant conflict with blood-thirsty savages. Their genius led 
theui to adventure, to make discoveries in the distant regions 
of the continent. They opened up and prepared the way. 
But it was reserved for another people to make those discoveries 
fruitful. Under the military and absolute rule of France, 
Canada had not grown strong. That rule had proved a failure. 
A new era now began to dawn slowly on its inhabitants. But 
strife was not ended, — it only took another form. 

Questions. — 1. In what state was 
public opinion regarding ' ic Newcastle 
Ministry? What filled the cip of popu- 
lar discontent to overflowing? Who 
was then called to the head of affairs? 

2. What made the position of Canada 
really very weak? In what condition 
were its internal affairs? 

3. What was tho complaint of the 
people against Vaudreiiil ? And against 
Bigot? How did the latter pave the 
way for financial ruin ? 

4. What bold plan of campaign did 
Pitt project? To whom was the mili- 
tary conduct of the expedition in- 
trusted ? 

5. In what state were the fortifica- 
tions of Louisburg? 

6. What caused the English fieet to 
remain inactive for several days ? Whose 
division first effected a landing ? What 
did the French then do ? 

7. Describe the progress of the siege. 
How long did it last? How did it end? 
What was done with Louisburg ? 

8. What other island fell into the 
hands of the English besides Cape Bret- 
on ? How was part of the English force 
occupied after the fall of Louisburg ? 

9. Describe the defences of Carillon. 
Describe the conflict in the wood. 

10. Why were the English gloomy 
over their victory ? What rash order 
did Abercrombie give ? What was the 

11. How was the disgrace of the re- 
pulse at Ticonderoga atoned for ? 

12. Whp ' ')revented the French from 
increasin ..eirforces in Canada? What 
was the icsult of Bouganville's mission 
to France ? To whom did De Vaudreuil 
appeal? In what did the chief defence 
of Canada lie ? 

13. What was the plan of the cam- 
paign of 1759? 

14. Where did Bourlamaque make 
his stand for the protection of Mon- 
treal? AVhat prevented the advance 
of the English from Crown Point ? 

15. Wliat was the last hope of the 
Commandant of Fort Niagara? How 
was it slftattered? What did Pouchot 
then do 1 

16. Describe the position of the 
French army at Quebec. What did 
Wolfe decide to do ? 

17. Explain the disposition of the 
English army. 



18. What parts of Qiiobco wore soon 
destroyed ? What seemed impregnable ? 
About what did the Commander and 
the Governor-! ieneral diff«(r? 

11). What made Wolfe's position un- 
comfortable ? 

20. What did Wolfe attempt on July 
31 ? What caused its failure ? 

21. What effect had the disaster on 
Wolfe ? 

22. What was the result of his con- 
ference with his Generals? What dif- 
llculties disturbed Montcalm ? 

23. Where did the English army em- 
bark? How did Wolfe relieve his ex- 
citement? Where was the landing 
effected? How many men formed on 
the Plains of Abraham ? 

24. How was the intelligence carried 
to Montcalm? Where did he draw up 
liis forces? What advantage did he 
throw away? Why was Wolfe's posi- 
tion perilous ? 

2!i. Describe the courwe of the battle. 
Describe the last moments of Wolfe. 

20. What were the losses on each 
side? AVhat consolation liad Mont- 
calm at his death ? 

27. When did the British enter Que- 
bec? How did the change affect the 

28. Wliat led to the second battle for 
the possession of Quebec? What was 
the result? 

29. What induced De Levi to aban- 
don the siege? Where was it resolved 
to make the final stand for franco ? 

30. How many divisions of the 
British army converged on Montreal? 
When did they meet there? When did 
the city capitulate ? What became of 
the garrison and the officials ? 

31. How long had the war between 
the rival colonies lasted? What had 
been done by the French in CmadaT 
Wliat remained for the British ? 

s , 






1760 to 1763 A.D. 


Military Government. 

Canada left bankrupt Y.y the French. 

Close of the Seven Years' War. 

The Treaty of Paris. 

Intluence of the Noblesse. 

The Royal Proclamation. 

The Rounds of the Province of Quoboc. 
Civ'i Government. 
Surrender of the western forts, 

The rise and deteat of Pontiac's Con 




^ 1. A Military Government was formed in Canada after the 
conquest. General Amherst, on departing for New York, ap- 
pointed General Murray commanding officer in the 
colony. It was divided into the throe districts of 
Quebec, Montreal, and Three Rivers. Murray ruled iu 
the lirst-named district; in the latter two, Gjiiexal 
nd Colonel Burton. Councils, composed of military 
officers, met twice a week, and dispensed justice in all matters 
brought before them. This form of government was a despotism 
tempered only by the integrity and good nature of those who 
enforced it. It was the best possible under the circumstances. 
While thi war continued, the Canadians were buoyed up with 
the hope that the country might be restored to the Crown of 
France, and a firm hand was necessary to keep down " the new 
subjects" of King George, as they were called. The new order 
of things was very galling to " the noblesse," accustomed to en- 
joy the privileges of their rank. The body of the inhabitants, 
in a state of despair and distraction, looked upon themselves 
as a conquered people. Confidence grew up among them 
when they experienced the general forbearance and generosity 
of their new masters. Accustomed to live under arbitrary 
rule, the military government was infinitely less distasteful to 
them than to the few English who now settled in Canada, and 
came to be known as " the old subjects." If the Canadians 
found cause to complain of the government, they were pacified 
by the assurance that after peace was made they would have 



the supreme happinesa of becoming full Britwli subjecta, and of 
eujoyiiig all the privileges of the aame.s— 
t 2. The Eiigliah found Canada a bankrupt colon^'. Finan- 
cially the people were ruined. The paper, foundetl on the 
responsibility of the King of France for the support of the civil 
and military establishments, and issued on authority of the 
lutendai!*. far in excess of the authorized amount, was dis- 
honoured at the Royal Tre.'isury of France. The holders of it 
lost a sum equal to three hundred thousand pounds sterling. 
The whole pa] ^r curi'ency — over three millions st srling — was so 
depreciated as to be worth only four per cent, of its origip.:\l 
value. To the last Bigot and his creatures had pursued their 
unprincipled course of enriching themselves at the expense of 
their King and country. At tlie siege of Quebec by M. de 
Levi, the army contractors made out estimates in which they 
put charges for work that had not been done, and for stores 
that had not been supplied ; which were paid by the Intendant, 
who had his profit from the fraudulent transaction. M. de Vaud- 
reuil, Bigot, and the other chief officials, were, on their return 
to France, thrown into the Bastille. Vaudreuil was acquitted 
of the charge of fraud, but Bigot and the rest were condemned 
to disgorge plunder to the amount of three hundred and thirty 
thousand pounds sterling, and to be banished from the country. 
Under the circumstances, considering that in addition to their 
state of bankruptcy there was great general distress among the 
people, and that several had died of absoiate famine, it must be 
concluded that the conquest of Canada by the English was no 
misfortune to its people. -^ 

^ 3. "The Seven Years' War" came to a close in 1762. On 
the 3rd of November the preliminaries of peace were signed, at 
Fontainebleau. On the 10th of February the definitive 
Treaty of Peace was signed at Paris. By the fourth 1763 
article the King of France abandoned all his pretensions a.d. 
to Nova Scotia, and in the amplest manner made over 
to the Crown of Great Britain, Canada, Cape Breton, and all 
the islands in the Eiver and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, except- 
ing St. Peter and Miquelon. Thus were settled for ever the 
conflicting claims of England and France (founded on the dis- 
coveries of Cabot and Verazzani) to the possession of the northern 

11 'ivi 


'hi ||lt 



j)art of America. By the s;inie article King George covenanted 
to grant to the inhabitants of Canada the liberty of the Eomau 
Catholic religion, and to permit all subjects of the King of 
France to sell their property — but only to British subjects — and 
to retire in all safety and freedom from the country within 
eighteen months of the date of the ratification of the treaty. 
Great Britain also acquired from France the Islands of Grenada 
and the Grenadines, St. Vincent, Tobago, and Dominica ; and 
from Spain, Florida and the possessions south and south-east 
of the Mississippi. 

"^4. Few of the ancient noblesse remained in Canada ; most 
of them went to France and to the French West Indies. A 
sufficient number, however, stayed, and exerted an influence that 
helped to determine the future of the country. Though, com- 
pared with the body of the habitans, they were but one in the 
hundred, their national pride, their tenacious adherence to feudal 
customs, which constituted the privileges of their rank, their hos- 
tility to the introduction of English law, their mortification at 
being excluded from public employment and places of trust on 
account of their religion, caused them to hate English rule, and 
to make the Anglification of the Province impossible. Ob- 
servers remarked, that there would have been no insuperable 
obstacle met with during the earlier years after the Conquest in 
introducing English laws and the English language, provided 
that it had been done gradually and judiciously. The oppor- 
tunity to effect the change was lost. The det«^rm J nation to pre- 
serve French laws, language, and customs, grew strong as suc- 
cessive governorii made concessions to the native Canadians. —- 
iJ.^The King issued a Proclamation on the 7th of October. 
By that instrument His Majesty divided the territory he had 
acquired into the four Provinces of Quebec, East Florida, West 
Florida, and Grenada. The Province of Quebec extended along 
both banks of the St. Lawrence from the St. John River. The 
peninsula of Gasped and the Island of Anticosti were included 
in it. It was bounded on the west by Lake Nipissing and the 
line of the Ottawa River ; and on the south by a line passing 
through Lake Champlain, along the 45th degree of north 
latitude, and by the highlands dividing the rivers falling into 
the St. Lawrence from those emptyiLg themselves into the sea. > 



^ 6. As a strong inducement to British subjects to settle ill 
Quebec, the King made a promise that whenever the circum- 
stances of the country would admit thereof, representative in- 
stitutions, similar to those in the other English-American 
colonies, should be established ; and gave an assurance to all 
persons inhabiting and resorting to it, that they might confide 
in the royal protection for the enjoyment of the benefit of 
English laws. Grants of land, ranging from 50 acres to 5,000 
acres, were made to field-officers, captains, subalterns, non- 
commissioned officers, and privates, on certain conditions of 
improvement and cultivation. The grantees, after the expira- 
tion of ten years, were subjected to '' quit rents " — a small tax 
exacted from the proprietors in token of their subjection «:o the 
Sovereign, by the payment of which they were " quit" from all 
other service. The Crown did not rigidly demand the payment 
of these rents, and the people were not very willing to pay 
them. They were allowed to accumulate, and their proposed 
collection in after years excited the greatest discontent through- 
out the Provinces. The lands granted to British subjects in 
Quebec after the Proclamation were, in efFeot. held on "the 
tenure of free and common soccage," ^ the sole conditions of 
which were allegiance to the iving and obedience to the laws. ^ 
'' 7. A Civil Government was formed, consisting of a Governor 
and a Council, who had power to make laws and regulations 
under certain restrictions. Courts were established ; — the 
Supreme Court (or Court of King's Bench), where the Chief- 
Justice presided, and where all criminal f,iid civil cases wero 
decided according to the law of England ; and the Court of 
Common Pleas, where all matters were determined by equity, 
subject to appeal to the Supreme Court. Justices of the Peace 
were appointed, who had power to settle, in a sunmiary way, 
cjises under five pounds currency. The new Government was 
hardly less arbitrary than the military rule that had preceded 
it. It made laws and administered them, and pronounced 


' i I 

'^ m 

ifi i 

' Soccage. — From French soc, a 
ploughshare; soccage was thus origi- 
nally tenure of land byjpZ(m(< service, 
and thence any inferior services in 
husbandly. The English socmen of 

1.473/ 15 

Domesday Book (1086 a.d.) were ceorb 
who had acquired land and freedom, 
and were allowed to retain both. They 
became the small freeholders or yeo- 
manry of later times In England- 



judgment : the only power not placed in its hands was that of 
taxation, wliich was imposed by an Act of the Imperial Parlia- 
ment. General Murray was the first Governor under the 
constitution of the Proclamation. -" 

^ 8. In the meantime stirring events had taken place in the 
west. On the 12th of November 1760 Major Rogers of the Pro- 
vincial Rangers received orders to take possession of the forts 
still in the hands of the French. His force numbered two 



hundred men in fifteen whale-boats. Ascending from Montreal, 
and entering Lake Ontario, the party skirted its northern shore, 
and then crossed over to Fort Niagara. Hauling their boats 
over the portage, the Rangers launched them above the Falls. 
Entering Lake Erie, they kept their course along its southern 
shore until they reached the mouth of the Rivpr Cuyahoga, 
on the banks of which they encamped. So fai' 'heir progress 
had been unimpeded save by boisterous weather. Pontiac, an 
Ottawa chief, thfen held sway over many of the western tribes. 
Ho had served with the French ; had been present in the fatal 





defile of Monongahela 'when Braddock fell, at the siege of 
Oswego with Montcalm, and in other actions of the late war. 
He impressed all who came in contact with him as being a 
man of superior force of mind, and of a natural greatness and 
dignity. Under cover of night, Pontiac with a retinue of 
chiefs appeared in the camp on the Cuyahoga, and haughtily 
demanded of its commandant with what intent his armed force 
had entered his country. During a brief interview. Major 
Rogers explained to him the situation of aifairs, when Pontiac 
consented, now that the cause of his old friends the French was 
lost, to live at peace with the English. ^ 

9. 'Late in autumn Rogers reached Detroit. After some 
show of resistance that important post was given up, on the 
29th of November. The other forts were given up in the 
course of the winter and of the following spring. Then the 
flag of England floated over the forts in token of her 
sovereignty over the western wilderness. The Indians 1761 
of that region soon broke into open acts of rage and a.d. 
discontent. Their position was changed, now that the 
English were masters. They no longer met the courteous treat- 
ment which they had been accustomed to receive from the French. 
The English kept back the usual presents of clothing and arms, 
and often treated them with contumely. The heart of Pontiac 
swelled with rage at the cold and haughty behaviour of the 
English officei», so diflferent from the good-natured politeness of 
the French. Pei-sonal slights alone did not excite his wrath. 
He saw that a crisis had come to his race. The Indians no 
longer held a position between \\ie contending French and 
English colonies that made their alliance worth winning. Now 
tliey had either to mingle with English civilization, or to plunge 
far into the depths of the wildern*^Sa. Brooding over the 
wrongs and insults endured oy his people, Pontiac came to hate 
the English with intense fury. He burned to exterminate them, 
and to bring back the country to its primeval barbarity. | 

10. 1 He conceived a bold and comprehensive scheme of ven- 
geance. During the winter of 1762, his messengers, bearing 
the war-belts, scoured the country east, west, north, and south. 
The Ottigamies and Sacs, the Pottawattamies and Ottawas, tlie 
Ojibaways and Wyandots, and all the other tribes dwelling 





around the sliores of Lake Michigan and the western shore of 
Lake Huron ; the Shawnees and Delawares, whose bourgades 
were situated on branches of the Ohio River, and close to the 
frontiers of Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, entered 
into the Conspiracy. They received secret encourag aent 
from some French and Canadian fur-traders, who falsely told 
them that their great Father in France was aroused from his 
sleep, and was sending out a large army to wrest the country 
from the English. Over all the allied tribes Pontiac held only 
such authority as his abilities and personal character gave 
him. The fickleness of the Indian temper, and its impatience 
of long ontinued effort, made it necessary to strike a prompt 
and decisive blow. He resolved that a simultaneous attr^k 
should be ruade on all the forts held by the English, that the 
defenders' settlements on the frontiers should be laid waste, 
and that all the English should be driven out of the country. 
Pontiac very much under-estimated the power of the English. 
Wide as was his influence, there were maaiy tribes in Canada 
hostile to him : of all the famous Six Nations he only gained 
over the Senecas. \ 

11. The rising of the Indian tribes was fixed to take place 

on the 7th of May. Before that day the English 

1763 officers had several warnings that " mischief was afoot," 

A.D. which they disregarded. Pontiac undertook to surprise 

Fort Detroit. It wa? garrisoned by one hundred and 
twenty troops and forty fur-traders, and commanded by Major 
Gladwyn. Two small schooners — the Beaver and Gladwyn— 
gave it further protection, and carried despatches and sup- 
plies to and from Fort Niagara. On the 6th, Catherine, a 
young squaw, disclosed the plot to the commandant. Pontiac, 
she said, would come with a retinue of chiefs next morning and 
demand a council. Each chief would be wrapped in his blanket, 
and would carry his rifle (purposely cut short in the barrel) 
concealed in its folds. At a preconcerted signal the chiefs were 
suddenly to shoot down the Major and his officers ; and then, 
along with the Indians in the streets of the fort, fall upon and 
butcher the unprepared garrison. 

12. When Pontiac and the chiefs appeared next morning, the 
garrison was drawn up in the square, with muskets at rest and 



bayonets tixed ; the officers wore their side-arms, aud carried 
pistols in their belta Pontiac was surprised at the warlike 
sight, but showed no visible sign of mortification. He finished 
some pretended business and retired. Next morning he, with 
the chiefs, again sought admittance into the fort, having signi- 
fied to the Major liis wish to dance " the calumet ;" but he was 
bluntly told to be gone. He then knew that the plot had been 
discovered, and his wrath was terrible. He ordered the beauti- 
ful traitress, Catherine, to be scourged ; and his followers 
wreaked their vengeance jn some unoffending English settlers 
near Detroit. Pontiac now determined to besiege the fort ; 
and, to be nearer the scene of action, transferred his camp from 
the eastern to the weK ; n bank of the river. He levied c^~^ • 
tributions on the ( anuxlian farms to maintain his forces ..r. 
he did it in a civilized manner, by issuing promissory notes on 
birch-bark, to which he affixed his " token," — the figure of an 
otter. There was now no rest for the garrison, by day or by 
night. The Indians did not dare to make an open assault, but 
from every convenient cover shot into the fort bullets, and 
arrows tipped with burning tow. Gladwyn, who was anxiously 
waiting for reinforcements from Niagara, despatched one of his 
schooners to hurry them. One day the soldiers saw a line of 
boats sweeping up the river, the foremost bearing the red 
flag of England. In their joy they fired a salute : it was an- 
swered by the war-whoop of axmed Indians, who started up 
from the bottoms of the boats where they had lain concealed, 
Gladwyn afterwards learned that a detachment of ninety-six 
men, under Lieutenant Cuyler, with plentiful supplies, had 
started from Niagara in whale-boats. Encamped one night at 
Point Pel^, at the mouth of the River Detroit, the party had 
been surprised and almost totally destroyed by the Indians. 

13. Alarming intelligence reached Detroit in the course of the 
month of June, of the capture and destruction, by the Indians, 
of Forts Sandusky, St. Joseph, Ouatanon, Presqu'isle, Du Boeuf, 
Venango, and Michillimackinac. The last named fort was 
taken by a subtle stratagem. On the 4th of June, the King's 
Birthday, a party of Ojibaways invited the officers to come out 
and witness the game of " la crosse" on the plain in front of the 
fort, between players of their nation and of the Sacs. It was 

■ ill 

'; iill 






a holiday, and the soldiers were oj0f their guard. The gates 
were open, and a number of squaws entered unnoticed. Cap- 
tain Etheriugton and another officer stood outside betting ou 
the match, which was played with great spirit for several hours. 
The ball, struck with a vigorous blow, bounded against the 
pickets of the fort. Then the whole body of the players rau 
yelling up to the gates ; some of them seized the two officers, the 
rest, rushing in, snatched their hatchets from the squaws (who 
had held them concealed when they entered), and in an instant 
killed an officer and fifteen privates, and took the rest prisoners. 
14. During the whole summer the frontier settlements of 
Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania were exposed to the 
hostile incursions of the Indians, who ran riot in frightful ex- 
cesses of cruelty. When General Amherst, at New York, heard 
of the disasters, he had few effective troops at his command. 
In all haste he sent as many as he could muster to reinforce 
Niagara, and to relieve Forts Detroit and Pitt, formerly called 
Du Quesne. On the 27th of July, the harassed and weakened 
garrison of Detroit welcomed the arrival of two hundred aud 
eighty men. The commander, Captain Dalzell, against the 
advice of Gladwyn, resolved to attack the Indians. Pontiac 
was secretly apprised of the intended sortie. To reach his en- 
campment it was necessary to cross a narrow bridge thrown 
over the deep gully of Parent's Creek, two miles above the fort. 
Beyond the bridge the ground rose in ridges, and Pontiac had 
intrei hments dug at the top of them. At two o'clock in the 
morning of the 29th two hundred and fifty men stole out of 
Detroit. As they marched along the settled road the watch- 
dogs bayed the alarm. The advanced-guard crossed the bridge 
— called "Bloody Bridge" after that night. It was saluted 
with yells and volleys of musketry. Supports were hurried up. 
The furious soldiers charged the intrenchments, and were shot 
down by an invisible foe. The retreat was sounded. As the 
baffled force marched back, a party of Indians, posting them- 
selves in a house on its right, galled it sorely. It reached 
Detroit with a loss of fifty-nine killed and wounded. Captain 
Dalzell was shot dead in a gallant attempt to carry off a 
wounded soldier. The next morning the frightened habitans 
saw his head stuck on a garden picket. 



15. Shortly after this disaster, as the "Gladwyn," on its 
return from Niagara, lay at anchor one midnight, it was sur- 
prised by a large party of Indians. The wind had failed when 
the schooner was nine miles below the fort. The warriors killed 
the captain, wo^mded several of the crew, and were on the 
point of taking possession of the vessel, when the mate called 
out that he would blow it up. The Indians, who had footing 
on the deck, cast themselves in ten-or into the river. The 
Gladwyn reached Detroit in safety. General Amherst caused 
a medal to be struck, and gave one to each of the men who had 
taken part in its defence. 

16. Towards the end of July, Colonel Bouquet marched 
with several companies of the 42nd Highlanders, and of the 
Provincial Rangers, from Philadelphia. He took with him 
sixty-six men to reinforce the garrison of Fort Pitt. The 
soldiers, with their heavy baggage-train, toiled up the heights 
of the Alleghanies, descended into the valleys, and made their 
way through deep gorges. At Fort Ligonier the oxen and 
waggons were left behind, and they pushed on with three hun- 
dred and fifty pack-horses carrying flour and other provisions. 
The difficult defile of Turtle Creek lay in the way of their 
march, and Colonel Bouquet resolved to push on for Bushy 
Run, encamp there for the day, and pass it by night. Within 
a mile of the camping ground the advanced-guard fell into an 
ambuscade. Shawnee and Delaware warriors raised their war- 
whoop. A sharp fire of musketry ensued. Two light companies 
were hurried up to the support of the van ; but the Indians 
appearing in great numbers in all directions, the whole British 
advanced-guard soon retreated on the main body. The Indians 
followed, and kept up a fierce attack until darkness came on ; 
then they retired to their coverts. 

17. Colonel Bouquet arranged his camp in the form of a 
circle: he placed the horses in the centre, and protected the 
sick at (1 the wounded by means of the flour-bags. No water 
was to be had, and the sufferings of this part of the force 
were fearful. At earliest dawn the Indians awoke the uneasy 
sleepers. The Highlanders and Rangers sprang up and stood 
in tie circle until the sun rose in the heavens, enduring a thirst 
more terrible to them than the fire of the foe. Many of the 



: 'liiHii 




horses were wounded, and, terrified by the din, they broke out 
and galloped off through the woods. Colonel Bouquet now 
drew on the Indians to make an open attack. He ordered two 
companies at one part of the circle to fall hastily back, and the 
troops on their right and left to open up their files and fill their 
place. The retiring companies, and two others, then took up 
positions in the woods unseen by the Indians. They, imagining 
that the British were beginning to give way, rushed forward 
with audacity to the attack. As they were hotly engaged, two 
of the companies posted in the woods threw themselves on their 
right flank. Amazed and confused, they si )od their ground only 
for a short time. The Highlanders, charging with spirit, put 
them to flight, and they received the full fire of the other two 
companies as they sped past a clearing where no trees inter- 
vened. The victory won by Bouquet at Bushy Run had the 
elFect of raising the siege of Fort Pitt, and of causing many 
of the Indians to sue for peace. 

18. The blockade of Fort Detroit was still kept up. Late 
in autumn several tribes departed for the winter's hunting. 
Pontiac seeing the falling away of his confederates, and receiv- 
ing certain news of the peace between France and England, 
which cut off all hope of aid, retired in disgust to a camp on 
the Maumee River. All winter the garrison of Detroit was 
obliged to keep strict guai'd, for the Ottawas and Senecas 
prowled constantly around. In spring several tribes returned 
to its neighbourhood. 

19. Measures were now taken to crush the Indian revolt 
General Gage (successor to Amherst) instructed General Brad- 
street to relieve Detroit, and put down the tribes in its 

1764 vicinity; and gave orders to Colonel Bouquet to com- 
A.D. pel the submission of the Shawn ees and Dela wares. Sir 
William Johnson, who had in the meantime made suc- 
cessful representations to the British Government on the neces- 
sity of conciliating the Indians, called a meeting at Niagara 
of numerous tribes. When Bradstreet reached that place in 
July, the Indian Council was sitting. Johnson made separate 
treaties of peace with the different tribes, and sent them off 
loaded with presents. Peace was made with the Senecas on 
condition that they would never again attack the English, and 



that they would cede four miles on each side of the Niagara 

20. On his way to Detroit, General Bradstreet was met by a 
pretended delegation from the Shawnees and DeJawares, and, 
believin.5 their false protestations, he entered iwio a treaty of 
peace v/ith them. He received the submission of the Wyandots 
and Ot^awas in the neighbourhood of Sandusky. On the 26th 
of August his barges entered the Detroit River, and the relief 
was hailed with the wildest demonstrations of joy by the gar- 
rison oi the fort, which had been beleaguered for fifteen months. 

21. General Bradstreei; then returned to Sandusky. Believ- 
ing that he had made a secure peace with the Shawnees and 
Delawares, he refused to cooperate with Colonel Bouquet. That 
officer, not trusting to treaties, marched into the veiy heart of 
their country, and compelled them to sue for peace, and to give 
up their prisoners. Among his force were voluuteei from 
the frontier settlements who had lost wives, children, sisters, 
and sweethearts, and who enlisted in the expedition in the hope 
of redeeming them from captivity. Mothers and wives, also, 
dared the perilous journey, to relieve their anxiety about the 
fate of their sons and husbands. When the Indians brought 
their prisoners into Bouquet's camp, scenes were enacted that 
aroused the sympathy of the most callous. 

22. The Indian War was now over. Pontiac, seeing the utter 
frustration of his conspiracy, sought peace from the English, and 
obtained it. He was a few years afterwards assassinated by an 
Illinois trader at St. Louis. With him died the last hope of the 
Indian race. The war he raised was its last convulsive effort 
to throw off the dominion of the white man in the country 
bounded by the Mississippi, the Ohio, and the AUeghanies. 
The Indian war in the west was finished before the people of 
the towns of Canada knew that it had commenced, so slowly 
in those days travelled news. 

Questions. — 1. What kind of gov- 
ernment was set up in Canada? "Wbo 
were the "new subjects" of King 
George 1 What reconciled the ItoAj of 
the inhabitants to the Military Gov- 

2. In what state did the English find 
Canada flnancially? What was the 

cause of th^s state of affairs? How 
were the offenders punished? How 
should the people of Canada have re- 
garded its conquest? 

3. When was the Seven Years' War 
terminated? What were the articles 
of the Treaty of Paris which affected 
the American colonies? 





4. Wliat hindered the Angliflcation 
of the colonists? What opportunity 
of effecting the change was lost? 

6. How was the newly-acquired ter- 
ritory divided? Mention the bouiid- 
aries of the Province of Quebec. 

0. What inducement was held out to 
British subjects to settle in Quebec? 
To whom were grants of land made? 
To what difficulty did the exacting of 
"quit rents" lead? On what tenure 
were lands granted to British subjects in 
Quebec after the Proclamation held by 

7. Of what did the Civil Government 
consist ? What courts were established ? 
What was the only power which the 
new Government lacked ? Who was the 
first Governor? 

8. On what mission was Major Rogers 
sent? What force accompanied him? 
Who was Pontiac? When did he 
come to the English camp ? What did 
he demand 7 What did ho consent to 

^9. When did Rogers accomplish his 
mission? Who were enraged and dis- 
contented ? Why ? How was the posi- 
tion of the Indians altered ? 

10. What scheme did Pontiac form? 
Who joined the conspiracy? What 
was the plan of action resolved on? 

IL What date was fixed for the ris- 
ing? Uow was the Commandant of 

Fort Detroit informed of the plot? 
Give the details. 

12. How was the plan frustrated? 
How wan Catherine punished ? What 
did Pontiac then determine to do? 
How was the garrison disappointed of 
its reinforcements? 

13. What intelligence reached De- 
troit in June ? Describe the stratagem 
by which Michilliinackinac was taken. 

14. When was Detroit relieved? By 
what disaster was the relief followed? 

15. What narrow escape did the 
schooner Gladwyn make? How was it 

16. Describe Colonel Bouquet's 
march. Where did he encounter the 

17. Describe the battle. What effects 
had the victory ? 

18. What led Pontiac to withdraw 
fropi Fort Detroit? 

19. What measures were then taken 
to crush the Indian revolt ? What was 
the result of the meeting at Niagara? 

20. When was Fort Detroit at last 
relieved ? How long had the blockade 

21. Why did Bradstreet refuse to 
coSperate with Bouquet ? What did the 
latter accomplish? What touching 
scenes were enacted? 

22. What was the end of Pontiac? 
What died with him? 





1766 to 1774 A.D. 

The "New" and the "Old" Subjecte. 

English and French Law. 

Governor Guy Carleton. 

The Bemedies for the conflict of laws. 

The Feudal Tenure. 

Marriage and Mortgage. 

The discontents in tlie Englf sh Colonies. 

The Quebec Act. 

The dissatisfaction in " Quebec." 

The fl-st Assembly of Nova Scotia 

The French on the Miramichi. 

The Loyalist Refugees. 


The Island of St. John. 

1. The great disaimiiarity of character between the "new 
subjects," the Catholic French Canadians, and "the old sub- 
jects," the British Protestants, was soon shown. The latter 
body, who were a small minority of the population, assumed 
the air of masters, and thought to bend all the ancient laws 
and customs to their will. Several had settled in the country 
on the strength of the promise of the Proclamation that free 
representative institutions would be established in it. They 
did not wish to hold a lower gi-ade as British subjects than 
their brother colonists in America. This part of the population 
was composed principally of h ilf-pay officers, merchants, and 
disbanded soldiers, and they L.ostly inhabited the towns. 

2. The great mass of the Canadian popula don, who lived in 
the country, were naturally strongly prejudiced in favour of 
their ancient laws and customs. They were generally of a mild, 
submissive character, and looked with awe to those placed in 
authority over them. They were rather indifferent to the form 
of civil government. They were inclined to think " whate'er is 
best administered is best." All were not of that opinion. The 
better instructed had no objection to popular assemblies, pro- 
vided that the Roman Catholic population had fair representa- 
tion, and that they were not disabled from filling places of 
honour and trust on account of their religion. As matters 
stood they were debarred from enjoying any office. Before 
they could be eligible they were compelled to take two oaths; — 



M i 




that of abjuration of tho Pope's control of spiritual matters in 
the realuis of the King of Englantl ; and that against transub- 
Btantiatiou, a doctrine especially rencanced by the Church of 
J^ngland and all Protestant sects. Tlie Canadians were very 
willing to swear allegiance to Kin^ George, but they could not 
take oaths against their religion. <::, 

3. Bj^ the Proclamation, the criminal law of E gLglaBd Trith — 
trial Vy jury was establishedin the colony. # It was accepted 
by th J Canadian people without much dissent, a« its superiority 
over t\m French criminal law was apparent. Under it no one 
could be arbitrarily arrested, or secretly tortured, tried, and 
sentenced. But to +rial by jury in civil cases the Canadians 
generally objected. The noblesse were opposed to it, because 
their pride was offended that Protestant mechanics should sit 
to determine matters in which they were interested. I'he 
habitans complained of the burden and expense of juries. They 
ridiculed the unanimity demanded in their verdictu They said 

it was a trial of strength among the jurymen to determine who 
could fast the longest. But they might have been reconciled 
to juries if jurymen had jbeen paid for their services, and if 
a majority of votes had debided the verdict. They preferred 
to have the judge decide all cases directly, according to ancient 
practice. The prejudice against juries was natural enough. 
The noblesse hated ' •=>'n because they made them amenable to 
law, to which, ir pride, they deemed themselves superior ; 

to the habita aght up in ignorance, and unaccustomed to 

think for tht elves or manage their own affairs, they were 
wearisome. The British population, on the contraiy, deemed 
trial by jury to be the palladium of liberty, and in all cases 
the most pi'ompt, secure, impartial mode of obtaining justice, 
and of assuring to them the possession of theii- propeiiiy. In 
the absence of free general assemblies, they looked upon trial 
by jury as their best security against the undue exercise of 
arbitrary power. 

4. The government of Canada was no easy matter, the 
character and the political education of its French and of its 
English inhabitants were so very different. The English held 
that English laws and forms of judicature were infinitely 
superior to those of France. The question was, Whether their 




will and pleasuro ahould prevail, or whether eouceasious should 
be made to the feelings and prejudices of the great majority of 
the inhabitants? . 

6. The Governor,) General Murray, showed favour to the 
French Canadian\and thereby incun'ed the displeasure of his 
Protestant fellow-countrymen. iThey sent home petitions stat- 
ing their grievances, and he was called to answer the 
charges against him. [ But he was not found worthy of 1766 
blame. In Ids absence, brigadier -General Guy a.d. 
Oarleton administered the government. He had dis- 
tinguished himself under General Wolfe, and at the Battle of 
the Plains received a very severe wound on the head. As 
General Murr.ay did not return to Canada, he was appointed 
Lieutenant-Governor. He showed himself even more favour- 
able to the majority than his predecessor had done. He entered 
into t eir feelings, and seemed to adopt their prejudices. He 
though o them a >'ery decent people, and much more easily 
ruled than the more turbulent English. He abolished the 
jurisdiction of the Justices of the Peade, several of whom 
had acted tyrannically. Some of them were disbanded soldiers 
who kept tippling-houses — not the Test claims of persons, he 
thought; from which to form a magistracy. He introduced as 
nuich French law as possible, and in the Court of Common 
Pleas it was left to the option of parties to a suit to have it 
tried by a jury. Confusion arose in the courts owing to the 
mixture of laws. The judges were Englishmen, and little con- 
versant with French law : to have made themselves masters of 
it they would have been obliged to study closely a small library 
of thirty volumes. If a case was tried by the French system, 
the suitors stood a chance of not obtaining justice, owing to the 
ignorance of the Judges (with the integrity of the Bench the 
Canadians were well satisfied). On the other hand, if a case 
was tried by English law, the Canadians were dissatioSed, be- 
cause it was conducted in a mode and in a language which they 
did not understand, and because the process was more expensive.! 

6\The remedy proposed for this conflict of laws was the 
restitution to the Canadians of the whole body of their civil 
jurisprudence. I Governor Carleton inclined to this view of the ^ 
question ; but Chief- Justice Hey and Attorney-General Maseres 












were of opinion that an arrangement might be made satisfactory 
to both English and French. They would have restored those 
parts of the French civil laws relating to the tenure and con- 
veying of lands, and altered those portions regarding inherit- 
ance, dower, and mortgage, that more especially affected com- 
merce, which was almost altogether in the hands of the British, 
and that tended to retard the progress of the country. 

7. Several views were taken of the best way of settling the 
difficulties in Canada. There were those who held that the 
prejudi of the majority of the inhabitants ought to be 
consuhtd, and that Canada ought to be allowed to remain 
F) '^nch in its system of government, and in its laws, customs, 
anu religion ; others maintained that Canada, being a con- 
quered country, should bo ruled by the law of the conqueror, 
and be transformed into an English Province ; and again, there 
were those who considered it as injudicious to keep Canada a 
French Province as to attempt to make it English by force, and 
who thought that those parts of the laws of both countries most 
suitable to its circumstances should be retained, and that all 
changes to the English mode of government and system of laws 
should be made gradually. 

8. Il is necessary to state, however briefly, some of the 
objections that the British had to French law. They decidedly 
objected to the feudal tenure. By it, as has been already 
stated, the mass of the people were kept in a state of vassalage. 
The condition of this tenure that bore most hardly on the 
British was, the obligation forced on them, when they purchased 
lands, to ppy to the seigneur in whose seigneurie they lay the 
lods and vents — a mutation fine of a twelfth of the purchase- 
money, over and above the sum they paid to the seller. The 
land might have been improved a hundredfold by the erection 
of houses and buildings, still the seigneur had a right to 
demand a twelfth of its increased value. This heavy tax 
naturally discouraged the improving of lands, and retarded the 
growth of towns within the seigneuries. 

9. ^JThe law of inheritance, by which the property of the 
parent was equally divided among the children, was not gener- 
ally repugnant to the British ; the people of the English 
cplopies in America were on the whole opposed to the law of 



jjrimogeniture, as it obtained in the mother country. The 
minute divisions of properties ^ere a great evil among the 
French Canadians ; but Englishm, ^ did not, like many of them, 
pine on mere shreds of farms when there was plenty of land to 
be obtained. The British (except perliaps the lawyera) did not 
object to the French system of conveyancing — the transferring 
of land from one party to another — as they considered it more 
expeditious and less expensive than the English mode. The 
portions of the French law that affected them most were those 
relating to marriage and mortgage. \ 

ids A man, before entering the holy st;ite of matrimony, 
might make a contract devising in which way he wished his prop- 
erty to go after his death ; but if he neglected to do that, thert> 
were certain inevitable legal consequences to marriage which 
Englishmen who had not taken the trouble to make themselves 
acquainted with the French law sometimes found very incon- 
venient. A wife was entitled to dower ; that is, to the enjoy- 
ment, after the death of her husband, shouH she survive him, 
of one half of the real property of which he was possessed before 
marriage or might have acquired after it. After her death this 
property went to the children. The wife was entitled to 
another right, that of " communaute," or partnership, which 
gave her half of the personal property of her husband. If she 
died before him this portion went to the children even in the 
lifetime of the father ; if there were no children, it went to 
the wife's nearest relatives, who might be strangers to the 
husband. \ 

-^1. A man, by taking proper precautions, might prevent his 
property from going to strangers ; he found it more difficult 
to prevent himself from being cheated in purchasing lands, and 
in taking sec arity for debts owing to him. By the French law 
of " hypotheQlie " (or mortgage), a man might go to a notary, 
who was sworn to keep the transaction secret, and raise money 
by a mortgage on his land ; he then might go to another notary 
with another party from whom he wished to borrow money, and 
effect another mortgage, and then he might sell the land with- 
out the purchaser knowing anything of these prior claims upon 
it until the mortgagees presented them. In this way English- 
men, in some capes, ^ere forced to abandon the land thejy^ ha4 





purchased, when the claims against it exceeded the sum they 
had paid for it ; and an English merchant who sold goods to a 
Canadian, taking security on his property for payment, was 
sometimes defrauded when that property was sold, as holders of 
secret mortgages came in before him. The cases of deliberate 
fraud on the part of Canadians were probably not numerous, 
but those that did occur made a great noise. These secret 
mortgages had the effect of preventing English merchants, who 
had made money in Canada, from investing it in land, and 
they were hurtful to the prosperity of the country. In the 
course of time the British agitated for the institution of offices 
for the registration of deeds, where all mortgages might be 
ente^'^d, and left open to the inspection of parties about to 
purchase or lend money on landed property. The French 
Canadians long objected to registration, on the ground that it 
would be tyrannical to impose on the poor habitans the expense 
and trouble of entering the deeds of their little properties in 
such offices ; and, as they were very generally a people who could 
neither read nor write, to expose them to be cheated by the 
agent whom they would be forced to employ. \ 

12. Notwithstanding the difficulties of government, and the 
little intercourse that existed between the British and the 
French population, Canada was tranquil, prosperous, and 
happy, compared with what it had been some time previous to 
the Conquest. The population increased faster than it had ever 
done before. A number of Acadians driven from Nova Scotia, 
and flying from the English colonies to which they had been 
sent, settled in Canada. The settlements along the St. Law- 
rence were extende<^ backward, and a great extent of new land 
was brought under cultivation. Quantities of grain were now 
exported. Commerce increased ; the British engrossed seven- 
eighths of it ; though few in number, their capital and enter- 
prise gave them the lead. IjThey looked anxiously for the 
establishment of a free representative government, but the 
King seemed loath to fulfil his promise. \ He was hostile to 
turbulent free assemblies. After the issuing of the Proclama- 
tion, His MaJQfiiy was long too much occupied in battling with 
Parliaments in England, in order to assert the royal prerogative 
and his personal influence over their deliberatious, to think 




much of his new territorial acquisition in Canada. The ques- 
tion of giving a Constitution to the Province of Quebec waa 
under consideration in 1766, but it was deferred owing to the 
dissolution of the Rockingham Ministry,^ which was too liberal 
and independent to suit its royal master. Amidst the excite- 
ment of home pi cities, the rise and fall of ministries, Quebec 
was forgotten for four years. Lord North, a stanch Tory and 
a subservient friend of the King, was then called to the 
head of affairs. The law officers of the Crown — A ttorney- 1770 
General Thurlow, Solicitor-General Wedderburn, and a.d. 
Dr. Harriot, King's Advocate — were commissioned to 
draw up separate reports on the best form of government for 
the Province. General Carleton was recalled to England to 
give information on its condition ; and Mr. Cramahe, member 
of the Council, was appointed Administrator. No action was 
taken on the reports of the Crown officers for other four years. 
In the meantime events of the utmost importance to the Eng- 
lish colonies in America were taking place. 

13. Soon after the advent of George III. to the throne (in 
1760, almost simultaneously with the conquest of Canada), 
a repress ive coloniaj^o licy was adopted. The people of the 
English colonies loved the mother country, and gloried in its 
past achievements ; but they had been so long accustomed to 
virtual freedom of commerce, that they would not bear the 
restrictions that were now placed upon it. By the Navigation 
Laws (passed in the time of the Commonwealth 1651, and con- 
firmed by Charles II. 1660) certain enumerated articles, — the 
product of territories under the Crown of England, — were pro- 
hibited from being carried from thence to any country except 
to England, and in any but English-built vessels, including 
those built in her colonies. The colonial merchants could not 
thus, if they observed the laws, import sugar, tea, spice, cotton, 
and other articles, direct from the country producing them ; for 
these articles had first to be carried to England and thence 
shipped to them, — a proceeding that caused both delay and 


' The Rockingham Ministry. — This 
Ministry succeeded that of Mr. George 
GrenvUleinl766. Orenville's Ministry 
had passed the obnoxious "Stamp Act." 



Rockingham's, acting on Pitt's advice, 
repealed it. The latter gave place to 
the Ministry of the Earl of Chatham 
and tho Duke of Grafton in 1766. 

f ! 



expense. But colonial merchants very generally did not observe 
the laws, and grew rich by smuggling. Having been long 
suffered to break the law with impunity, they grew rebellious 
when the King's custom-house officers entered their warehouses 
to seize their smuggled goods, and when their vessels with their 
contraband cargoes were captured by English war-ships. Biots 
occurred ; custom-house officers were roughly treated, and the 
mob grew very angry indeed. The Imperial Government also 
restricted labour in the colonies. The people were not per- 
mitted to manufacture certain specified articles, or to build 
certain mills, or to cut down trees in the forest that were 
marked by the King's officers as being suitable for masts for 
the Eoyal Navy. They had also political grievances. The 
governments of the colonies were in the hands of oligarchies, of 
English Crown-appointed officials and members of old colonial 
families, who frowned down all who were without their pale ; 
and the different religious sects were offended by the dominance 
assumed by the Church of England. Very similar political 
discontents prevailed in Canada in after years. 

14. The "Stamp Act" was passed (1765), imposing a tax 
upon the colonies for the general purposes of the Empire. The 
people exclaimed that their dearest liberties were destroyed if 
the British Parliament could vote away their money without 
their advice being t-^ken or their consent asked. The obnoxious 
Act ' ,is repealed, but Parliament formally declared its right to 
tax the colonies by laying light duties on glass, paper, painters' 
colours, and tea. The anger of the people broke out, and they 
vowed that they would use no articles imported from Great 
Britain. Parliament repealed the impost on three of the articles, 
but maintained the duty on tea, in order to help the East 
India Company, which had an immense quantity on hand. 
Threepence a pound was laid upon it, to be collected at the port 
of entry. The Bostonians might have drunk their tea in a 
legal manner and more cheaply than they had ever done so 
before, but a principle was at stake. So, when the East India 
Company's ships arrived in their harbour, a party disguised like 
Indians went on board, broke open the chests, and threw the 
tea into the dock. Parliament, deeply displeased at this act 
of " flat rebellion," closed Boston port, cutting off the people 



from commercial intercourse with the outer world, and passed 
other Acts abridging their liberties. 

15. It was under these ominous circumstances that the Earl 
of Dartmouth, on the 2nd of May, introduced into the 
House of Lords a Bill "for making more effectual Pro- 1774^ 
vision for the Government of the Province of Quebec." a.d. 
By it the boundaries^ of the Province were greatly 
extended, and included the territory from the coast of Labrador 
in the east to the Mississippi in the west, north to the sources 
of the rivers emptying themselves into Hudson Bay, and south 
to the Ohio. Over this vast extent of country an arbitrary 
Government — consisting of a Governor and a Council of from 
seventeen to twenty-three members — was placed. The Roman 
Catholic religion was established, and the whole body of the 
French Civil Law introduced. Quebec was in effect constituted a 
French Province, all the difference being that the Canadians 
had George III. instead of Louis XVI. for King. During the 
debate upon the Bill in the House of Commons, Charles Fox 
and Edmund Burke denounced it as a despotic measure, that 
threatened the liberties of the English colonies. WiUiam 
Pitt, now Earl of Chatham, rose from a sick-bed to raise 
his voice against it, when the Bill was sent up again to the 
Ei^ouse of Lords. " It is an Act," he exclaimed, " that tears 
up justice by the roots, destroj'^s the liberty that ought to be 
the foundation of every Constitution, and that will lose His 
Majesty the hearts of all his American subjects." The mer- 
chants of London petitioned against it. The Lord Mayor and 
Aldermen waited on the King with an address praying that His 
Majesty would not give his assent to the Bill ; but the King 
would not receive them. He believed that the measure was 
founded on the clearest principles of justice and humanity, and 
he was determined that it should be carried. 

16. The British population of Quebec felt much aggrieved. 
The hopes held out to them had been utterly falsified. They 

17 7 U A.D. — In this year the Jesuits 
were suppressed in Canada ; but they 
remained in possession of their prop- 
erty until the death of Joseph Casot, 
the last member of the order, In 1300. 
when it reverted to the Britisb Crown. 

The Jesuit estates were then valued at 
£12,000 a year. The Imperial Govern- 
ment directed that this revenue should 
be applied to promote the general edu* 
cation of the colony 
* B<mndcurU». — See Map, p. 36, 





found themnelves under a despotic foreign Government. The 
criminal law of England was retained, but the Act of Habeas 
Corpus was abrogated, and they were subjected to arbitrary 
fines and imprisonment. They were not called upon to pay 
tithes to the Roman Catholic clergy ; the lands granted to them 
were not subjected to feudal exactions ; but they held their pro- 
perty under the ill-understood terms of the French law. 

1 7. Among the Canadians there was a party which would have 
liked a larger degree of liberty than that accorded by the 
Quebec Act. The position of the noblesse was not improved 
by it ; they were still excluded from places of trust, honour, 
and emolument, on account of their religion. The majority of 
the members of Council were of British birth. But the new 
Constitution was calculated to please the clergy and the mass of 
the people ; and if that government is the best that gives con- 
tentment to the greatest number, then the Quebec Act of 
1774 may be considered a successful piece of legislation. The 
Act is cited as 14 Geo. III. cap. 83. At the same time was 
passed another Act, 14 Geo. III. cap. 88, to raise a revenue. 
It imposed a graduated scale of duties on the brandy, rum, and 
spirits of Great Britain, the British West Indies, and foreign 
countries ; and regulated and protected the commerce between 
the mother country and her colonies by placing heavy duties ou 
foreign articles. The duties were collected by royal custom- 
house officers, and deposited in the Exchequer of England. The 
amount went to the support of the Civil Government ; but it 
was at first, as it always continued to be, insufficient for the 
purpose, and it was supplemented from other sources of revenue, 
such as that derived from the sale of Crown lands and the lease 
of mines, commonly called the casual and territorial revenue. 

18. Nova Scotia, during the continuance of the war (1755 -60), 
remained in a precarious state. The lands of which tlie 
Acadians had been dispossessed were not quickly taken up, as 
settlers upon them were exposed to attacks from parties of that 
outraged people and of their allies the Micmacs. Another 
cause retarded the settlement of the Province. There was as 
yet no regular Government. No Assembly had been called, and, 
wanting the sanction of the popular branch of the Legislature, 
the laws passed by the Governor and Council were deemed 



invalid. Governor La-wrence pleaded the disturbed and scat- 
tered state of the country as an insuperable objection to calling 
an Assembly of representatives of its people ; but the Lords of 
Plantations urged upon him the necessity of doing so, as the 
only means of permanently establishing the Province. 

19. The first General Assembly ever convoked within the 
territory of the present Dominion met in the Oourt-House of 
Halifax on the 2nd of October 1758. The House consisted of 
twenty-two members, twelve of whom represented the Province 
at large, and the other ten the townships of Halifax, Lunen- 
burg, Dartmouth, Annapolis, and Cumberland. Tlie Church of 
England was established by law ; liberty of conscience was 
allowed to the other sects. The first Assembly lasted for up 
wards of a year; the second met on the 4th of December 1759. 

20. During the war, the French inhabitants of Miramichi, 
Restigouche, Nepisiguit, Shippegan, Caraquetle, and the Bay 
of Gloucester, were visited by great calamities. The English 
cruisers intercepted their vessels from France, and as they were 
dependent on the mother country for many necessaries, they 
suffered immensely. The settlement on Beaubair's Island in 
the Miramichi — once in a thriving condition, and numbering 
over a thousand souls — was carried oflf by pestilence and famine. 
La Petite Eochelle, a settlement of some importance on the 
Eestigouche, was destroyed by an English squadron under 
Captain Byron in the summer of 1760. In the following year 
the Indians entered into a treaty of peace with Governor 
Belcher at Halifax. Father Manach, with a number of French 
families from Miramichi, appeared at Fort Howe, on the St. 
John, to take the oath of allegiance. 

21. After the peace (1763), Oape Breton and the Island 
of St. John were annexed to the Government of Nova Scotia. 
An attempt was made to induce a party of disbanded soldiers 
to settle on the Eiver St. John ; but so eager were the men in 
Fort Frederick (which stood near the site of the ancient Fort 
la Tour) to leave the country, that one hundred and fifty of them 
abandoned it and made for Machias in two open boats. *fhe 
military station at St. John was not so pleasant then as it after- 
wards became. In this year James Simonds, James White, 
and Francis Peabody, from Massachusetts, established a fishing- 




station on the St. John harbour. Their houses and stores were 
built near Portland Height, under the guns of Fort Howe. To 
this fort parties coming from the woods were wont to haul for 
protection the masts and spars they had cut. 

22. When the restrictive colonial policy of the Imperial 
Government provoked disorder and excited tumult in the 

English colonies, existence was made unhappy to many 

1766 people. The Government of Nova Scotia offered tracts 

A.D. of land to Loyalist refugees. In 1 766, a party from the 

parishes of Rowley, Andover, and Boxford in Massa- 
chusetts, received a grant of land of twelve miles along the 
River St. John. The settlement was called Maugerville, from 
an island which bore the name of its grantee. Colonel Maugers. 
The people came of Puritan stock, and professed the Presby- 
terian faith. They escaped none of the trials incident to a 
settlement in the wilderness. The Indians treated them as 
intruders on the red man's domain. Their first scanty crops 
failed, and they suffered excessive^ from the winter cold. 
They were shut up by the ice and snow from all succour. The 
warm breezes of spring came to their almost despairing hearts 
like the whispers of hope ; and the arrival of a sloop from Box- 
ford was hailed with gratitude as a deliverance sent by Heaven. 

23. Two years afterwards (1768) all the Acadian French were 
rwraoved from St. Anne's Point and from other places on the St. 
John to Madawaska. Maugerville was erected into the county 
of Sunbury, in which was included all the country betwecxx 
the Bays of Fundy and Chaleur. Courts of justice were estab- 
lished, and the sittings were held at Oromocto. 

24. A survey of the Island of St. John^ was commenced by 
Major Holland in 1764. It was found to contain 365,400 acres, 
of which only 10,000 were computed to be unfit for settlement. 
By order of Lord William Campbell, then Governor of Nova 
Scotia, most of this fertile domain was, in one day, raffled away 
in lots to officers of the army and navy, on the conditions that 
they paid quit rents, and that they actually settled one person 
to every two hundred acres. Many of the grantees sold, surren- 
dered, or alienated their property, so that most of the land fell 

' Itland qfSt. John. — Now l^riuce Edward Island. 



into the hands of a few absentee proprietors. The prosperity of 
the island was thus "stifled in the cradle of its exist- 
ence." When its population numbered only five resi- 1769 / 7 7 ^ 
dent proprietors and one hundred and fifty families, a.d. 
it was separated from Nova Scotia and made a dis- 
tinct Government. The first General Assembly met in 1773. 


Questions. — 1, What air did the 
"old subjects" in Quebec assume? 
What had induced some of these to 
settle there ? 

2. What was the general feeling of 
the "new subjects" towards their 
rulers? What oaths did they decline 
to take ? 

8. To what custom of English law 
did the French Canadians object? 
Why? How did the British population 
regard trial by jury? 

4. What question had the Govern- 
ment to consider in dealing with their 
French subjects? 

5. For what was General Murray 
called to account? What policy did 
his successor adopt? Whose jurisdic- 
tion did he abolish? How did con- 
fusion arise in the administration of 

6. What proposed remedy was fa- 
voured by Governor Carleton? What 
was the opinion of Hey and Maseres ? 

7. What different views prevailed 
regarding the best way of settling the 

8. What was the chief objection of 
British settlers to feudal tenure? 

9. What parts of the French law were 
not repugnant to the British ? What 
portions affected them most seriously? 

10. What were some of the hardships 
of the marriage law? 

11. Describe the system of secret 
mortgages. For what remedy did the 
British agitate? Why did the French 
oppose it? 

12. What was the effect of the Con- 
quest on Canada, on the whole ? How 
did it affectr agriculture and commerce? 
What promise did the King seem loath 
to fulfil? Why? What step was taken 
in thi? direction in 1770? 

13. What colonial policy had been 
adopted soon a r the accession of 
George III. ? What were the Naviga- 
tion Laws? How had colonial mer- 
chants treated them? To what did 
their enforcement lead ? On what be- 
sides were restrictions put? 

14. When was the Stamp Act passed ? 
Mention the subsequent events. How 
was Boston punished for its "flat 

15. When was the Earl of Dart- 
mouth's Bill introduced? What were 
its main provisions? On what grounds 
was it opposed ? By whom ? 

16. What complaints did the British 
Canadians make? 

17. Whom was the new Constitution 
calculated to please? When was the 
Quebec Act passed? What other Act 
was passed in the same year? 

18. What causes retarded the settle- 
ment of Nova Scotia? What was sug- 
gested to Governor Lawrence as the 
only means of establishing the Prov- 

19. When and where did the first 
General Assembly ever held on Do- 
minion territory meet? Of whom did 
it consist ? What Acts did it pass ? 

20. Where did the French suffer 
great calamities during the war ? 

21. What islands were annexed to 
the Government of Nova Scotia after 
the war? Where was a fishing-station 
established in 1763? 

22. Who were the "Loyalist refugees"? 
Who settled at Maugerville? What 
trials did they encounter? 

23. What changes were made in 

24. How was the prosperity of the 
Island of St. John checked? When 
was it separated from Nova Scotia? 





1775 to 1800 A.D. 

The Philadelphia Congress. 
The " Gates of Canada" secured. 
The Invasion. 
General Montgomery. 
Benedict Arnold threatens Quebec. 
Montreal Abandoned. 

Death of Montgomery at Quebec. 
Naval flght on Lake Champlain. 
Burgoyne's Surrender at Saratoga. 
Sir Frederick Haidimand. 
Fort Cumberland. 
The last Bising of the Indians. 

1. The history of the English Colonies was connected with 
that of Canada from the earliest times. Their constant wars 
with the French imbued them with a warlike spirit. They 
gi'ew strong and attained manhood while Canada and Nova 
Scotia were in their infancy. They were always self-reliant 
and independent. For many years mutual jealousies had 
. .. .J. tended to keep them apart. Now that a common 
177r' ^^^S®^ threatened them, they hastened to unite. 
^ jj War had commenced. The Battle of Lexington had 
been fought when the Delegates of the Colonies met at 
Philadelphia in May to pass an Act of Perpetual Union, to con- 
sult over measures for the common safety, and to make a last 
appeal to the King in defence of their liberties. They wished 

to manage their own affairs in their own manner ; to 

1 77 *? ^® freed from the domination of favourites and irrespon- 

^ ^ sible officials ; to have the portals to place and position 

thrown open to men of talent and energy, to whatever 
family connection or religious sect they might belong ; to be 
able to turn their labour to the best account ; to sail their 
ships the wide ocean over, and to trade at every port, unfet- 
tered by regulations or Navigation Acts. The English Col- 
onies were destined to obtain, by war, bloodshed, and the 
rupture of dear national ties, the objects which the British- 
American Provinces have gained by comparatively peaceful 
agitation, and without breaking away from their allegiance to 
the Crown. 




2. Tlie Philadelphia Oongress^ looked with alarm to the 
foimdaiion of arbitrary government in Quebec, and to the ex- 
tension of th*^ boundaries of that Province, that seemed to gird 
the English Colonies with a line of despotism. It accounted 
the Quebec Act as a threat to liberty, the last wrong of many 
that the Colonies had received from the hands of the King. 
The alarm was not without cause ; for Lord North ^ had uttered 
a threat that the Imperial Government would give Governor 
(now Sir Guy) Carleton authority to arm the Canadians, and to 
carry war among them. Congress deemed that the wisest 
course would be to take the offensive. It heard that there was 
disaffection among the British population, and that the con- 
tagion of liberty wi!8 spreading among the French Canadians. 
An armed invasior. would, it thought, bring out many sym- 
pathizers. Circular letters were addressed to the people of 
Canada and Nova Scotia, calling upon them to unite against 
the common tyrant, f\nd to join the standard of liberty. 

3. While Congress was sitting, Colonels Benedict Arnold 
and Ethan Allen seized Ticonderoga and Crown Point, and 
thus secured an entrance by " the Gates of Canada." In the 
course of the summer an invasion was determined on. About 
the middle of September two parties of English colonial insur- 
gents, numbering each a little over a thousand men, marched 
upon Montreal and Quebec. The first party, under command 
of General Schuyler, advanced by Lake Champlain ; the other, 
under Colonel Arnold, made its way by the Kennebec and 
Chaudiere rivers to the southern bank of the St. Lawrence. 
Montreal was defended by Forts St. John's and Chambly on 
the Richelieu. On heariug rumours of the threatened attack, 
Governor Carleton, unconscious that the capital was in danger, 
sent most of his regular troops to reinforce the garrison of St. 
John's. General Schuyler fondly hoped that the Canadians 
would rise and join him. He caused proclamations to be dis- 
tributed, that set forth that he had come as a friend to restore 
to them the rights of British subjects ; and that he had received 


' The Philadelphia Congress. — This 
was the second continental congress. 
The first met (also at Philadelphia) in 

' Lord North. — He was Prime Minis- 
ter of England from 1770 till 1782,— 
that is, during the whole period of the 
Reyolutionary War. 





If* ;>'U 

strict injunctions to cherish them, and t guard their property 
sacredly. Many of the British ix>pulatiou were not proof 
aii^aiuat his blandishments, for they were utterly discontented 
with tlie arbitrary government that had been imposed ui)on 
them. Schuyler, finding that St. J )hn's was too strong to be 
carried by assault, left his force and went to Albany to bring 
up reinforcements. He fell sick by the way, and the command 
devolved on Colonel Richard Montgomery. Sixteen yeai-s 
before, this officer had served under Wolfe, and he had ever 
held that hero to be the pattern of all military virtues. Daring 
in battle, gentle in peace, ever courteous to his comrades and 
generous to fallen foes, Montgomery was beloved by his own 
soldiers, and personally esteemed even by those who disapproved 
of his course. 

4. While he was detained before Chambly and St. John's, 
Colonel Ethan Allen, with three hundred men, rashly attacked 
Montreal, and was defeated and taken prisoner. He was sent 
to England, loaded with ironw like a criminal. Elated by his 
victory. Governor Carleton, with eight hundred men, deter- 
mined to raise the siege of St. John's. Crossing the St. 
Lawrence, he fell into an ambuscade on its southern bank, and 
was driven in confusion to his boats by a party of "Green 
Mountain Boys." In the meantime Chambly had fallen into 
Montgomery's hands. He found there several cannons and a 
quantity of gunpowder. He was thus enabled to direct a stronger 
fire against the more important post, St. John's. On hearing 
of Carleton's defeat its garrison capitulated. Montgomery 
then advanced against Montreal, while his naval squadron took 
up a position below it, in order to intercept the garrison should 
it attempt to escape to Quebec, 

5. Colonel Arnold had by this time (10th of November) 
emerged from the wilderness. For thu-ty-six days his soldiers 
had endured the extremities of fatigue and distress. When 
rocks and shoal- water drove them from the course of the Ken- 
nebec, thej'^ had carried their canoes over mountains and mor- 
asses: in their dire hunger they had devoured dogs and gnawed 
their shoes and cartridge-boxes. Ragged, foot-sore, hungry 
and sick, they appeared at Point Levi, and threw Quebec 
into a state of alarm. Their coming was so utterly unexpected, 




that, if Arnold could have crossed the river at once, he might 
have taken the city by surprise. Boats were not ready, so the 
opportunity was lost. Three days afterwards he made his way 
to the opf)osite sliore, and clambering up the rugged path by 
which Wolfe had ascended, paraded his ragged force on the 
Plains of Abraham. He found the cit}"^ too strong to be taken 
by assault : he had no siege-guns. He descended the path 
again, and afterwards made his way to Point aux Trembles, 
eighteen miles up the northern bank, and encamped to await 
the coming of Montgomery. 

6. Governor Carleton, in Montreal, heard of the danger 
that threatened Quebec. He resolved to concentrate his small 
forces to defend that most important post. On the approach of 
Montgomery, he ordered the garrison to withdraw to his ships. 
Unfortunately, General Prescott. several officers, and a hundred 
and twenty soldiers, were intercepted by the foe. Carleton 
escaped. He was rowed, in the darkness of night, in a boat 
with muffled oars, through the American squadron, and after a 
perilous journey reached the capital. The inhabitants received 
him with joyful demonstrations. The appearance of Arnold's 
ragged and hungry rebels had alarmed the comfortable citizens 
who had property to lose. Carleton expelled some of the mob 
who had expressed sympathy for the insurgents' cause, put 
the city in a state of defence, mustered 1,800 regulars, marines, 
and militia, and awaited attack with confidence. 

7. Montgomery met Arnold on the 1st of December. Great 
was the joy of their meeting. What a contrast ^hese 

two brave soldiers presented ! In the eyes of x,he ^ ,f *- 
British both were rebels. But Montgomery gained ■'••••' 
their esteem during his life, and their sympathy in his 
death. The memory of his virtues was cherished by his grate- 
ful adopted country. Arnold, selfish, unscrupulous, profligate, 
earned, by betraying the trust reposed in him, the infamous 
title of Traitor. 

8. Montgomery, with nine hundred men and eight cannon, 
descended from Point aux Trembles to besiege Quebec. Win- 
ter had set in. The sufferings of his force were dreadful. For 
a month he dire'^^^ed an unavailing fire against the fortifications. 
The last day of the year arrived. His desperate situation 




Dec. 31, 



prompted him to lake a desperate resolve. A double attack on 
the lower town was made. At four in the morning, amid a 
heavy fall of snow, Montgomery led a body of New Yorkers 
along the road under Cape Diamond, over which were piled 
great blocks of ice. The western gate was defended by 
a barrier and a battery. The guards in the block -house, 
alarmed by the confused murmui' made by the advanc- 
ing foe, fled into the city. Montgomery helped to tear 
away the pickets of the barrier. A Canadian militiaman, pluck- 
ing up courage, returned to the battery and fired a cannon. 
The random shot was fatal. Montgomery and two of his 
cf&cers were killed, and the force hastily retreated. The 
falling snow covered the dead bodies as with a shroud. 

9. On the eastern side, Arnold crossed the St. Charles, and 
entered the narrow street leading to the fortifications. A fire 
of cannon and musketry swept it ; a shot struck him on the leg, 
and he was borne to a place of safety by some of his men who 
saw him fall. Captain Morgan, commander now, and a body 
or Virginian riflemen, rushed forward, scaled the rampart ., and 
entered the town through one of the embrasures. For hours, 
amid the storming darkness, they maintained an uncertain con- 
flict. When the gray dawn revealed to them their dangerous 
situation, in the midst of a hostile town, and exposed to a 
withering fire from the houses, their hearts sank, and they sur- 

10. Arnold, after this repulse, transferred his camp to a point 
three miles above Quebec, and during the winter kept the city 
in a state of blockade. Reinforcements reached him with the 
breaking up of the winter ; but they were hardly suflicient to 
replace his loss by siege and sickness. The arrival of General 
Thomas to take the chief command, put him in a bad humour. 
When navigation opened, English ships, bearing troops for 
Quebec, appeared. While General Thomas was making prepa- 
rations to break up his encampment, and to retire further up 
the river, Carleton, v/ith one thousand men, made a sortie, 
took a number of prisoners, and carried off great quantities 
of stores. The Americans then retreated to Sorel. There 
Thomas died, and General Sullivan, who had in the meantime 
arrived with fresh forces, took the command. 



11. During May and June British and Brunswick troops 
continued to pour in, until Governor Carleton had thirteen 
thousand men under his command. He now advanced to attack 
the foe. The Americans abandoned Montreal and places west. 
When Carleton crossed the St. Lawrence, they retreated slowly 
from Sorel to St. John's, and then to Crown Point, out of 
Canada. These movements took up all the summer and autumn. 
On the 19th of October, two naval squadrons, under 
Arnold and Carleton, had a fierce encounter at the 1776 
head of Lake Champlain. Several of the American a.d. 
vessels were captured by the British. Arnold, to escape 

the disgrace of surrendering his fleet, drove his remaining ships 
on shore, and set them on fire. 

12. The war now receded from the boundaries of Canada. 
Governor Carleton was ambitious to have an active military 
command. He resigned his position, and returned to England. 
He was dissatisfied because General Burgoyne,^ who had 
served under him the year before, was appointed chief 

of the army that assembled ^arly in spring in Mon- 1777 
treal, to invade the State of New York, to capture a.d. 
Albany, and hold possession of the line of the Hudson 
River, with the view of cutting the rebellion in two and of 
separating the New England States from those lying south of 
them. Burgoyne advanced, prosperously at first, deep into 
the country. The hardy militia of New York, Vermont, Con- 
necticut, and Massachusetts, rushed to arms, swarmed around 
the British army, and cut oflf its supplies. Defeated in the 
battles at Stillwater on the Hudson, Burgoyne retreated to the 
heights of Saratoga. Being completely surrounded, he surren- 
dered ^ himself and six thousand soldiers to General Gates. 

13. General Sir Frederick Haldimand, a soldier of severe 
temper and unconcilia' r manners, succeeded Ca> V.tou. While 
the revolutionary war lasted, emissaries from the American 
States industriously disseminated seditious sentiments. Among 
the habitans, the priests, clothed with the awful authority of 

' Oeiieral Burgoyne. — After his dis- 
aster, Burgoyne to England, 
and devoted himself to play-writing. 
He died in 1792. 

' Surrendered. — The surrender at 
Saratoga decided the French to recog- 
nize the independence of the United 



( .« wa 

the Church, had more power than those preachers of revolution. 
The French Canadians had had some experience of the manners 
of the people of the revolted English Colonies, and they had 
reason to believe their pastors, who said that small respect 
would be paid to their national prejudices, their laws, and their 
customs, if they were amalgamated, under one Government, 
with that people. The time was rife with excitement and sus- 
picion. It was dangerous to express the slightest sympathy 
with the revolution. There was no protection against arbitrary 
arrest and secret imprisonment. The stern rule of Haldimand 
was repugnant to the British subjects ; it outraged all their 
feelings of freedom. 

14. During the war, the settlements on the coasts of Nova 
Scotia were much exposed to the ravages of American privateers. 
A party from Machias entered the harbour of the St. John, de- 
stroyed Fort Frederick, and tired on Aie houses and stores of 
Simon ds's fishery station. Emissaries of the Massachusetts 
Government were active in endeavoaring to make converts to 
the revolutionary cause. A number of the people of Mau- 
gerviille were led astray to make an attack on Fort Cumber- 
land.^ Foiled in the attempt to capture it, the party with whom 
they acted seized a brig that was lying in the empty bed of the 
Missignash, and, when the tide came in, sailed off with it. The 
prize was sold at Machias. A lenient Government overlooked 
the escapade of the Maugerville men on condition of their in- 
demnifying the owner of the brig. 

15. The Indians on the St. John and the Miramichi grew 
restless and troublesome. At their war councils they medi- 
tated an onslaught on the British settlements. They entered 
into a treaty with the Government of Massachusetts, by which 
they engaged to send six hundred warriors to fight for General 
"Washington. In the spring a numerous party of Micmacs and 

Milicetes, in their war-paint, appeared at the mouth 

1778 of the Jemseg. They sent down the British flag to 

A.D. Captain Studholme at Fort Home. In response to this 

action, which was equivalent to a declaration of war, the 
commandant sent an invitation to their principal chiefs to come 

IF " ■■ ■ ■' - ■-■■■■ ' ■ ■■,^ — — ,., .1 I I ■■■ ■ ■■ ,1. ,,__ I. ■ I I — ly 

* fort Ct^mherland, — Formerly Fort Beaus^joor, 



down to the fort and meet Mr. Franklin, the Government 
agent for Indian affairs. Flattered, feasted, and loaded with 
presents, they broke their promise to "Washington, and again 
took the oath of allegiance to King George. The following 
year they threatened to break their peace, but were pacified by 
similar means. The Indians of Nova Scotia never again aa- a hostile attitude. 

Questions, — 1. When and where 
was the first battle in the revolutionary 
war fought? For what purpose did the 
Delegates of the Colonies meet? What 
were their claims? How were the same 
objects gained by the British- American 
ProvLices ? 

2. How did the Colonies regard the 
Quebec Act? What justified their 
alarm ? On what step did Congress re- 

3. By whom were " the Gates of 
Canada" secured? What plan of in- 
vasion was proceeded with ? Who suc- 
ceeded Schuyler in the command ? 

4. How did Allen's attack on Mon- 
treal end? What led to the surrender 
of St. John's? 

5. Narrate the proceedings of Colonel 

6. What plan of defence did Carleton 
adopt? What personal risk did he run 
in carrying it out ? 

7 Where did Montgomery and Ar- 

nold meet? Contrast the characters of 
the two men. 

8. On what undertaking did Mont- 
gomery at once enter? Describe his 
attack on the western gate of the city. 

9. Describe Arnold's attack on tne 
eastern side. 

10. AVhere did Arnold transfer his 
camp? What changes in the command 
took place there ? 

11. What forced the colonists to 
withdraw? Where was there a fierce 
naval encounter ? With what result? 

12. Where was the war carried on in 
1777? Who was the British com- 
mander? What disaster overtook 

13. Who succeeded Carleton? Why 
did the priests oppose the revolution? 

14. What coasts were ravaged by 
privateers during the war? Describe 
the escapade of the Maugerville men. 

16. What part did the Indians take 
in the struggle? 







1782 to 1790 A.D. 

Close of the Revolutionary War. 

The United Empire Loyalists. 

The Treat: of 1783. 


Landing of the Loyalists. 

New Brunswick. 

Governor Thomas Carleton. 


Lord Dorchester, Governor-General. 

State of Canada. 

1. Events now happened that gave the British element in 
Canada greater power, and forced some concessions to political 
liberty from the King and his Ministry. The last great act of 
the revolutionary war closed with the surrender of the British 
army under Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown. This disgrace 
enraged the nation, and aroused in the House of Commons 
irresistible opposition to the continuance of the war. The stub- 
born King was compelled to bow to the storm, and to allow his 
rebellious subjects to depart. 

2. General Sir Guy Carleton was appointed Commander-in- 

Chief of the Royal Army in North America. He re- 

1782 ceived instructions to promote peace. American and 

A.D. English Commissioners soon afterwards met at Paris 

to settle the preliminary articles, which were signed on 
the 30th of November. The Independence of the Colonies was 
acknowledged. The conclusion of the war on such a condition 
was a severe blow to the Tory party — the Ijoyalists who had 
fought for the King and for the unity of the Empire, and who 
had staked their all on a different issue to the conflict. By the 
preliminaries. Congress was bound earnestly to recommend the 
Loyalists to the generous consideration of the governments and 
peoples of the several States ; but it had no power to make its 
recommendation effectual. A few generous champions pleaded 
for amnesty to the vanquished. Nevertheless the tide of popu- 
lar fury rose over the victims of the war ; in the local Assemblies 
they were denounced as traitora to their country. The fate of 
the Loyalists weighed heavily on the minds of the King and 



the Ministry. The leading men in both Houses of Parliament 
spoke on their behalf. The honour of the nation demanded 
that they should not be left to suffer for their patriotism. 
Among their number there was a large proportion of men of 
talent and position, who had been possessed of great property, and 
who had enjoyed private fortunes or the practice of a lucrative 
profession. They found themselves, with their wives and fami- 
lies, penniless, stripped of their possessions, and in the midst of 
exasperated foes who threatened to take their lives. In these 
circumstances the Loyalists could not live on expressions of 
sympathy, or await the tardy action of Parliament. They 
applied urgently to General Carleton for assistance. He, acting 
on his own responsibility, resolved to carry them out of the 
country, and to grant them lands in Nova Scotia and Canada. 
General Haldimand in Quebec and Governor Parr in Nova 
Scotia were instructed to make preparations to receive them. 

3. The final treaty of peace was signed at Paris on the 3rd 
of September. By it the Province of Quebec, as consti- 
tuted in 1774, was stripped of the vast and fertile region Sept. 3, 
between the Mississippi on the west and the Oliio in the 1783 
south. The northern boundary of the American pos- a.d. 
sessions was defined by a line drawn from a point — St. 
Regis — in the 45th degree of north latitude, through the middle 
of the River St. Lawrence and of the greai Lakes Ontario, Erie, 
Huron, and Superior, and the Lake of the Wood**- In the east, 
British and American territories were divided by the St. Croix 
River, and by a line drawn from its source to the " highlands 
dividing the waters falling into the Atlantic from those empty- 
ing themselves into the St. Lawrence." This definition was 
open to different interpretations, which gave rise in after years 
to interminable discussions, and nearly brought on a war. The 
first difficulty was to decide what river was the St. Croix of the 
treaty. The Americans claimed that the Magaquadaric, the 
British that the Schoodiac, was the true St. Croix. The decision 
was given (1798) in favour of the British, and it was then de- 
termined that the line to "the highlands" should be drawn 
from the sourca of the northern branch of that river. The 
greater difficulty of detennining the situation of "the high- 
lands " remained. The British defined them to be certain de- 

1478) 17 



! -.^ 


taclied heights running westwaid from Mars Hill ; the Ameri- 
cans maintained that the high ridges running from Cape 

Eosieres — thirty miles, on an 
average, from the left bank 
of the St. Lawrence — to the 
north-west branch of the 
Connecticut River were the 
true highlands. The article 
of the treaty respecting the 
boundaries was framed with 
the view of leaving within 
the territory of each country 
its great rivers and their 
ramifying branches. The 
British held that by the 
spirit of this article they 
were justified in maint-ain- 
iug their claim, as the 
country was watered by the 
Aroostook, Allagash, and 
MAP OF DISPUTED TEKRiTOKY, Walloostook, which wcrc 

Showing Boumiarie-s claimed by the United States fviVkiif OT^iaa nf i-Vta m^aai- Sf 
and by tireat Britain from 1783, and the line settled triUUiariCS OI lUC glCdl >3X. 
by the Ashburton Treaty in 1842. J^hu^^ which, without a 

doubt, took its rise and flowed through their territory. The 
country in question was called, and long remained, the Dis- 
puted Territory. 

4. By the treaty of 1783 the Americans were accorded the 
right to fish on all the banks and on the coasts of Newfound- 
land, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and on the coasts and in the 
bays and creeks of all the British- American possessions ; and to 
cure and dry fish in the unsettled bays and harbours of Nova 
Scotia, Magdalen Islands, and Salvador. The Americans were 
never willing to relinquish these extensive privileges after they 
had once enjoyed them. The fisheries became, in the courae 
of time, an even more irritating subject of dispute than the 

5. Early in the year the exodus of the United 

1783 Empire Loyalists commenced. Ten thousand found 

A.D. their way to Canada. The lands assigned to them 



were situated west of Montreal, around the Bay of Quintd, and 
along the northern shore of Lake Ontario. Great changes 
now took place in Nova Scotia. Before the final treaty, the 
Loyalists of New York and New Jersey sent forward agents to 
explore the country. In their imagination they had pictured 
it to be a region of perpetual cold and frequent fog. Favour- 
able accounts reached them of the aspect of the land on the St. 
John and the Kennebecasis. Several parties settled themselves 
about Halifax, Annapolis, and Port Eoseway, where the town 
of Shelburne was built ; but the main body crossed the Bay of 
Fuudy. On the 18th of May the ships from New York arrived 
m the harbour of St. John. The prospect before those on board 
might have deepened the impression of the sacrifice that they 
had made for king and country. They might have seen, through 
a melancholy fog, on the right a promontory of rock, covered 
with thickets of cedar and spruce to the water's edge ; on their 
left the (Carleton) heights, a few fishermen's huts upon the 
rocks, and the ruins of Fort Frederick on the strip of land 
round which the river makes its abrupt turn ; and before them 
the elevated post of Fort Howe, and close to it a block-house, a 
wood-yard, and a fev houses and stores. 

6. The Loyali ' ^ lauded at the upper cove. Rude huts had 
been erected fc ohe accommodation of the destitute families. 
In the beginning of November seventy-four refugees from 
Maryland arrived to swell the number. They had escaped 
from the wreck of the Martha^ a ship of the September fleet that 
sailed from New York for Quebec with eight thousand of the 
expatriated people. Governor Parr gave his name to the settle- 
ment. Parrtown, in its earlier days, must have presented a 
strange scene of combined misery, bustle, work, and political ex- 

7. The Loyalists did not agree very well with the original 
settlers. They grew angi-y with the Governor because their 
grants of land had not been surveyed. He, in his turn, re- 
proached them for refusing to help on the work of surveying, 
by acting as chain-men, unless they were well paid. Then they 
claimed representation in the Assembly. Nova Scotia was then 
divided into eight counties, with thirty-six representatives. 
The County of Halifax included Canso, Cape Breton, and the 




couiitry between the St. Croix and the St. John (vvliere several 
Loyalist families had settled) and along the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence. Parr opposed the claim to representation on the strength 
of a clause of the Royal Instructions to him as Governor, 
which forbade the increase or the diminution of the number of 
the members of Assembly. A party was then formed among 
the Loyalists who raised the question of dividing Nova Scotia 
into two Provinces. The discussion produced a good deal of ex- 
citement and ill feeling. The Governor was much opposed lo the 
movement, and caused some of the leaders to be transferred to 
the other side of the Bay in the hope of settling the agitation. 

8. The Loyalists of St. John had powerful friends in 

England. The division was liiade. The Province 

1784 of New Brunswick was created, and the River Mis- 

A.D. signash was constituted the boundary between it and 

Nova Scotia. At the same time Cape Breton was made 
a separate government. On Sunday, the 21st of November, 
Colonel Thomas Carleton, (brother of Sir Guy,) the first Gover- 
nor of New Brunswick, arrived in St. John harbour, and landed 
at Reed's Point. He had commanded a regiment during the 
revolutionary war, and was much esteemed by His Majesty's 
exiled Loyalists. The Province was formally proclaimed the 
next day. 

9. The Government of New Brunswick consisted of a Gover- 
nor and a Council, that united both executive and legislative 
functions, and a House of Assembly of twenty-six representa- 
tives. The Council was composed of twelve members. They 
were men of great talent, and had occupied, before the war, posi- 
tions of influence in their native States. Chief- Justice Ludlow 
had been a Judge in the Supreme Court of New York ; James 
Putnam was considered one of the ablest lawyers in all 
America ; the Reverend and Honourable Jonathan Odell, first 
Provincial Secretary, had acted as chaplain in the Royal Army, 
practised physic, and written political poetry; Judge Joshua 
Upham, a graduate of Harvard, abandoned the Bar during the 
war, and became a colonel of dragoons ; Judge Isaac Allen had 
been colonel of the second battalion of the New Jersey Volun- 
teers, and lost an estate in Pennsylvania through his devo- 
tion to the Loyalist cause ; Judge Edward Winslow, nephew 



of Colonel John Winslow who executed the decree that expelled 
the Acadians from Nova Scotia, had attained the rank of colonel 
in the Koyal Army ; Beverley Robinson had raised and com- 
manded the Loyal American Kegiment, and had lost gieat 
estates on the Hudson Kiver; Gabriel G. Lndlow had com- 
manded a battalion of Maryland volunteers ; Daniel Bliss had 
been a commissary in the Royal An .y. Abijah WiUard had 
taken no active part in the war. He was one of fifty-five 
gentlemen who petitioned Sir Guy Carleton to grant them each 
a field-marshal's allowance of land (5,000 acres), on account of the 
great respectability of the position that they had held. William 
Hazen and Gilfred Studholme \/ere settled in the Province 
before the landing of the Loyalists. Judge John Saunders, of 
a Cavalier family in Virginia, had been captain in the Queen's 
Rjiugers under Colonel Simcoe, and had afterwards entered the 
Temple and studied law in London. He was appointed to the 
Council after the death of Judge Putnam. The government 
of the young Province was conducted with very few changes 
for several years. 

10. The town and district of Parr was incorporated in 1785, 
and became the city of St. John. It was the first, and long 
coniinued to be the only, incorporated town in British North 
America. It was governed by a Mayor and a board of six Alder- 
men and six assistants. The first two sessions of the First 
Geueral Assembly (1786-7) met in St. John. On meet- 
ing the Legislature at its first session, Governor Carle- 1786 
ton expressed his satisfaction at seeing the endeavours a.d. 
of His Majesty to procure for the inhabitants the pro- 
tection of a free government in so fair a way of being finally 
successful. He spoke of the peculiar munificence that had been 
extended to New Brunswick, the asylum of loyalty to all the 
neighbouring States; and expressed his conviction that the 
people could not show their gratitude in a more becoming 
manner than by promoting sobriety, industry, and religion ; by 
discouraging all factions and party distinctions ; and by incul- 
cating the utmost harmony between the newly-arrived Loyalists 
and the subjects formerly settled in the Province. 

11. Two years afterwards the seat of government 1788 
was removed to St. Anne's Point, Frederickton, a.d 








which was considered the most ceutrai position in the Province, 
It is siiid that Frederickton was chosen to be the seat of 
government because Albany — the seat of the Legislature of 
New York (from which State the great body of the Loyalists 
came) — is situated many miles up the Eiver Hudson, and is 
tlius removed from the distracting bustle, the factions, and cor- 
rupting influences of the great commercial metropolis at its 

12. In Canada, after the arrival of the Loyalists, dissatis- 
faction with its form of government increased. When British 
subjects saw the people of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, an<l 
the Island of St. John, enjoying politiail privileges from which 
they were debarred, they naturally came to hate more and more 
the arbitrary government under which they lived. It was dis- 
tasteful to the more intelligent French Canadians. Some change 
was necessary to give contentment. The unpopular Haldimand 
was recalled at his own request. Before the coming of his suc- 
cessor the government was administered first by Hon. Henry 
Hope, and afterwards by Colonel Hamilton. 

13. In those days the colonial policy of the Imperial Govern- 
ment divided the Crown territory in British America into a 
number of separate Provinces. They could thus, it wan thought, 
be governed more easily. The immense extent of the country, 
the sparseness of the settlements, and the difficulty of inter- 
communication made such subdi\ isions almost necessary. The 
fact that they were bound together by one common allegiance 

and interest was recognized. Sir Guy Carleton, who 

1787 w^s created Lord Dorchester, was appointed Governor- 

A.D. General of all the Provinces, and Commander-in-Chief 

of all Forces in British America. The Captains-General 
of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick were named Lieuten- 
ant-Governors. The advantages that union would give were 
then seen. Governor Thomas Carleton, in addressing the Legis- 
lat^ire this year, argued that New Brunswick (and all th« 
Provinces) "would acquire greater strength to overcome ob- 
stacles in the path of its growth and prosperity as the relations 
between the sister colonies grew more intimate, and as their 
interests were more closely entwined." 

14. Lord Dorchester had shown himself a true friend, both to 




the Freucli CaiiudiaiiH, and to the United Empire Lcyaliatft who 
now formed the greater part of tlie British population. No 
inau was better qualified to unite them iu political liarmony 
under one government. The task was one of extreme difficulty, 
the antagonism of races was so strong. The pretensions of 
French and Englirih to govern Canada by their own laws were 
(to use M. de Calli^res' phrase) incompatible with peace. Until 
an adjustment of the difficulties could be made, some conces- 
sions were granted to the British, to allay the existing discon- 
tent. Trial by jury in civil cases was introduced, and the Habeas 
Corpus Act was restored. The Governor-General caused reporCa 
on the state of education, the administration of justice, and 
commerce, to be drawn up, for the information of the British 
Parliament in legislating upon the future government of the 
Province. He divided the great western country into the four 
districts of Lunenburg, Hesse, Nassau, and Mecklenburg. Their 
population consisted of Loyalists, disbanded soldiers, and 
Americans who crossed the line a few years after the peace. 
They were the pioneers of a great Province that was soon to 
spring out of the wilderness. They found themselves in a 
forest, unbroken save by the clearings they had made. Settle- 
ment was isolated from settlement. The roads were mere Indian 
trails and bridle-paths. There were no bridges, and no schools. 
The zealous missionaries, — Episcopal, Presbyterian, and Metho- 
dist, — labouring hard in their holy vocation, travelled from 
})lace to place. 

Questions. — 1. What event closed 
the revolutionary war in America? 

2. To whom was the conclusion of 
the war a severe blow? Why? How 
were they treated in the local Assem- 
blies? To whom did they appeal? 
What did he determine to do? 

3. When was the final treaty of peace 
signed? What vast territory did th-j 
Province of Quebec lose? What was 
the northern boundary assigned to the 
United fc'tates? What difference was 
settled in 1798? What difficulty re- 

4. What fishing rights were granted 
to the Americans in 1783 ? 

5. When did the exodus of the United 
Empire Loyalists commence? How 

many went to Canada? What lands 
were assigned to them? Where did 
the main body of those from New York 
and New Jersey go? What prospect 
awaited them at St. John ? 

6. Where did they land? By whom 
were they joined in November ? Whose 
name was given to the settlement? 

7. What differences arose between 
the Loyalists and the original settlers? 
On what ground did Parr oppose the 
Claim to representation? What ques- 
tion was then raised ? 

8. What new Province was then cre- 
ated? What colony was at the same 
time made a separate governmerit? 
Who was the first Governor of New 
Brunswick ? 



0. Of what did the Oovernment con- 
Biat? Name the members of the first 
Council. What positiona had they held 
before the war ? 

10. When did Parrtown become St. 
John? How was it governed? Where 
did the House of Assembly Iiold its first 
and second sesaiona? How did the 
Governor express himself on first meet- 
ing it? 

11. When was the aeat of government 
removed to Fredericlcton ? Why ? 

12. What increased the dissatisfac- 
tion in Canada? What change in the 
governorship took place ? t 

13. Why waa British America divided 
into aeparate Provincea? Who was 
appointed Governor-General ? On wliat 
ground were the different coloniea urged 
to maintain intimate relationa with one 

14. What difficult task lay before 
Lord Dorchester? What wjre his quali- 
fications for undertaking it? What 
concessions were made to the British 
colonists? Why? How did he deal 
with the great weatern country? Of 
whom did its population chiefly con- 
sist? What waa its condition at that 





1791 to 1798 A.D. 

The French Rei^olution. 
fox and Burke. 
Earl Granville's Act, 
Upper and Lower Canada. 
The Constitution. 

The Meeting of the two Legislatures. 

Governor Simcoe at York, 

Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and 

Affairs in Lower Canada, 

1. In 1791 the state of Canada came under the consideration 
of the Imperial Parliament. A Bill to divide the country into 
two Provinces was introduced by Earl Grenville in the House 
of Lords. In the seventeen years since the passing of the 
Quebec Act of 1774, gieat political changes had taken place in 
the New as in the Old World. The English Colonies had fought 
their way to independence, and, as the United States, had as- 
sumed rank among the nations. Their example had given an 
impulse to the Revolution in France. Europe was now in the 
throes of that mighty event. It was creating intense feeling in 
the British people, and among large classes was exciting a dread 
of republican principles. Charles Fox^ and Edmund Burke* 
had voted side by side against the Quebec Act of 1774. Now 
they were estranged. Fox had repeatedly expressed his ad- 
miration of the French Revolution. Burke had as often de- 
nounced it with the full force of his eloquence. He now stood 
alone, separated from the Liberal party, the Whigs. His lios 
tility to the Revolution became almost a mania. When the 
Canada Bill was discussed in the House of Commons, he com- 
menced a speech upon it by a violent philippic against repub- 
lican principles and the government of France. He wound up 
by declaring, that if by adhering to the British Constitutiou he 

* Fox. — Charles James Fox, the 
great rival of William Pitt (the young- 
er), was bom in 1749; died, a few 
months after Pitt, in 1806. He was one 
of the most powerful orators of modem 

^ Burke. — Edmund Burke, born at 
Dublin, 1728; died 1797. He was a 
distinguished author as well as a great 
orator. Chief worlcs: "Essay on the 
Sublime and Beautiful," and "Reflec- 
tions on the French Kevolution." 



would cause his friends to deserc him, he would risk all, and, 
as his pubHc duty taught him, exclaim in his last words, '* Fly 
f ^-om the French Constitution." " There is no loss of friend- 
ship, I hope," said Fox, sotto voce. " Yes," retorted Burke ; 
" there is loss of friendship. I know the price of my conduct 
Our friendship is at an end." A scene such as is seldom wit • 
nossed in Parlinment followed this outburst. Members weie 
visibly affected by the open rupture between those two cele- 
brated statesmen. Fox shed tears, and it was some time before 
he could sufficiently master his emotion to reply. 

2. By Earl Grenville's Act, commonly called the 
_ Constitutional Act, Canada wiis divided into the two 
Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada ; and the line of 




division between them wps rlrawn from Point au Baudet, on 
the :>orthern bank of Lake St. Francis, due north to Point For- 
tune on the Ottawa, and along the course of that river to 
Lake Temiscaniing, and thence to the southern boundary 
of the Hudson Lay Territory. Upper Canada was constituted 
an entirely British ProviiiCe. The whole body of the En^i^lish 
Law w^as introduced. Lands were held on the freehold tenure. 
Lo^^er Canada remained Irench. The Feudal Tenure r>nd 
French Civil Law were retained. The option of holding newlj- 
granted lands on a freehold tenure was allowed, subject to 



modification by Acts of the Legislature. The Criminal law of 
England and the Habeas Corpus Act were introduced into both 

3. The British population strongly objected to the division 
of Canada. The object of the separation, as avowed by 
William Pitt,^ was to avoid forcing on the French Canadians 
laws and customs to which they were adverse, but gradually to 
assimilate them " to the manners, habits, language, and consti- 
tution of Great Britain." It was maintained that the separa- 
tion would tend to strengthen national prejudices, and to bring 
the two sections into collision. The British merchant class 
opposed the division on the ground that it would place the 
commerce of Upper at the mercy of Lower Canada. There 
was no port above Montreal, as ships could not ascend further 
on account of the rapids, and they coald only gain access to the 
sea by the St. Lawrence, which ran through the territory of the 
Lower Province. All the imports and exports of Upper Canada, 
the merchants said, would have to be entered at the port of 
Montreal or Quebec, and be subjected to such duties and regu- 
lati ns as the Legislature of Lower Canada might think proper 
to impose. 

4. In each Province a Legislature of three branches — Gover- 
nor, Legislative Council, and General Assembly — was estab- 
lished. The Governor was appointed by the Crown, and was 
responsible to it. He carried out the instructions of the Im- 
perial Government, transmitted to him in despatches from the 
Colonial Office, Downing Street. The members of the Legis- 
lative Council received their appointments from the Crown, 
and held their seats nominally during pleasure, but practically 
for life. William Pitt at first contemplated the creation of an 
order of hereditary noblesse, to hold a similar position in the 
Colonial to that of the aiistocracy in the British Constitution. 
Fox ridiculed \b idea. He said that there was not in Canada, 
or in the other Provinces, a permanent class of great landholders 
from which a privileged order could be formed ; and that the 
attempt to establish one Tould excite jealousy, and cause the 

* Pi«.— William Pitt (the yrnnger), 
second son of the Earl of Ciathara • 
born 1759 ; died lli\JQ. He was C >ni;«i 

lor of the Exchequer in his tweniy- 
foAirth year, and Prime Minister in his 






people to institute an unfavourable comparison between the form 
of government under which they lived and that of the neigh- 
bouring Republic. In making a Constitution for Canada, 
Edmund Burke held that it was of importance that its people 
should have nothing to envy in the Constitution of a country so 
near their own. Though an hereditary noblesse was not cre- 
ated, the members of the Legislative Council constituted them- 
selves, in spirit, into a privileged order. They were mostly 
J udges and officials holding places of emolument from the Crown, 
and quite independent of the people. Objections were raised 
at the very finst to a Legislative Council composed and ap- 
pointed in that manner. It was said that it would be subser- 
vient to the power that created it, and that it would not main- 
tain that independent position which it ought to hold between 
the representatives of the Crown and the representatives of the 
People. Fox suggested that the best way to obtain an inde- 
pendent Legislative Council was to make it elective ; but, at 
the same time, to raise the qualifications both of the persons 
offering themselves for election and of those who elected them, 
above the qualifications demanded from candidates for the 
Legislative Assembly and from their electors. 

5. The Members of the Legislative Assembly were the 
representatives of the people. Persons qualified to vote elected 
them to serve a certain term. In Canada a House lasted 
four years, unless it was sooner dissolved by the Governor, iu 
whom was vested the prerogative, to be exercised according to 
his die "etion. The Assembly, in conjunction with the Legis- 
lative Council, made the laws ; the assent of the Governor was 
necessary before they became operative Acts. The Assembly 
had power to raise a revenue for the support of roads, bridges, 
schools, and other public services. 

6. The Governor had a body of advisers called the Execu- 
tive Council. Its members were salaried officials under the 
Crown, and Judges, and they generally held seats in the Legis- 
lative Council. The duties of this body were not very well de- 
fined. They held that they were not accountable either to the 
Governor or to the Assembly for their acts. A Governor 
might be removed on petition of the Assembly to the Imperial 
Government, but his advisers wet'e beyond its reach. A Gov- 



ernor, on couiiug to the Province, was necessarily unacquainted 
with its affairs ;' he had to rely on his Executive Council for 
information. It is not extraordinary that in some cases he saw 
with their eyes and judged according to their judgment. He 
might be recalled, if he acted harshly or injudiciously ; but 
his advisers held their seats in contempt of censure. 

7. By the " Constitutional Act" provision was made for the 
support of a Protestant Clergy. The land granted by the 
Crown for settlement was divided into townships. In each 
township a quantity of land, equal to a seventh, was reserved 
for the Clergy ; another seventh was retained by the Crown. 
By these land reservations the Act laid the ground for great 
trouble in the future. 

8. The new Constitution of the Canadas was inaugurated in 
1792. In the absence of Lord Dorchester, Colonel Alured 
Clarke was appointed Governor of Lower Canada. The Legis- 
lature met on the 17th of December, in the Episcopal Palace, 
Quebec. The Legislative Council was composed of fifteen 
members, the Legislative Assembly of fifty members — knights, 
citizens, and burgesses — of whom sixteen were of British origin. 
On the first meeting of the Assembly an important question 
was decided. It was necessary to appoint a Speaker, the officer 
who presides over the Assembly and controls its debates. By 
a vote of twenty-eight to eighteen, M. Panet, who could speak 
no language but his native French, was chosen. A rule was 
iiiade which prescribed the use of both the English and the French 
language in debate, and in recording the proceedings of the 
Assembly in its journals. The French Canadians never aban- 
doned the position they took in defence of their nationality, on 
the question of the election of Speaker : the futility of the hope 
expresiied by William Pitt, that they would be gradually as- 
similated to the language of Great Britain, was proved. Their 
addresses to the Governor, in the first session of the Legislature, 
were replete with sentiments of gratitude and loyalty to their 
good King George III. The session lasted three months, and 
the principal work done was the forming of rules and regu- 
lations. The majority of the members of Assembly were as 
yef, unused to the proceedings of a deliberative oudy. The 
mass of the habitans at first viewed the Assembly as a sort of 


H^f . -v.. 


! ! 




machine invented in order to tax them. When a call was made 
on them to elect representatives, they considered it as a mandate 
to be obeyed, and not as a privilege to be enjoyed. They looked 
upon their representatives as officers clothed with authority 
whom they were bound to obey. 

9. Colonel John Graves Simcoe was appointed Governor 
of Upper Canada. He had commanded the Queen's Virginian 
Rangers during the Revolutionary War. He was a good old 
Tory, who upheld the union of Church and State, and was in 
favour of establishing the Church of England in the Province 
as a means of maintaining ranks in society. The Legislature 
met on the 17th of September in the town of Newark on the 
Niagara River. It was on a small scale. In the Legislative 
Council there were seven, and in the Assembly sixteen members. 
The foundation of the Constitution was laid by the enactment 
of the English Criminal and Civil Law. Means for the ad- 
ministration of justice were provided. The names of the four 
districts were changed into Western, Eastern, Home, and Mid- 
land. Newark, being situated close to the American frontier, 
was considered an ineligible site for the seat of Government. 
Simcoe proposed to remove the capital west to the River 
Thames. Lord Dorchester recommended the choice of Kings- 
ton, the ancient Cataracoui. As a compromise, York,^ on the 
noi-th- western shore of Lake Ontario, was selected. The country 
was then a complete wilderness ; but so eager was the Governor 
to occupy the new capital, that he removed to the site before a 
house was erected, and lived in a large canvas tent. The 
Queen's Rangers accompanied him ; aud the men were em- 
ployed in opening up the northern road — Yonge Sti eet- -to Lake 
Simcoe. It was not the fortune of the Governor ^.o open the 
first session of the Legislature held in York (1798), as he was 
removed to the government of San Domingo. 

10. When Lord Dorchester returned to Lower Canada the as- 
l)ect of affairs abroad was lowering. Terrible scenes were being 
enacted in France. The head of Louis XVI. had fallen beneath 
the guillotine amid the ribald jeers of a populace drunk with 
blood. The Reign of Terror was at its height. The Kings 

* York. — NowToronta 




had mustered their forces to crush Liberty in its cradle. The 
revolutionary Jacobin Government had sent forth armies 
to do battle against them. It had declared war against ^nko 
England. In the United States the sympathy with the ■■■••'" 
republican cause in France was strong ; against Eng- 
land the feeling was bitter. M. Genet, minister from France, 
sought to embroil the country in the strife and gain an ally. 
President Washington resente*^ the course he took, and de- 
manded his recall from the French Government, and used all 
his great influence to turn the tide of passion into the channel 
of peace. The following year a Treaty of Amity, Commerce, 
and Navigation was concluded between the United States and 
Great Britain. A great danger was thus averted. Attempts 
were made by agents from France to sap the loyalty of the 
French Canadians ; but their allegiance to the " best of Sov- 
ereigns" remained unshaken. A son of George III., Edward, 
Duke of Kent,^ at tnis time held military command in 
Quebec. Addresses glowing with loyalty were presented to 
him by the Legislature, the clergy, and the inhabitants of the 
cap .al, and of Montreal and Three Rivers. In answering 
them, the Prince discountenanced the distinction made between 
" old" and " new" subjects ; British and French, he said, were 
equally the King's Canadian subjects. 

11. Lord Dorchester, whose connection with Canada had com- 
menced at the Conquest, finally left the country in 1796. He 
was succeeded by General Prescott. Emissaries from France 
continued to mingle among the habitans, and attempted to in- 
struct them orally in the doctrines of the Revolution. Procla- 
mations were put forth by the Governor-General to warn the 
people not* to listen to insidious disseminators of false prin- 
ciples ; but their best safeguard was their obedience to the 
instructions of the priesthood. The mass of the people of Lower 
Canada, when left alone, remaine4 contented and happy ; but 
their leaders and representatives were dissatisfied with the rule 
of a Government which excluded them from itlaces of power, 
honour, and emolument. The members of the Legislative and 
Executive Councils wero, with very few exceptions, British. 

' Duke of K^nt— The father of Queen Victoria. 





In the Legislative Aftsombly the case was revei'seJ ; there the 
British were a small minority. The diflFerence "between the in- 
terests of the two sections of the population gave rise to dis- 
putes. The British objected to the imposition of duties upon 
articles imported into the Province, for the purpose of raising a 
revenue to defray the expense of building jails and court- 
houses. Commerce, they exclaimed, ought not to be taxed for 
local works, but the cost of their construction should be met 
by direct taxation. The agitation of such questions caused ill 
feeling, which was imbittered by the invectives of the press. 
The Canadien, the French organ, sneered at the British as " in- 
truders and strangers ;" the English Mercuries and Gazettes held 
up the customs, habits, and laws of the Canadians to ridicule, 
and contemned them " as an inferior race." 

3l JFI,,, 

Questions. — 1, What Bill affecting 
Canada was introduced in the House of 
Lords in 1791 ? What great event was 
being transacted in Europe at the time? 
What was the cause of the rupture be- 
tween Fox and Burke? Describe the 

2. What was the boundary between 
Upper and Lower Canada fixed by the 
Constitutional Act? What differences 
were made in the Constitution of the 
two Provinces? 

3. On what ground did the British 
population object to the division of 
Canada? On what ground did the 
merchants of Upper Canada object to 

4. Of what did the Legislature in 
each Province consist? How were the 
members of the Legislative Council 
appointed? What was Pitt's first idea 
regarding it? What view was taken by 
Fox? What by Burke? What objec- 
tion was taken to the Council from the 
first? What plan did Fox suggest for 
obtaining an independent Council ? 

5. What was the popular element in 
the Constitution? How long did a 
House last? Who had the power of 
dissolving It? What special powers 
had the Assembly ? 

6. What was the Executive Council? 

What was remarkable in the post- 
tion of its members ? 

7. For what clergy was support pro- 
vided by the Constitutional Act? 
What were the land reservations? 

8. When and where did the Legisla- 
ture of Lower Canada meet for the first 
time? Of how many members did the 
Assembly consist? How many were of 
British origin? What was the first im- 
portant question decided? What is 
the peculiar significance of the decision 
arrived at? In what light did the 
people regard the Assembly ? 

9. Who was appointed Governor of 
Upper Canada ? When and where did 
the Legislature meet? How was the 
foundation of the Constitution laid? 
Why was the seat of Government re- 
moved from Newark to York ? 

10. What attempts were made to em- 
broil America in the European strife? 
How did Washington act? What 
treaty was concluded in 1794? How 
did the Canadians evince their loyalty? 

11. Who succeeded Lord Dorchester 
as Governor-General ? A'v hy were the 
leaders of the people in Lower Canada 
dissatisfied? To what did the British 
specially object? How was the ill 
feeling caused by these disputes im- 





THE SISTER FBOVINCES. (1783 to 1800 A.D.) 
SIGNS OF YTAR, (1807 to 1811 A.C.) 

Nova Scotia. 

Impeachment of the Judges. 
Sir Joiin Wentwortli. 
Edward, Duke of Keut. 
Prince Edward Island. 
Legislative Disputes in New Bruns- 

Members' pay. 

Governor T. Carleton's Administra- 
Hostile feeling in tlio United States. 
The Right of Search. 
Change of Governors. 
Beign of Terror in Lower Canada. 

1. During the ten years from the cL^se of the Americau 
Revolutionary War till the commencement of the 

French War, Nova Scotia was not free from inter- 1783-93 
nal strife. Its population was of various origins. a.d. 
It included the English, who founded Halifax ; the 
Germans and the Dutch, who settled in Lunenburg ; the New 
Eiiglanders who came in before the American Revolution; a 
remnant of the Acadians who returned in 1763, and made settle- 
ments on the Minudie, in Clare, and about Yarmouth ; and last, 
but not least, the United Empire Loyalists. The Loyalists 
were in high favour with the King, and among them were 
men of consideration, education and talent, who assumed the 
lead in society. Divisions arose between them and the "old 
inhabitants," as the first English settlers were called. Some 
Loyalist lawyers, members of the Assembly, created consider- 
able excitement by impeaching two old Judges — Deschamps 
and Brenton — for maladministration of justice. Governor 
Parr and his Council declared them innocent; but as the 
Judges were themselves of the Council that pronounced the ex- 
culpation, Parr laid himself open to the charge of haviixg been 
biased by "evil and pernicious councillors." He submitted 
the case to the British Privy Council, an 1 was supported in the 
action he had taken. This decision quieted the excitement 
without restoring confidence in the impartiality of the Bench. 

2. Governor Parr died in 1791, and was succeeded by Sir 
Jolin Wentworth, Surveyor-General of His Majesty'y Woods 

(473) 18 

J I i 

mill i 






ip I : ' 
illlll i- 

III ill ; 

in British America. The new Governor plumed himself on his 
accurate knowledge of the country. In his opinion Nova Scotia 
was equal in resources to many, and superior to most, countries. 
He administered its government for sixteen years. Sir John 
might have sat for the portrait of a Loyalist Tory Governor. 
His principles were similar to those held by many Governors be- 
fore the era of responsible government. He was an accomplished 
man, and amiable in private life. He was sincerely desirous to 
mak*^ N wa Scotia prosperous and happy. He was a strict up- 
holder of the prerogative of the Crown, and of the principle of 
aristocracy as represented by the Legislative Council ; and he held 
that the peace, prosperity, and attachment of the British Ameri- 
can Colonies depended upon the right selection of the membei-s 
of the Council, and on the rank which they held among them- 
selves and in society. The persons whom he recommended to 
the Colonial Office as fit to be appointed were, in several cases, 
closely related to himself ; and some were Englishmen — officers 
holding appointments under the Crown — who had little knowl- 
edge of the Province, and little real interest in its welfare. 
Sir John was a stanch upholder of the Church of England, and 
boasted that it had no better friend. Through his influence, 
and for its benefit. King's College, Windsor, was founded, 
with endowments from the Crown and the Province ; and the 
students of all other denominations were excluded from it by 
its religious tests. Sir John disliked the expression of any 
opinion in the Assembly that had the least tendency to create 
dissatisfaction with the existing state of things — it disturbed 
the beautiful harmony of the British Constitution. He marked 
the man who became a leader in the Assembly, and used his 
influence to stop his promotion. Ha hated to see people meet- 
ing in public to discuss any question — the idea of revolution 
ever occurred to his n;ind on any manifestation of popular 

3. Nova Scotia was more affected by the war with France 
than any of the other Provinces. The people on its coasts were 
exposed to sudden attacks from French privateers. The danger 
raised up a military spirit : every man capable of bearing arms 
joined rhe militia ; and, in addition, the Royal Nova Scotia Regi- 
ment, of which the Governor was colonel, was raised. The 



j)eo])le of Hiilifax were brought into close contact with tJie power 
of England — Chedabucto Harbour was the rendezvous of her 
mighty fleetu. The streets of the town were often crowded 
with regiments of her " red-coats " and parties of her rollicking 
" tars." A great deal of her money was expended in the Prov- 
ince, and trade was consequently brisk. 

4. The Duke of Kent, Commander of the Forces, left Quebec 
(1794), and made Halifax his head-quarters. He was a strict 
disciplinarian. His presence sustained the martial spirit of the 
Province. The residence of a " prince of the blood " gave im- 
portance to it, and added lustre to the gaiety of the society of 
its capital. Governor Wentworth had a retreat on Bedford 
Basin — " Friar Lawrence's Cell." The Cell was improved, and 
became the Prince's Lodge, and there the Duke of Kent dis- 
pensed his splendid hospitality. He manifested much interest 
iu the welfare of Nova Scotia and the other Provinces. 

In compliment to him St. John was named Prince 1799 
Edward Island. The following year the royal Duke a.d. 
finally left Halifax for England. 

5. In New Brunswick, soon after the seat of government had 
been removed to Frederickton, the question of the appropriation 
of the revenues became a serious matter of dispute between 
the Upper and Lower branches of the Legislature. In fact this 
was the chronic trouble in all the Provinces. In the right to 
raise, appropriate, and control the revenues lay the power of 
the Lower branch. The first quarrel arose on the members of 
Assembly voting themselves pay — 7s. 6d. a day — for the ses- 
sion. The Governor and Council objected to the appropriation. 
The Assembly, in order to constrain the Upper branch to con- 
cur in the vote, put it in a bill which they " tacked " to the bill 
that included all the votes of money passed during the session, 
leaving the Council the option either of consenting to an appro- 
})riation of which it disapproved, or of taking upon itself the re- 
sponsibility of rejecting the whole Appropriation Bill, and of de- 
priving the people of the money for the support of their roads, 
bridges, and schools. The Duke of Portland, Colonial Secretary, 
gave judgment in the case, and declared that it was derogatory 
to the dignity of memb. rs to receive " wages " from their con- 
stituents ; and that the custom of " tacking " sever?! matters in 




i !■ 


^' 11 lii 

1 r 

one bill was preposterous in the extreme. In spite of official 
admonition the membera of Assembly persisted in paying them- 
selves. For three years (1796-99) there was a dead-lock of the 
branches of the Legislature. No revenue and appropriation bills 
were passed. Harmony was then for a time restored, on the 
Assembly agreeing to include all the items to which the Council 
agreed in one bill, and to put those to which it had objections 
in another. The members, however, received their pay. 

6. Governor Carleton, after a rule of twenty years, left the 

Province. In his time the foundation of its educational 

1802 institutions was laid. Its ship-building and lumber 

A.D. trades, from small beginnings, grew into importance. 

There was then a great demand for masts for the Royal 
Navy. England, mistress of the seas, maintained her supremacy 
in many a bloody fight ; and pines that had stood for ages in 
the silent forest of the St. John were shattered in a moment 
where they rose above her wooden bulwarks. The mother 
country was then drawn towards her colonies. The Inmber 
trade of New Brunswick was fostered by a heavy duty im- 
posed on the timber from the Baltic. Its ships that carried 
masts and deals to Great Britain returned with immigrants, 
and in this way population steadily incr' sed. No regular 
Governor was appointed after Carletou's departure. For five 
years the government was administered by senior members of 
the Council : first by the Hon. Gabriel Ludlow, and then by 
Judge Edward Winslow. 

7. The feeling in the United States was now growing very 

Lostile to Great Britain. Events happened that por- 

1807 tended a speedy rupture. The British maintained tlieir 

A.D. right to stop American aiiips on the high seas and 

search them for deserters from the Royal Navy. Govern- 
ment found difficulty in keeping the fleets manned — many of 
their sailors were seduced to enter the American service. 
" The right of search " was sometimes carried out in an offen- 
sive manner. The U.S. ship Chesapeake^ sailing out of Hamptoii 
Roads, was brought to by H.M. ship Leopard, and four m^u 
were dragged from its decks a« British deserters, after it had been 
disabled by a murderous fire. This act enraged the American 
people ; their Government issued orders closing all the United 



States ports against British vessels, and iuteivHcting commercial 
intercourse with Great Britain. The course of commerce was 
much interrupted at this time. By a Decree^ issued from Ber- 
Hn, Napoleon declared Great Britain to be in a state of blockade, 
and forbade all use of her manufactures or colonial produce. In 
retaliation, the British Government passed Orders in Council 
prohibiting all commerce with France. The United States and 
France suffered most during this period of retaliation. Con- 
fident in the strength of her navy, Great Britain laughed 
at the Berlin Decree. Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Bruns- 
wick flourished under the " Non-intercourse Act ;" for they car- 
ried on a great and profitable contraband trade with the people 
of the United States, and their revenues increased largely. 

8. In anticipation of war, the Imperial Government ap- 
pointed military governors over the Provinces. In Lower 
Canada Sir James Craig, a veteran officer, took the place of the 
Hon. Mr. Dunn, a member of the Executive Council. In Nova 
Scotia Sir John Wentworth was superseded by Sir George 
Prevost. Major-General Hunterwas appointed President of His 
Majesty's Council in New Brunswick. In that Province, in 
less than four years, six changes had taken place in the office, 
though only four were made in the person of the incumbent. 
During that time Major-Generals Hunter, Johnstone, Balfour, 
and Tracey Smythe had held the position. The Legislature 
was very much annoyed by these frequent changes, and peti- 
tioned the Prince Eegent (Georve IV.) to appoint a regularly 
commissioned Governor. For several years the petition was 
not answered according to its desire. 

9. In Lower Canada, up till this time, the Executive Council, 
in spite of differences, had been able to command the support 

' Decree— The "Berlin Decree," is- 
sued on November 21st, 180G, wa<} pro- 
voked by the strict blockade of the ports 
between Brest and the River Elbe, 
effected by the English fleet. Besides 
(loclaring the British Isles in a state of 
blockade, and interdicting, under heavy 
penalties, all intercourse with them, it 
confiscated all merchandise and prop- 
erty of every kind belonging to British 
Bubjecta, and prohibited any vessel 

coming from Britain or her Colonies, or 
which had touched at any English port, 
from entering the harbours of France. 
The British "Orders in Council" were 
issued 7th January, and again 11th 
November, 1807. Napoleon's attempt 
to exclut J Britain from the commerce 
of the Continent was a complete failure; 
but the Orders in Council, which greatly 
checked the progress of British manu- 
factured, remained in force till 1812. 





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of a majority in tlie Assembly. Violent discussions now arose 
that arrayed the Upper and Lower branches in direct antagon- 
ism to each other. The expulsion of Jews and Judges from the 
Assembly, and the control of the financial expenditure, were 
the chief matters of controversy that agitated the Legislature. 
Judges were then not only members of the Executive and 
Legislative Councils, they sat also in the Assembly and mingled 
in the turmoil of politics. GoverL >r Craig sent a mes- 
1809 s^-ge to the Assembly, advising them to take the neces- 
A.D. sary measures to provide means to ^ lace the Province 
in a state of defence. Instead of attending to this pre3b- 
ing business, members wasted five weeks in angry discussions 
on the Judges. The Governor, in displeasure, disbolved the 
House. The new House, which met in the following January, 
was hardly lesf turbulent and intractable. The expenses of 
the Government had nov^ greatly increased, while the revenues 
at its command were insuiftcient to meet them. The Governor 
called on the Assembly to appropriate a sum to make good the 
deficiency. The revenues were then in a very flourishing con- 
dition. The Assembly, in the plenitude of its generosity, offered 
to defray all the expenses of (what was called) the Civil List. 
Its object was to gain control over the expenditure, and to 
make the oiBficials dependent on it for their salaries. The 
Council were surprised and offended at the proposal — if it were 
accepted they would become amenable to a French Catholic ma- 
jority. Sir James Craig replied coldly and cautiously : he could 
not accept the offer without the concurrence of His Majesty. 

10. The Assembly passed a Bill to disqualify the Judges. 
The Legislative Council made amendments to it, to which the 
majority oi the Assembly refused to agree. It then proceeded 
^;o expel Judge Deboune from his seat, by passing a resolu- 
tion declaring it vacant. Governor Craig would not sanction 
this unconstitutional proceeding, and again dissolved the House. 
The members boasted that they would come back again. The 
country was much excited during the time of the general elec- 
tion. Reports were circulated among the habit^ns that tne 
Governor had dissolved the House because the French Canadian 
majority had thwarted his designs, to call out and embody 
twelve thousand of them as soldiers, and to tax them in a body. 



Sir, James Craig, in an angry proclamation, pronounced the 
reports to be atrocious falsehoods; nevertheless, the habitaus 
returned their former representatives. While the elections 
were being held, six of the most prominent members of the late 
Assembly were seized and thrown into prison. The office of 
the Canadien newspaper was entered by a squad of soldiers, and 
its effects were carried away and deposited in a ceil in the court- 
house. The printer was thrown into jail. People now said 
among themselves that they were living under a " Beign of 
'"'^rroir" The new House with the old face was rather quiet 
a. u subdued in its bearing. Acting on instructions from the 
Colonial Office, Sir James Craig gave his asseno to the Judges' 
Disqualification Bill. After a busy session he prorogued the 
House, and made his farewell speech. He was old, and those 
who did not like him said that his infirmities had made him 
peevish. His administration had not been successful ; but the 
fault was as much imputable to the Council, which had given him 
harsh advice, as to himself. Besides, owing to the differences 
of the habits and opinions of the two sections of its population, 
Lower Cana-^ia was an extremely difficult Province to govern. 

11. Sir George Prevost was called from Nova Scotia by the 
Governor-General. At the same time Major-General Isajic 
Brock was appointed administrator of the government of Upper 
Canada. Prevost succeeded in allaying, for a time, the jealousy 
of the French Canadian party. He increased the number of 
Executive Councillors, and called some of its members to seats 
at the Board. He preferred to places of honour a few whom 
his predecessor had treated harshly: one was called from a 
prison qell to a seat on the Bench. Soon all thoughts were 

turned to meet external danger 

Questions. — 1. What was the chief 
cause of the internal strife in Nova 
Scotia between 1783 and 1793? By 
whom were the Judges impeached? 
What was the result ? 

2. Who succeeded Governor Parr? 
When? What were his political prin- 
ciples ? How did he favour the Church 
of England? 

3. How did Nova Scotia suffer during 
the French War? What elTect had the 
danger ? How was Halifax benefited ? 

4. Where did the Duke of Kent fix 
his head-quarters ? W hat effect had his 
residence there? What island was 
named after him? 

5. What was the cause of legislative 
disputes in New Brunswick? About 
what iid the first quarrel arise? Nar- 
rrte tiis circumstances. How was har- 
mcy ./ restored ? 

6. What institutions and trades were 
founded in Governor Carleton's time ? 
How was the lumber trade fostered ? 



7. What question Irritated tlie United 
States against Britain ? Wliat act en- 
raged the people of the States? How 
was trade at that time much retarded '! 
How did the British- American Provin- 
ces flourish ? 

8. What steps were taken in antici- 
pation of war? On what subject di^l 
the Legislature of New Bruns\?ick 
petition the Prince Eegent ? How was 
the petition treated ? 

9. What controversy divided the Up- 
per and Lower Houses in Lower Can- 

ada ? Why did Governor Craig dissolve 
the Assembly ? How did the next As- 
sembly respond to his demand for 

10. What led Governor Craig again 
to dissolve the House? What extreme 
measures did the Governor adopt dur- 
ing the general election? To what is 
the non-success of Sir James Craig's 
administration asciibed? 

11. What was the effect of Prevost's 
measures? Towards what were all 
tlioughts soon turned? 





1812-1813 A.D. 

The Feeling in the United States. 
President Madison declares War. 
Defeat of the American General Hull. 
Death of Brock — Queenston Heights. 
Ill success of American War operations. 
Preparations for Campaign of 1813. 
Ogdensburg burned. 
General Proctor victorious in the West. 

York captured by Americans 

Fort George taken. 

Sackett's Harbour. 

Midnight Attack at Stor y Creek. 

Naval Fight on Lake Erie. 


Newark burned by the Americans. 

Buffalo burned by the British. 

1. The clouds that had long been gathering now burst in 
storm. The feeling in the United States towards Great Britain 
was divided. In Pennsylvania and the States south to Georgia 
there was an eager desire for war. Tn Massachusetts, Con- 
necticut, Vermont, Eliode Island, and New York the people 
were strongly in favour of peace, and opposed to the policy of 
President Madison and the majority of Congress. The avowed 
cause of quarrel with Great Britain was the determination 
shown by that power to maintain the " right of search." But 
ambitious motives impelled the dominant party to make this 
gi'ievance a sufficient reason for declaring war. A favourable 
opportunity seemed to offer itself to them to extend the 
dominion of the United States over the northern part of tlie 
continent. Napoleon was then in the zenith of his glory. 
England alone opposed his march to supreme power in Europe. 
He would soon, it was thought, make himself master of the Old 
World. By attacking his great antagonist, the United States 
would etficiently aid him, and secure to themselves the mastery 
of the New World. In the British Provinces there was a de- 
cided opinion tliat the American Government designed to take 
an unfair advantage. In the Eastern States, where French prin- 
ciples were held in detestation, it was said that the Government, 
though it might not have entered into a direct alliance with 
" the bloody despot of France," certainly ranged itself on his 
side, when at his instigation it broke vidth Great Britain, 






2. An incident occurred early in the year which inflamed 

Congress. President Madison submitted a copy .i a 

1812 secret correspondence, which seemed to implicate 

A.D. the Government of Great Britain in an attempt to 

seduce the people of some of the Eastern States from 
their allegiance. In 1809, Sir James Craig despatched a Cap- 
tain Henry to collect information as to the state of feeling in 
Massachusetts and Connecticut towards Great Britain. In his 
letters this agent alleged that there was among parties there 
a desire to withdraw from the Union. Henry, dissatisfied with 
the reward given him for his services, sold his letters for a 
large sum to the President. Sir James Craig had acted with- 
out authority in sending him on his secret mission. The 
British Government disavowed it ; but President Madison was 
more anxious to excite a hostile feeling against that Govern- 
mfcnt than to give a fair opportunity for explanation. The 
reading of the correspondence called forth a loud burst of in- 
dignation in Congress. A thousand copies were printed and 
circulated, and provoked indignation in the country. 

3. War was declared on the 18th of June. When the news 
reached Boston, flags were hoisted at half-mast on the vessels in 
the harbour. Three days after the President took the fatal 
resolve. Napoleon threw down the gage to Russia;^ and then, 
with kings and princes in his train, he marched with his innu- 
merable host towards the region of snow. 

4. The Americans proposed to invade Canada by way of 
Lake Champlain, Niagara, and Fetroit. Their regular soldiers, 
under r^jcers who had served 'n the Revolutionary War, were, 
with i\tb undisciplined militia, mustered at these points. A 
requisition was made by the President on each State to raise 
and equip its quota of 100,000 men, and to hold them in readi- 
ness to march at a moment's warning. This call was by no 
means obeyed with enthusinam. Some of the Governors denied 

' Russia. — Napoleon invaded Russia 
with an army of 450,000 men, in July 
1812. He reached Moscow on Septem- 
ber 14. On the 15th the city was set 
fire to by order of the Russian Govern • 
ment. Napoleon evacuated it in Octo- 
ber, and commenced his disastrous 

return march over snow-covered plains, 
constantly harassed by the Russians, 
who hung on his reav. It was Detem- 
ber before the shattered remains of liis 
splendid army reached the Niemen. 
The French loss is estimated at 350,000 



the power of the President to compel the militia to do service 
out of their own State. The invaders counted on making an 
easy conquest of Canada. They imagined that when they 
entered the country, crowds of disaflfected people would flock to 
their standard. They much mistook the spirit of the great body 
of the Lower Canadians, who bore for the Americans no love. 
A few of the militia of the district of Montreal showed them- 
selves refractory when called on to march from their parishes ; 
but they were soon brought to a better state of mind. When 
war became a certainty, the most loyal and patriotic spirit 
was displayed. Political strife was for the time stilled. The 
Legislature voted all they had — nay, even more than they actu- 
ally possessed — for the defence of the country, and placed the 
combined militia at the disposal of the Governor-General. 

5. The Canadians were called upon to make great exertions 
and great sacrifices. In all the country from Quebec to York, 
find along the frontiers of the Niagara and the Detroit, there were 
only 4,500 regular British troops. Wellington was then contending 
in the peninsula of Spain with French armies led by Napoleon's 
marshals. That war engrossed the chief attention of the British 
nation , and drained the Royal Army. The defence of Canada was 
thrown in a great measure on her own sons, — on the Loyalists of 
Upper Canada, the volunteers of York, the men of Glengarry, 
the fencibles of Kingston, Prescott, Dundas, — on the militia of 
Montreal and Quebec, — on the gallant chasseurs and voltigeurs of 
the Lower St. Lawrence. The domiciled Indians — the Mohawks 
under Brant, their chief, the warriors of the remnants of the 
" Six Nations," the Wyandots, Hurons, and Delawares — stood 
by their white brothers. The tribes ncHh and south-west of 
Lake Erie were in a state of warlike excitement, and in a temper 
that made them eager allies of the British. Before the steady 
onward march of civilization they were being driven from the 
great valley of the Ohio, west, to the setting sun. The year 
before (1811), roused by the nervous eloquence of the famous 
Shawnee chief, Tecumseh, and of his brother " the Prophet," 
they had risen and attacked the settlers of Michigan, Indiana, 
Kentucky, and Illinois, in the vain hope of recovering their lost 
hunting-grounds. The alliance with the Indians was a sad 
necessity. Thev could not be restrained from committing acts 







It > 



of ferocious cruelty, of which their white allies were condemned 
to bear the odium. They could not remain still when war was 
raging around, and their friendship was better than their 

6. The war was opened in the west. To secure the fur- 
trade, and to create a favourable impression among th^ Indians, 
an attack was made on Fort Michillimackinac ^ by a party of 
British regulars, Canadian voltigeurs and savages, under Cap- 
tain Roberts. In the meantime General Hull, Governor of the 
Michigan territory, crossed over from Detroit to Sandwich, witli 
2,500 troops, in the vague hope of conquering Canada at a stroke. 
He caused a bombastic proclamation to the inhabitants of 
Canada oo be distributed, wherein he promised them the bless- 
ings of civil and religious liberty, and protection of their prop- 
erty. He told them that his force "iv^ould look down all 
opposition," and that it was only the van-guard of a greater 
army. He threatened a war of extermination if one Indian 
tomahawk were raised to resist him. His words were more 
decisive than his actions. His invincible force ravaged the 
country as far as the Moravian village on the River Thames ; 
but when they advanced upon Amherstburg they were checked 
at the River Canard. He grew uneasy when he heard of tlie 
capture of Michillimackinac and the threatened descent of the 
victors on his rear. He had. soon a new enemy on his front. 
On the first news of the invasion, General Brock prorogued the 
Legislature at York, and with all the available troops at his 
command, hastened by way of the Niagara and Lake Erie to 
relieve Amherstburg. He arrived there on the 12th of August. 
Quite discouraged now, Hull withdrew his whole force across 
the river to Detroit, followed by the gallant Brock with 1,300 
men, of whom 600 were Indians. Perceiving that the British 
were making preparations to carry his position by assault, the 
American General surrendered himself ^ and his force. Two 

' MichUlwiackinac. — Called by the 
Americans Mackinac {Mak-in-aw). It 
stood between Lakes Huron and Michi- 
gan. See Map, p. 22j. 

' Surrendered himself. — General Hull 
was subseqxiently exchanged for thirty 
British prisoners, and was tried by 

court-martial for treason and cowardice. 
He was acquitted of treason, but con- 
victed of cowardice. He was sentenced 
to be shot, but was pardoned by the 
President because of the faithful ser- 
vices he had rendered during the Revo- 
lutionary War. 



thousand three hundred prisoners were sent off to ; 
thirty-two brass cannons and a quantity of stores fell into the 
lumds of the British, who, by the capture of Detroit, held pos- 
session of the Michigan territory. 

7. Soon after the declaration of war, Sir George Prevost re- 
ceived despatches informing him that the British Goveniment 
]i;id rescinded their Orders in Council that bore so hct.vily on 
American commerce. An opportunity, he thought, now offered 
itself to open negotifwtions for peace. Early in August he pro- 
posed an armistice, to which General Dearborn, commanding 
the U.S. " army of the north " at Plattsburg, jissented. The 
American Government refused to enter on negotiations of i)eace 
on any terras except the abandonment by the British of the 
right of search. The operations of the war were resumed in 

8. The Americans had an army, under General van Kens- 
selaer, on the Niagara frontier — between Fort Niagara and 
Buffalo — confronting a British force much im*^*^rior in numbei', 
quartered on the line from Fort George to Fort Eiie. Before 
dawn on the morning of , 
the 13tli of -Septemb^ 
1,200 men, under Gen- ^ 
eral Wadsworth, crossed ; 
over from Lewiston on 
the American side. 
One division landed 
above Queenston ; an- 
other, in face of artil- 
lery fire, made good 
their footing on the 
shore close to it. The 
British force, too weak 
to make effective re- 
sistance, was driven 
hack, and the Ameri- 
cans gained possession 
oftheHeights. General Niagara, frontier. 

Brock, at Fort George, seven miles off, heard the sound of 
cannon ; leaving orders to General Sheaffe to follow ]»im with 




reinforcement^ in all haste, he Lurried, in the gray of the" 
morning, down to the scene of action, lljillying the 49th Regi- 
ment and the militia for a desperate struggle, he pressed for- 
ward with the Grenadiers to retake the important position 
which the enemy had gained. While cheering on the brave 
York volunteers he fell mortally wounded in the breast. By 
his fall the attack on the Heights was stayed. The troops re- 
treated, mourning the loss of their beloved General. 

9. The frontier was now alive with men upon the march. 
General Sheaffe arrived wl ;i 300 men of the 41st Regiment and 
two companies of militia. He was joined by the garrison from 
Fort Chippewa, and, counting red-skins with red-coats, he had 
800 men. Again the Heights were attacked. The nimble 
Indians rushed forward with their fierce war-whoop, but were 
driven back. With steady tramp and loud hurrah the British 
soldiers charged up. For a brief time the Americans made a 
spirited resistance, during which they suffered much. Then 
they broke their ranks ; many fled, but escape from the hands 
of the murderous savages was difficult. General Wadsworth 
delivered up his sword to General Sheaffe on the field of battle ; 
9'"0 men laid down their arms and surrendered themselves 
p^'ifloners. The Battle of Queenston is more memorable for 
ha disaster than for its victory. The death of the gallant 
Brock distinguishes it from contests as bloody and decisive. A 
cenotaph covers the spot where fell the hero whom Canada has 
delighted to honour. A column marks the Heights as historic 

10. All the efforts of the Americans ended in defeat. On the 
loth of November Commodore Chauncey sailed with five armed 
vessels from Sackett's Harbour to attack Kingston and burn 
the ship the Royal George. He was so warmly met, that after 
wasting much powder and. ball he was compelled to haul off. 
A few days afterwards the " army of the north," 10,000 strong, 
moved from Plattsburg to Champlain, a village six miles from 
the boundary line. Sir George Prevost made a call upon the 
militia, and it was obeyed with the utmost alacrity. By the 
19th a force of regulai-s, Canadian voltigeurs and voyageurs, 
and Indians, had crossed the St. Lawrence from Montreal, and 
were posted at La Prairie, eager to repel the invasion. Among 



the Aiiiericau militia there was no euthusiasm. Many of them 
Btood by their State rights, and insisted that by the Constitution 
neither President nor General had authority to order them to 
march across the frontier. General Dearborn made a feeble 
advance. The invasion ended in skirmishings with the Canci- 
dian pickets, and then a hasty retreat over the line to Platts- 
burg, Burlington, and Albany, where the i\rmy went into winter 
quarters. x\.nother demonstration ended even more disgrace- 
fully. Brigadier-General Smyth had succeeded Van Eenaselner 
ill command of the " army of the centre," on the Niagara frontier. 
A force of 4,500 soldiers and New York militia assembled at his 
call. In a high-flown address he announced that in a few days 
he would plant the standard of America in Canada ; und he gave 
them for a rallying cry, to nerve them for the glorious and difli- 
cult enterprise, " The cannon taken at Detroit, or Death." 
When the decisive hour came only 1,500 were found willing to 
venture across the river, and there was not a sufficient number 
of boats to convey even that remnant of the force. On the 18th 
of November 430 men crossed over to the upper end of Granvl 
Island, and dispersed and captured a few British soldiers. But 
when next morning a larger party in a division of eighteen 
boats approached the Canadian shore, they were confronted by 
the united garrisons of Forts Erie and Chippewa, which 
poured a destructive fire upon them; whereon they turned 
and fled precipitately. A mutiny broke out in the American 
canjp. The exasperated soldiers blamed their General for the 
failure of the enterprise. To save his life he fled. 

11. "While the Americans met with nothing but disaster in 
their attempts to invade Canada, they gained some startling 
successes at sea. Their frigates the Coiistitution and the 
United States met in single combat and shattered and captured 
the British Guerriere and Macedonian. They had completely 
the advantage of their opponents in the size of their ships, the 
number and weight of their camion, and the force of their 
crews. These glorious victories fired the pride of the nation. 
Honours were showered on the fortunate commanders. The 
British people were enraged at unaccustomed defeat on their 
native element. 

12. Preparations for the next campaign were prosecuted 






1 f 





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with vigour by the Americans. Hitherto the Eritisli had held 
coniniaiid of the great Lakes Ontario and Erie by their 
larger squadrons. The Americans determined to obtain 
a naval superiority. Tn their })orts at Sackett's Harbour, 
Ogdensburg, Oswego, Black Rock, Buffalo, and Sandusky, strong 
vessels were rapidly run up, fit for rough service. The British 
also built vessels, but more slowly. They thought that every 
])art of them ought to be thoroughly finished ; and the Gove.n- 
ment, seemingly of opinion that there were neither craftsmen 
nor woods in Canada, sent out artisans and material. 

13. Winter did not stay the warfare. Marauding parties 
from Ogdensburg crossed the frozen river and ravaged the 

settlements that were distant from any military post. 

1813 ^^^6 of the first operations of the new cam])aign was to 

A.D. take revenge for these predatory excursions. Major 

M'Donnel of the Glengarry Fencibles, early on tlie 
jj' morning of the 21st February, crossed the St. Lawrence witli 
480 men to attack the position at Ogdensburg. Heavy snow 
impeded their march. They had to charge a height defended 
by the fire of a fort ; but, in spite of all difficulties, they stormed 
the place, captured eleven guns and quantities of stores, burned 
barracks, gunboats, and schooners. 

14. In the west the campaign opened early. The people of 
Michigan and Ohio grew impatient at the occupation of their 
country by the British, and the consequent interruption to their 
trade. They called on General Harrison to re* apture Detroit, 
which was held by Oolonel Proctor. On the 19th of January 

J General Winchester, with over 1,000 men, crossed from San- 
' dusky and advanced to Frenchtown, twenty-six miles from 
Detroit, and drove out its defenders, v/ho fell back on Browns- 
town. There a motley force of British regulars, sailors, marines, 
Newfoundland fencibles, Essex militia, and 600 Wyandots 
and other Indians, assembled, by order of Colonel Proctor. 
Under cover of night they advanced on Frenchtown, and 
at break of day of the 22nd surprised the Americans. Posted 
in houses and In garden enclosures, they defended them- 
selves bravely for a time, and many fell on both sides. On 
Proctor intimating that he would be unable to restrain his 
savage allies if they resisted longer, five hundred surren- 

san^age warfahe. 


dered at discretion. Many, iu attempting to escape, were 
captured l)y tlie Iinliaus and massacred. General Winchester 
was taken prisoner by Soundhead, a Wyandot chief. Deeds 
of great cruelty stained tliis decisive victory. President Madi- 


son, in his address to Congress in March, held the British 
guilty of them, as the Indians, who had perpetrated them, were 
enlisted in their service. The war threatened to assume a very 
savage character. Exasperating questions arose that inflamed 
the passions of the combatants. By British law, subjects of the 
Crown in removing to a foreign country did not free them- 
selves from their allegiance. The United States Government 
held that persons freely emigrating from the British Isles to 
America owed allegiance to the country whose protection they 
enjoyed. Among the prisoners taken at Queenston there 
were twenty-three whom General Sheaffe claimed as British 
subjects, and deserters from the Eoyal Army. They were sent 
home to England ironed, to stand their trial as traitors. ITie 
United States Government claimed the twenty-three as free 
immigrants, who had taken up arms, as duty obliged them, at 
the call of their adopted country. By its order, General 

(473) 19 

290 THE king's regiment of new bUUNSWICK. 


Dearborn placed as many British soldiei*s in prison as hostages, 
to suffer death, man for man, should all or ciny of the twenty- 
three be executed. This threat only called forth a counter 
threat. In the course of the year Sir George Prevost received 
orders to execute two Americans for every one of those hostages 
who might be shot or hanged. The American General then 
doubled the number of hostages ; whereon Sir George added 
forty-six American officers to the twenty-three whom he already 
held. Happily this barbarous course of retaliation was not 
carried out : the prisoners in the end wrre exchanged. 

15. When the spring of 1813 opened, the harbours from New 
York to Savannah, and the mouth of the Mississippi, were 
blockaded by British ships. British privateers preyed on the 
merchantmen of the enemy. Squadrons appeared on Lake 
Ontario ; reinforcements arrived in Quebec. The chief efforts 
of the Americans were directed against Canada. Nearly all the 
regular troops were withdrawn from the Lower Provinces. 
A loyal and liberal spirit was displayed by their people. Their 
coasts were open to the attack of American and French cruisers ; 
but they sympathized with their sister, Canada, in her greater 
peril. Large sums were voted for war purposes ; seamen 
volunteered to serve on the lakes, and were despatched to the 
scene of action at the public expense. At the commencement 
of the war, the King's Regiment of New Brunswick, first 
raised from among the Loyalist veterans who in 1784 settled in 
York county, was numbered with the line of the Royal Army as 
the 104th. The Legislature passed a complimentary resolution 
to the officers and privates on the occasion, and presented the 
regiment with a silver trumpet. It was called on to do active 
service in Canada. A portion of it was conveyed to Quebec by 
sea, but several companies made their way overland. The 
march, on snow-shoes, through a wilderness country, in intense 
cold,, tested the endurance of the soldiers, whose gallantry was 
afterwards displayed in several actions. < 

16. At the commencement of the campaign the Americans 
had proposed to destroy York and Kingston, make themselves 
masters ot the fox-ts on the Niagara frontier, retake Detroit, 
gain command of Lake Erie and the possession of the western 
district. They then proposed to attack Montreal by way of 



Lake Champlain and the St. Lawrence. Montreal taken, the 
hold of Great Britain on Canada would be confined to Quebec. 
17. The town of York was, from its situation, difficult to 
defend. It was held by General Sir Roger Sheaffe, adminis- 
trator of the government, and a garrison of 700 men. On 
the evening of the 26th April, an American squadron ap- 
peared in sight of it. Early next morning sixteen ships were 
ranged on the western side of the harbour. Eight hundred 
men in boats made a dash to the shore, drove from the 
woods a small British force which resisted their landing, and 
stormed the batteries. They were aided by the fire from the 
ships. A magazine exploded, killing their commander and 100 
but reinforcements poured upon the shore. General 



Sheatfe, after destroying a ship upon the stocks and naval 
stores, retired with his troops upon the town, and then re- 
treated towards Kingston, leaving the colonel of militia tio 
surrender the place to General Dearborn. A large quantity of 
military stores and provisions fell into his hands. He did not 
attempt to hold York, but sailed to the head of Lake Ontario, 
and landed above Fort Niagara with 1,300 men. Commo- 
dore Chauncey returned to Sackett's Harbour. Leaving the 
sick and wounded there, and taking reinforcements on board, 
he sailed to rejoin Dearborn. Colonel Vincent held Fort 
George, opposite the American Fort Niagara, with over 1,000 
British troops. On the 25th of May the squadron under 
Chauncey, carrying a force of 5,000 men, manoeuvred on the 
lake within his view. The vessels took position in form of a 
crescent, which enabled the gunners to pour a destructive 
cross fire on the fort. On the 27th the grand assault was ^^ 
made. A large body of riflemen, under Colonel Winfield Scott, / 
was driven back by the British ; but 2,000 more of the enemy ' 
landed on the beach under cover of a storm of shot and shell 
that swept the batteries. The foil; being untenable, Vincent 
caused the works to be dismantled and the cannons to be 
spiked. He withdrew to Queenston. Calling the garrisons from 
Forts Chippewa and Erie, he retreated to Burlington Heights, 
at the head of Lake Ontario, leaving the Americans in pos- 
wssion of the Niagara frontier, for which they had so vainly 
fought the year before. 


sackett's harbour. 

18. The day aftci* the capture of Fort George, Sir George 
Prevost sailed from Kingston with a flotilla commanded by 
Sir James Yeo, to surprise and capture the post at Sackett's 

(7* Harbour.^ The shores were covered with thick woods, and a 
fort and block-house, armed with heavy ordnance, protected the 
dock-yard and store-houses. An island lay not far from the 
mainland, with which it was connected by a narrow causeway. 
On a dark and rainy night 1,000 men in boats in compact 
order assembled near the commodore's vessel, and opposite the 
point where they intended to land. But they drifted down 
with the strong current. At break of day the Americans 
were swarming in the woods with their rifles, before they were 
able to regain their position. Owing to adverse winds, the 
large vessels of the fleet, and the sloop carrying their artillery, 
were not within distance to aid them. The boats were pulled 
to the island ; the men of the 100th and 104th, of the King's 
Regiment, of the Royal Scots and the Glengarries landed, and 
charged across, ai'kle-deep in water, clearing the causeway. At 
the point of the bayonet they drove the Americans through the 
woods, down the height, and compelled them to take refuge in 
their fort. The British retired out of reach of its fire to await 
the arrival of their artillery. Sir George Prevost, believing 
that no further advantage could be gained, ordered a retreat. 
Enraged and mortified, they retired to their boats. Their loss, 
in killed, wounded, and missing, amounted to 206, ofiicers and 
men. Sir George was much blamed : confidence in him as a 
general was shaken. 

19. The Americans seemed to be on the point of gaining 
possession of Upper Canada. Since the opening of the 
campaign success had attended them. They had plundered 
York. For too hastily evacuating that capital General Sheatfe 
had been censured and superseded by Major-General de Rotten- 
burg. From want of determination. Sir George Prevost had 
converted a probable triumph at Sackett's Harbour into a de- 
pressing defeat. Colonel Vincent had been forced to retreat 
from Fort George. In the beginning of June, a body of 3,500 
Americans, with cavalry and artillery, advanced from their 

' Sackett's Harbour. — See Map, p. 297. 





camp at Forty Mile Creek above Fort George, ou the lake shore, 
under Brigadier-Generals Chandler and Winder, to attack him 
at Burlington Heights.^ They rested at Ston|y Creek, someJu^*u^ i' 
seven miles off. At midnight, 704 British soldiers, coramandecJ^ 
by Lieutenant-Colonel John Harvey, with fixed bayonets, burst 
suddenly upon their camp. A fierce and confused combat en- 
sued. The Americans were driven out, and fled to the sur- 
rounding heights. Their two generals, and 100 officers and . 
men, fell into the hands of the British, who retired to Burling- 
ton before break of day. The Americans returned to their 
camp, and, after destroying a quantity of baggage, retreated to 
Forty Mile Creek, where they were joined by a body of 2,000 
men. Sir James Yeo and his squadron appeared at the mouth 
of the creek, and threw shot and shell among them. They 
thereon fled precipitately to Fort George, leaving behind a great 
part of their camp equipage, and quantities of stores and pro- 

20. Shortly afterwards the Americans met with another 
'3heck. Lieutenant-Colonel Boerstler, with 570 men, advanced 
from Queenston to disperse a small body of British at y . 
Beaver Dams. As he was passing through a wood he was / / 
attacked by Indians led by an English officer. Withdra'^v- 
ing as speedily aa possible from this ambuscade, he took ^^p 
a position on a road crossing a mountain. He sent for re- 
inforcements ; and as he rested there, he was descried by 
Lieutenant Fitzgibbons, who was marching in advance of the 
British with a few men of the 49th Begiment. By a skilful 
disposition of his small force, he caused Boerstler to believe 
himself surrounded ; and, on receiving a summons, he sur- 
rendered himself and his whole party, with their cannon and 
colours, on the 24th of June. After this " unaccountable oc- 
currence," General Dearborn found himself beleaguered in Fort 
George. Colonel Vincent extended his line from Burlington 
Heights to Queenston, and harassed him by cutting off his 

21. During summer the combatants inflicted much loss on 
each other without decisive eflfect. From Fort Erie, on the 

' Burlington Heights. — See Map, p. 285. 









Niagara frontier, the British crossed to Black Bock on July 1 1th, 
and burned barracks and navy yard ; but their leader, Colonel 
Bishop, was mortally wounded. To counterbalance this loss, 
the Americans again plundered York and burned the military 
buildings. In a running fight on Lake Ontario, Sir James 
Yeo captured two of Commodore Chauncey's armed schooners. 
On Lake Champlain, Major Taylor, commanding at Isle aux 
Noix, captured the American gunboats Eagle and Growler. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Murray, advancing to Plattsburg, burned 
the barracks, and destroyed the military stores. About the 
middle of August, Sir George Prevost transferred his head-quar- 
ters from Kingston to St. Davids. He made a reconnaissance 
of the enemy's position at Fort George, and found the place full 
of men and bristling with cannon. Not being able to provoke 
the Americans to come out and fight him on the open field, he 
retired unmolested. 

22. In the west, during all his time, Colonel Proctor had been 
active. His ability to maint. ^ a hold on the Michigan terri- 
tory and on the western frontier of Upper Canada, depended 
on his crushing the forces that were gathering to attack him. 
The Americans intrenched themselves at Fort MeigS,^ at the 
foot o^ the rapids of the Miaimi i^iver, which empties itself into 
Lake Erie at its south-western extremity. Proctor, with a 
force of 2,100 men, of whom the greater part were Indians, led 
by Tecumseh, laid siege to this fort on the 1st May ; but his 
cannon could make no impression on its works. On the 4tli, 
1,200 volunteers of Kentucky and Ohio, under General Clay, 
descended the Miami, and, joining the garrison, : Jiade a sud- 
den attack on Proctor's batteries early next morning. There 
was a fierce contest. In tho end the Americans were driven 
back with a total loss of 1,200. But Proctor was forced to 
abandon the thought of further operations. A number of his 
militia went home ; his Indians deserted him ; Tecumseh, with 
twenty warriors, alone remained. He therefore returned to 
Sandwich, moralizirg on his misfortune in being dependent ou 
such fickle allies. But fickle at ,vere the Indians, he could have 
done little without their friendship. In their way they were 

* fort AfeiflfS. — See Map, p. 289, 



faithful, and resisted the enticements of the Americans to vath- 
draw them from their British alliance. They certainly misled 
him sometimes. Yielding to their solicitation, he attacked the 
Fort of Sandusky ; but when the word was given to assault 
it, the warriors, erst so clamorous, kept warily out of the way 
of its fire, and allowed the red-coats to take it if they could. 
They could not, and Proctor returned discomfited. 

23. A large American army was now assembled in Michigan, 
under General Harrison, who was impatiently waiting to hear 
from the naval commander on Lake Erie that its waters were 
clear of British ships of war. Nine vessels lay in Putin Bay, at 
its western extremity. When, on the 10th of September, their 
commodore, Perry, descried a British squadron of six sail 
approaching, he weighed anchor, and hoisted the signal of 
battle. The contect was hot and decisive. Perry's vessel, the 
Lawrence J was disabled at the outset. In the midst of the 
firing he was rowed in an open boat to another of his ships. 
The Detroit, the English commander Barclay's flag-ship, was 
made a complete wreck. The captain of its consort, the Queen 
Charlotte^ was killed ; and the vessel becoming unmanageable, 
the crew struck their colours. Perry, bringing his whole fleet 
into action, passed between the British ships, and poured in a 
heavy, close fire. Barclay was severely wounded ; most of his 
officers were killed or struck down. He could do nothing but 
surrender. Perry sent word to Harrison, "We have met the 
enemy, and they are ours." 

24. The Americans by this decisive victory regained all they 
had lost the previous year by the defeat of Hull. The position 
of the British was now critical, cut off from air succour by 
way of Lake Erie. General Harrison, having taken Maiden, 
was ; Ivancing towards Sandwich. Not until the 24th of 
September did Majcr-General Proctor abandon Detroit and 
Amherstburg, after having burned the principal buildings 
and dismantled the fortifications. With 450 men, and Tecum- 
seh and his Indians, he retreated up the River Thames 
to Moravia village, followed by his enemy in overpowering 
force. There, on the 15th of October, he made a desperate 
stand. His ranks were broken by a fierce charge of mounted 
Kentucky riflemen j those who were not killed, wounded, or 



" * ". !? 

captured, dispersed. Two hundred joined Proctor at Ancaster 
on the Grand Eiver, and thence made their way to Burlington 
Heights. Tecumseh was slain. The American officers 
gathered around and viewed with interest his majestic corpse. 
Living, the chief had done them all the harm he could ; but 
now that he was dead, they remembered that though fierce in 
battle he was humane to his prisoners. General Harrison, on 
the 17th of October, assumed the government of the upper 
district of Upper Canada. 

25. The aspect of affairs was gloomy enough now for the 
Canadians. The Americans had two armies ; — one on the Niag- 
ara frontier, under General "Wilkinson, who was now chief in 
command ; another at Plattsburg, under General Hampton — 
together numbering 16,000 men, exclusive of 10,000 militia. 
Their naval squadron, under Commodore Chauncey, sailed freely 
on Lake Ontario, unhindered by Sir James Yeo. Owing to the 
large number of American troops in the west, and the increase 
of the force in Fort George, the British soldiers were withdrawn 
from the extensive line they had occupied, and concentrated in 
the camp at Burlington Heights. Early in October, General 
Wilkinson was instructed by the War Minister at Washington 
to cooperate with General Hampton in an attack on Montreal. 
There were very few British troops in Lower Canada. The 
honour of successfully defending their frontiers was to be earned 
by the Canadians themselves. General Sheaffe, who commanded 
there, had 3,000 embodied militia under him ; Sir George 
Prevost made a call for 5,000 of the sedentary class. Most 
cheerfully and gallantly did they obey the call. Sir George 
said that their zeal and alacrity were beyond all praise. 

26. General Hampton crossed the boundary line on the 21st 
with 7,000 infantry, 200 cavalry, and 10 field-pieces. This force 

Ji^ advanced along both banks of the Chateauguay. Hampton 
led the division that took the northern route. The country was 
hilly and covered with woods. His march was stayed by a small 
body of 300 Canadian voltigeurs and fencibles under Colonel 
de Salaberry — excellent marksmen all. Throwing themselves 
behind a breast-work of prostrate trees, they bade defiance to 
assault. The Americans, who were chiefly raw soldiers, could 
l^ot be persufj,ded to charge vigorously. The^ fired from the 



woods, and, in their confusion, into each other, and inflicted 
much greater loss on themselves than on the Canadians, of 
Nvhom two were killed and sixteen wounded. The division that 
julvrnced by the south Jir bank of the river was met by a sma]l 
part3* of militia and Chateauguay chasseurs, under Captains 
Daly and Bruyers, and was forced to retreat. Quite crest- 
fallen, 'Jeneral Hampton led his beaten army into their own 
country and to tlieir old camp at Plattsburg. 

27. If General Wilkinson had followed the plan of the joint 
attack upon Montreal, he would have commenced his movement 
down the St. Lawrenc':^ on the same day that Hampton crossed 
the boundary. But he had difficulty in collecting his forces, 
and a continuance of tempestuous weather retarded his prepara- 
tions. Not until the beginning of November did his 10,000 
soldiers leave the rendez\'^ous, Grenadier Island, in bateaux and 
small river-craft. In passing Prescott on a clear moonlight 
night, they sustained much damage from a heavy cannonade 
from the British fort. In their wake followed Lieutenant- 


Colonel Morrison, from Kingston, with 800 British infantry 
and voltigeurs, and a division of gun-boats. From the head of 
the Long Sault this corps of observation followed the Apa^yi- 




cans on shore. Arrived off Williamsburg, General Wilkinson 
ordered Brigadier-General Eo/d to trush away the annoy- 
uncA. With 3,500 infantry, and a i-egiment of cavalry and 
artillery, that officer encounte^'ed the British force drawn up iu 
line of battle on a field on Chrysler's Farm, the ri^er on its 
right, the woods upon its left. It was on the afternoon of the 
12th of November. In vain the Americans charged to break 
the ranl<;s of the red-coats. When the British advanced witli 
firm front and steady fire, the Americans fell back. Two hours 
after the commencement of the fight they retreated precipitately 
to their boats, and retired to their own side of the St. Ijaw- 
rence. They lost 339 of their best soldiers — double the num- 
ber of the killed and wounded on the British side. When he 
arrived at Lake St. Francis, General Wilkinson heard with dis- 
may that Hampton and his army were not at St. Eegis. They 
had agreed to meet there, and unite their forces for the attack 
upon Montreal. The grand plan had been completely disar- 
ranged. Wilkinson withdrew with his troops to French Mills 
on Salmon River, and there rested during winter. 

28. Sir George Drummond assumed command in Upper 
Canada in December. He despatched a force under Colonel 
Murray to take Fort George. General M^Clure hastily aban- 
doned it, and crossed the river to Fort Niagara. He left the 
town of Newark in flames, exposing to the bitter winter cold 
the young and the tender, the aged and the frail. The barbarity 
of this act excited in Canada the deepest indignation. The 
American Government took pains to disavow it. It was very 
promptly avenged. The British carried Fort Niagara by 
assault, laid waste the frontier as far as to Buflalo, and burued 
that town. So in tears and in misery, in hatred, in blood, and 
in flames, ended the long campaign of 1813. 

Questions. — 1. What different feel- 
ings towards Britain prevailed in the 
United States? What was the avowed 
cause of quarrel ? What were the real 
motives of the dominant party ? 

2. What incident provoked great in- 
dignation against Britain? Explain 
fully the circumstances. 

8. When was war declared? How 
W^ t-^e news received in Boston ? On 

what campaign did Napoleon then 
enter ? 

4. What was the American plan of 
cuerations? How was the President's 
Cc. 1 for levies obeyed? What spirit 
was r'isplayed by the Canadians ? 

5. On whom was the defence of Canada 
mainly thrown ? Why? What part did 
the Indians take in the war? 

6. Where ancl how did the war be- 




gin ? Describe General Hull's attempt 
on Amherstburg, and its result. 

7. What opportunity occurred for 
opening negotiations for peace? "What 
prevented their success ? 

8. On what frontier were operations 
resumed in September ? What led 
General Brock to Queenston? When 
did his troops retreat? 

9. Who renewed the attack on the 
Heights of Queenston ? With what 
result ? What is the most noteworthy 
thing about the Battle of Queenston ? 

10. What was the result of Chauncey's 
attack on Kingston ? How did the in- 
vasion by the "army of the north" 
end? What enterprise did Brigadier- 
General Smyth undertake ? What suc- 
cess had -he? 

11. Where had the Americans some 
startling successes ? 

12. What special preparations did the 
Americans make for the next campaign? 
In what did the British ship-building 
differ from that of the Americans ? 

13. What led to M'Donnel's attack 
on Ogdensburg? With what success 
was it attended? 

14. What was the object of the 
American campaign in the west ? Nar- 
rate its chief incidents. What dispute 
arose regarding prisoners ? 

15. Where were the chief efforts of 
the Americans directed? How did 
the Lower Provinces behave towards 
Canada? How was the King's Regi- 
ment of New Brunswick distinguished? 

16. What different exploits had the 
Americans proposed to themselves at 
the commencement of the campaign ? 

17. Describe the taking of York. 
What place did Dearborn and Chauncey 
next attack? Where did Vincent go 
when he abandoned Fort George ? 

18. Who commanded in the descent 
on Sackett's Harbour? Describe it. 
For 'vhat was Prevout blamed? 

19. IVhat flteps were taker to drive 
Vinceiiu Iroxa Ejrli. j<ton Ueifhts? 
How was t'ac attempt fristrated ? 

20. What other check did tlie Ameri- 
cans meet with soon afterw.Tdp? In 
what position did Dearborn then tind 
himself ? 

21. Mention some of the exploits 
which occupied the summer? What 
movement did General Prevost make 
in August ? 

22. Where had the Americans in- 
trenched themselves in the west ? 
Wlio besieged them there ? When did 
a fierce contest take place ? How did 
it end? 

23. Describe Perry's engagement on 
Lake Erie. How did he report his 
victory to Harrison ? 

24. Why had Proctor to abandon 
Detroit? Where did he make a stand 
against his pursuers ? Who was among 
the slain ? What did Harrison assume 
in consequence of his victory ? 

25. Where were the armies of Generals 
Wilkinson and Hampton posted? In 
what attack were they ordered to co- 
operate ? On whom was the duty of 
defending Lower Canada thrown ? 

26. How was Hampton's advance 
checked? Where did he then lead his 
troops ? 

27. How did Wilkinson fail to follow 
the plan of joint action ? Where did 
part of his force encounter the British? 
What was the result? Where did 
Wilkinson then go ? 

28. When did the British recover Fort 
George ? Of what barbarity was Gen- 
eral M'Clure guilty? How was it 
avenged ? 







■•^- .-HH 

■ '!|til 




1814-1815 A.D. 

Mediation of the Czar. 

Impeachment of the Lower Canada 

Position of the combatants. 

U.S. General Brown crosses the Ni- 

General Eiall retreats. 

Battle of Lundy'a Lane. 


The " Chesapeake" and the " Shannon. " 

Washington burned. 

Sir George Prevost at Plattsburg. 

Fort Erie. 

Close of the War. 

1. There was no prospect of peace yet. Early ir 1814 the 
Emperor of Rujsia, as the friend of both the nations at war, 
offered himself as a mediator. The British Government de- 
clined his proposal : the President accepted it ; but owing to 
the refusal of the other party, nothing was done. The seeming 
inclination of the American Government to terminate the con- 
flict did not abate their exertions to carry it on with success. 

2. In Canada the people could look forward to nothing but 
a continuation of harassing attacks. The experience gained 
during the war had taught them that they might safely trust iu 
the protectiun of Heaven, if they resolutely acted in their own 
defence. The spirit of the mass of the population was excellent. 
The Lower Canp.dians had vindicated their loyalty, and proved 
their military spirit, against the aspersions of those who denied 
the one and doubted the other. 

3. Political strife broke out during the lull of military 

operations. When the Legislature of Lower Canada 

1814 iTfi^t at Quebec in January, all the branches of it were 

A.D. united in enthusiasm over the victories at Chateauguay 

and Chrysler's Farm. The sums voted to defray the 
expenses of the war were passed unanimously. But questions 
arose that set the members at variance. The harsh acts com- 
mitted during the " reign of terror" were not forgotten. Old Sir 
James Craig was in his giave, but those who had advised him 
were within reach of the members of the Assembly. They sought 



to make Chief-Justice Sewell of Quebec responsible for the 
abnipt dissolutions, the arbitrary imprisonment of the mem- 
bers, and for the seizure of the Canadien newspaper. He was 
charged with having been privy to the secret mission of the 
notorious Captain Henry, and with having instituted rales of 
practice in his court without the authority of the Legislature. 
Along with him was also impeached Judge Monk of Montreal, 
who was accused of sundry malversations. The Assembly grew 
angry with Sir George Prevost when he refused to suspend 
them from office until the cliaiges preferred against them were 
proved. Possessing the strong sympathy of the members of the 
Councils, the Judges were safe from the resentment of the 
Assembly. Chief-Justice Sewell went to England. He found 
favour at Court, and was well received at the Colonial Office, of 
which Earl Bathurst was then head. None of his accusers 
appeared to confront him. While in London, he submitted a 
scheme for the Confederation of the British North Ameri- 
can Colonies. Tlie project found much favour with the Duke 
of Kent, who took a great interest in colonial affairs ; but the 
proposal was premature. Half a century of political strife had 
to pass over the colonies before they were ripe for the scheme. 

4. The campaigns of the two preceding years had laid waste 
large portions of Canadian territory, and inflicted deep injury 
on the people. Many lives had been lost, and the bitterest feelings 
had been engendered, but no decisive ad vantage had been gained 
by either aide. The Americans had signally failed to conquer 
Canada. They, certainly, held possession of the western part of 
the western peninsula of Upper Canada ; they had not a few 
sympathisers among the people of the district ; and their raw 
militia were becoming inured to warfare : so much they had in 
their favour. Taxation, however, was being greatly and rapidly 
increased, and the dissatisfaction of the people of the Eastern 
States with the unjust and unnecessary war was gi'owing more 
intense. They feared that it would press more hardly upon 
them than it had yet done. The Canadians, on the other hand, 
were elated at having twice beaten back invasion. In two 
harassing campaigns they had proved their devotion to their 
mother country. The battles that had been fought on their 
soil and on their waters had grown out of a quarrel which they 



had doue nothing to excite, and which they had freely expench'd 
tlieir blood and their treasure in maintaining. 

5. For the firat six months of the year no event of great 
/ moment took j^bice. On the 11th of February the Americana 

liurriedly broke up their encampment at French Mills on 
Salmon liiver: one body cf them, under General Brown, re- 
treated to Sackett's Harbour ; another, under General Wilkin* 
son, retired to Plattsburg and Burlington, closely followed by 
Canadian skirmishers. Towards the end of March, Wilkinson 
made a feint as if he intended to renew his attack on Mon- 
jL treal. On the 30th his division again crossed the Lower 
^' Canadian frontier, and advanced from Odell-town to Burton- 
ville and La Colle Mill. The latter strong position was held 
by Major Ilandcock with five hundred men and two guns. 
The attack was commenced early in the morning. Wilkinson 
made a show of assaulting it with a force of three thousand, 
and a battery of three field-pieces. But no determination was 
shown by the General ; no resolute rush v,^as made by his sol- 
diers to carry the position. Discomfited, t -.ey retreated in the 
evening across the border, having suffered severe ioss. Tliia 
affair destroyed Wilkinson's military reputation. He was super- 
seded by General Izzard. 

6. Early in May a combined military and naval attack, under 
O General Drummond, was made on Oswego. There the Ameri- 
cans built and equipped war-vessels to do duty on Lake Ou- 
tario. They had just completed a great sixiy-four- gun-ship. 
The position was strong : it was defended by a well-garrisoned 
fort on the brow of a hill. But within half an hour from the land- 
ing of the British the fort was taken, its defenders were slain, 
wounded, captured, routed ; the barracks, the store-houses, and 
the great ship were in flames. In war, disaster quickly follows 
on success. On the morning of the last day of May, Captain 

yfj^ Popham, with a thousand siiilors and marines, ascended Sandy 
Creek, with the view of intercepting a party of the enemy, which 
was carrying; a quantity of naval stores from Oswego to 
Sackett's Harbour. They fell into an ambush, and were cut vi 

7. From the beginning of summer greater spirit was thrown 
into the contest. Hopes were raised in Canada tha^ Great 



Britain would do in America something worthy of lier power. 
Tlie turn of events in Euro})e had relieved her from the great 
fit rain on her military resources. Naj)oleon, the disturber of 
tlie worhl's peace, wjis for the time chained in the little isle 
of Elba. In June several British rOj^dments arrived in Quebec ; 
;iii(I with them commands came to Sir Ge(»ige Prevost to take 
the offen< ve, and prosecute the war vigorously The strength 
of the naval squadrons in American waters was in- 
creased. The Imperial Government proclaimed that the ports ( 
from New York to the New Brunswick frontier, as well as 
those to the south, were closed against neutral vessels. The 
President declared that the blockade of two thousand miles of 
coast, from Maine to Georgia, was ineffectual, and called on 
foreign nations to disregard it. 

8. General Drummond, in Upper Canada, had urgent need 
of reinforcements. The enemy was making preparations for 
invasion. Among a portion of the people dissatisfaction had 
shown itself, and had been sternly crushed. Eight persons 
had been executed in Burlington, in the Niagara district, for 
high treason. The evil spirit might spread more generally 
throughout the Province should the invaders gain a decided 

9. On the 3rd of July, six thousand men, under General 
Brown crossed the Niagara from Black Rock. Fort Erie with 
its small garrison was captured. As they advanced towards 
Fort Chippewa, they were met by Major-General Riall and a 
body of fiteen hundred British regulars, and three hundred 
militia and Indians. The Americans took position of battle. 
Their right, strongly supported by artilleiy, rested among the 
orchards and buildings close on the Niagara Hiver, their left on 
the woods. General Riall commenced the battle at four o'clock 
in the afternoon of the 5th. He threw forward his skirmishers, 
who drove in the riflemen and Indians in front of the en imy's 
left. He threatened the right and left of the enemy's position, 
and pushed on an attack on his centre. The troops, met by a 
hot and galling fire, were checked. This repulse was followed 
by a general but orderly retreat on the British line. Riall made 
a final stand at the Fort at Niagara. General Brown took up 
a position at Chippewa. They both rested about a fortnight. 





i'l!) I 





'■•> •'■ .s 

10. In the meautime reinforcements of British troops had 
arrived at Niagara : still Eiall's force was much outnumbered. 
So confident in the quality of his troops as to contemn the odds 
against him, he pushed his division towards the Falls to engage 
the enemy. On the 24th of July, General Drummt)nd arrived 
at Niagara from York. With eight hundred soldiers, gathered 
from the garrisons of the forts, he advanced to Riall's support. 
"When he reached the road to Beaver Dams, over the summit of 
the hill at Lundy's Lane, he found Eiall's division in retreat 
on Fort George, and the Americans in force posted well 
on the hill and in the woods. He at once countermanded 
the retreat, and formed his order of battle. His guns were 
placed in the centre. The engagement commenced at six in the 
evening. The Americans made des}jerate efforts to capture 
the guns and gain possession of the road. In the close and 
confused combat, the opposing cannons were brought muzzle to 
muzzle. For a brief time the Americans held the road. At 
nine there occurred a pause in the strife. The night had set 
in darkly with clouds ; but through the rifts the moon shed a 
fitful gleam on the wild scene. Distinctly was heard the roar 
of the falling Niagara. While General Brown brought up ail 
his available forces, Colonel Scott- of the 103rd joined General 
Drummond with , twelve hundred soldiers o different corps, 
Still the Americans were almost two tc one. With fresh force 
they r*^newed their efforts to gain po'isessjon of the hill. At 
midnight they desisted, and fled hjistDy to their camp at Chip- 
pewa. They had lost in all fifteen hundred men. Next day, 
after throwing their heavy baggage into the Eapids, and de- 
stroying the bridge over the Chippev/a, they retreated to I'ort 
Erie. The Battle of Lundy's Lane was the most fiercely con- 
tested of any in the whole war. 

11. In Nova Scotia and New Brunswick the excitement and 
anxiety of the war were felt, but their people escaped its 
actual horrors. American privateera cruised along their coasts, 
and kept the merchants in fear for their vessels. In Halifax the 
effect of the wax was seen most plainly. Its citizens lived amidst 
scenep of bustle, misery, and feverish gaiety. Ruin and riches 
came at a blow. Now they mourned the loss of a merchant 
or fishiag fiet-t cape ,ired by the foe ; now they rejoiced to see 



A.merican ships brought into their harbour as prizes, and sold 
at a great profit. While some rejoiced, many mourned. Trade 
was brisk, money plentiful ; many new inhabitants came to the 
town ; new houses were built. Farmers found a ready and prof- 
itable market for their produce. The citizens saw much of 
" the pomp and circumstance" of war. British men-of-war were 
continually entering and leaving the harbour, and the guns of 
the citadel bellowed forth their salute. Often the town was 
illuminated in honour of some "glorious victory;" the strains 
of military music sounded in the streets, and the hearts of the 
youth swelled to hear of acts of British daring by sea and by 

12. But events had happent^d that gave a check to pride. The 
people of British America had heard with wonder and alanu of 
the successive defeats of British frigates by American war-ships. 
The accumulated disasters had aroused in the liearts of British 
uaval officers a burning desire to wipe out the disgrace. 

13. One Sunday morning in June (1813) the people of 
Halifax saw two frigates sail into the harbour, sails and rig- 
ging in the most beautiful order. From the top-mast of one 
floated the British ensign above the " stars and Stripes. ' ^ >^ 
Ai '. to outward view seemed fair ; but in their cabins one cap- / (J 
tain lay wrapped in his death-shroud, the other raved in the 
agony of a desperate wound. People visiting the frigates saw 

a fearful si^ht — decks clotted yith gore. Five days before— on 
the 1st of June — a pleasure party had sailed out of Boston har- 
bour in the wake of the U.S. frigate " Chesapeake," to witness 
a sea-fight and another triumph ; for bold Broke of the British 
"Shannon" had challenged the gallant Lawrence to single 
combat. In fifteen minutes from the time when the frigates 
were locked in combat, two hundred and thirty men lay dead 
or fearfully wounded and mangled on their decks; and the 
Chesapeake was a prize. A week after Lawrence had sailed so 
confidently fortli to fight, British soldiers lined the streets of 
Halifax, as all that was moi'tal of the hero was borne to its 
resting-place with funereal pomp, followed by many who had 
been his deadly foes. 

14. From Halifax, in July 1814, an expedition sailed to Pas- 
samaquoddy Bay. Moose Island ^aaJl the town of Eastport 










■ >!i 

were captured, and the inhabitants were obliged to swear alle- 
giance to King George. In August a British fleet under Admiral 
Cochrane, having on board a land force in command of Major- 
General Eoss, appeared in Chesapeake Bay. The city of Wash- 
/ ington was taken, and the Capitol and other public buildings 
were given to the flames ; Alexandria was compelled to capitu- 
/^late; the citizens of Baltimore were thrown into mortal terror. 
Another expedition, in command of Admiral Griflith and the 
/ Q Governor, Sir John Sherbrooke, sailed from Halifax in Sep- 
tember for the coast of Maine. It ascended the Penobscot 
River ; the town of Castine was taken ; Bangor was surrendered 
into their hands. The territory between the Penobscot and the 
St. Croix (anciently part of Acadie) was proclaimed to he under 
British rule. 

15. Sir George Prevost had received commands in June to 
invade the State of New York. Ever slow and cautious, he 
did not move his army from its encampment between the 
Richelieu River and the St. Lawrence and cross the American 
frontier until September. He had under his command thirteen 
thousand of the choicest troops, splendidly equipped : many of 
whom were veterans who had fought under Wellington. As he 
advanced, the enemy abandoned the villages of Champlain and 
Chazy and retired to a strong position in front of Plattsburg, on 
the elevated ridge of land on the southern bank of the Saranac, 
which was held by General M'Comb. A flotilla of armed brigs 
and schooners and gun -boats, under Commodore M'Donough, 
was anchored in the Bay of Plattsburg, and gave it further pro- 
tection. Sir George Prevost sent urgent orders to Captain 
Downie, who commanded the naval squadron in Lake Cham- 
plain, to attack it, while his soldiers stormed the intrenchments 
on the Saranac. The gallant Downie did his duty, but his ship 
was disabled, and he himself was mortally wounded at the outset 
of the engagement. His fate decided that of his squadron : all 
the larger vessels struck their colours, the gun-boats made their 
escape. On this disaster. Sir George caused all land operations 
to cease, and retreated in haste, leaving many sick and wounded 
and much valuable war material in the hands of the enemy. He 
lost two hundred and sixty in killed and wounded, and several 
hundreds by desertion. The army was enraged at the disgraco 



cast on it. Sackett's Harbour was remembered. Grave charges 
of incompetency were preferred against him. He was recalled 
to England to answer them ; but he fell sick, and died before he 
was brought to trial. 

16. General Drummond followed up his victory at Lundy's 
Lane by investing Fort Erie — place of dismal remembrance ! 
His batteries opened fire upon it on the 13th of August, and 
seriously damaged its works. Two hours before day-break of 
the 15th an assault was made. Unexpected obstructions pre- 
Bented themselves, disasters uncontrollable occurred. In the 
darkness confusion arose, and panic set in. The heads of the 
P++onkii]g columns, led by Colonel Scott of the 103rd and Colonel 

mmond of the 104th, made their way into the fort. A 
powder-magazine exploded, killing and fearfully mangling the 
leaders and many a brave fellow. Nine hundred and two men 
were reported killed, wounded, and missing on the British side. 
The investment was kept up. On the afternoon of the 19th of 
September, while the rain fell m torrents, the Americans made 
a sudden sortie, and drove the right of the British from their 
iutrenchments ; but after two hours' desperate fighting they 
were compelled to retire and seek the safety of their fort. In 
maintaining their position the British lost six hundred men. It 
was a success r arce distinguishable from a defeat. Fort Erie 
was demolished and finally evacuated by the Americans on the 
5th of November. 

17. The war was now drawing to a close. British and 
American Commissioners met at Ghent in August. On the 24th 
of December the final Treaty of Peace was ratified. But for 
months the people of Canada and of the United States remained 
in ignorance of the happy turn that events had taken. 

On the 8th of January the bloody battle of New Orleans 181 5 
was fought, when the British General Pakenham and A.D. 
two thousand soldiers fell before the breast-works de- 
fended by General Andrew Jackson and his raw militia. 

18. Peace was hailed with wild delight in New York and 
Boston. It was proclaimed in Quebec on the 9th of March. 
The treibty provided for the establishment of a firm and com- 
prehensive peace, the restoration of all places and prisoners 
taken during the war, and the appointment of Commissioners 





!(. -rf, ii:;iliil'. lI , 

to ascertain by actual survey the boundaries between the pos- 
sessions of Great Britain and the United States, from the source 
of the Eiver St. Croix to the Lake of the Woods. No mention 
was made of the " right of search," or of questions affecting the 
rights of neutrals — the real causes of the war ; they were al- 
lowed to rest, to occasion difficulty another day. Nothing had 
been gained by either party during the contest. To both it 
had been alike bloody and barren. They both had seen defeat 
follow victory, and victory follow defeat, in a most unexpected 
and surprising manner. During its progress the war had 
pressed with increasing severity on the American people, dis- 
turbing their social happiness and political quiet, and destroy- 
ing their trade and commerce. The Government of Great 
Britain was, in 1815, in a position to throw undivided force 
into the contest ; but the extraordinary reverses that had over- 
taken their choicest veteran troops — as at Plattsburg and New 
Orleans — were not calculated to create confidence as to the cer- 
tainty of ultimate victory should the struggle be prolonged. 
The Canadians had most reason to be satisfied with the 
result. The most brilliant successes of the war — as at Cliaii- 
teauguay and Chrysler's Farm — were mainly due to their 
prowess ; and throughout it they had been the main-stay of their 
country's defence. At the end of three years the Americans 
were as far from conquering Canada as ever ; and they had 
found out the impossibility of subduing by force a people who 
were determined to maintain their allegiance and their nation- 

1. What attempt at 
made in 1814? Why 

Questions. - 
mediation was 
did it fail? 

2. What had the Canadians learned 
from the war? What spirit prevailed 
among them? 

3. For what were the Lower Canada 
Judges impeached? How did the affair 
end? What proposal did Chief-Justice 
Sewell make when in London? 

4. What encouragement could the 
Americans gather from the two pre- 
ceding campaigns ? What was there to 
discourage them ? On what could the 
Canadians congratulate themselves? 

6. What movement did the Ameri- 

cans make in February? When did 
Wilkinson again cross the frontier? 
Where was he defeated? 

6. What success had the British at 
Oswego in May? By what disaster was 
it followed? 

7. What hopes were now raised in 
Canada? What orders came to Pre- 
vost in June ? 

8. Where were reinforcements ur- 
gently needed ? What severe measur' • 
had been made necessary there ? Why ? 

9. By whom was Fort Erie captured 
in July? Who opposed his advance 
northward? What was the result of 
the skirmish ? 



10. What reinforcements did the 
British receive? Where did Drum- 
mond meet Riall's division ? Describe 
the Battle of Lundy's Lane. 

11. Where was the effect of the war 
most plainly seen? What effect had it 
on trade ? 

12. In what respect had the fame of 
Britain been seriously tarnished? What 
were naval men burning to do ? 

13. Describe the ocean duel between 
the Chesapeake and the Shannon. 

14. In what three expeditions were 
the British successful in 1814? 

15. What commands did Prevost re- 
ceive in June? Where did the Ameri- 
cans take up their position? Wliat 
duty was Downie ordered to perfori;i? 

What decided the fate of his squadron ? 
What did Prevost then do? What 
charges were brought against him? 
What was his 'ate ? 

16. What was the result of the assault 
on Fort Erie ? What success had the 
sortie of the Americans? When was 
the fort evacuated ? 

17. When was the treaty of peace 
ratified? What bloody battle was 
fought thereafter? 

18. What feelings did the news of 
peace excite in America? What were 
its chief provisions? What subjects 
were omitted? What had been the 
character of the war? Who had moat 
reason to be satisfied with its result? 



,; ;i I Hi 


i ■ 



1815 to 1827 A.D. 

State of Canada after the War. 
The Feeling of the French Can- 
The Revenues. 
Disputes in the Legislature. 
Death of the Duke oi Richmond. 

The Earl of Dalhousio. 
Upper Canada. 

Clergy Reserves. 

Customs Dispute between the two 

1. The years from 1815 to 1827 inclusive may be viewed as a 
distinctive period in the history of Canada. The system of 
oligarchical government, which obtained in all the Provinces, 
remained undisturbed. No startling events took place. Dis- 
content showed itself, but did not reach the dangerous state of 
violent agitation. All the political changes, however, that 
afterwards overtook the Provinces were then foreshadowed. 
The Provinces affected by the war did not return to their 
normal condition for some time. The lavish expenditure of 
the Imperial Government ceased ; though money was no longer 
plentiful, and though there was no call for military service, 
habits of extravagance and disinclination to sober industry 
remained. 'In Nova Scotia (in Halifax especially) the difference 
between a time of peace and a time of war was soon keenly 
felt. The upward flow of its prosperity, swelled by naval and 
military outlays, was checked; and its state, it may be said, 
came to resemble one of its rivers, which looks broad and 
beautiful when the full tide from the bay is in, but which, as 
the tide recedes, becomes contrfi.ied into a narrow stream. 

2. Sir George Prevost having been recalled only to die. Sir 

Gordon Drnmmond, the victor of Lundy's Lane, ad- 

1815 ministered the government of Lower Canada. The im- 

A.D. peachment of the Judges Sewell and Monk failed ; and 

the Imperial Government, in defending them, censured 
the Assembly for seeking to shake the confidence of the people 
in the purity of the administration of juatice. For a time there 



was peace in the Legislature. The harsh acts committed during 
the administration of Sir James Craig were not, however, for- 
gotten. After the war the French Canadians were warm in their 
loyalty to the British Crown ; but the position in which they 
were placed with regard to the British minority did not cease 
to excite their dissatisfaction. They saw favoured members of 
that minority placed over them in invidious superiority, engross- 
ing all the chief offices of honour and emolument, and assum- 
ing the airs of a higher and privileged class. The refined and 
sensitive among them were cut to the quick and stung into 
auger. Feelings of disaffection arose gradually. When the 
Upper and Lower branches came into contact, the British 
minority in the Assembly for the most part sided with the 
Fi'ench Canadians ; for it was equally concerned to gain control 
of the government. "When, in time, the animosities of race 
became angrily excited, that minority found it impossible to 
act with the majority without seeming to forswear its country 
and its allegiance. 

3. Sir John Cope Sherbrooke was called from the govern- 
ment of Nova Scotia to be Governor -General. He 

found the financial affairs of Lower Canada in a dis- 1816 
ordered state — the revenues were insufficient to pay the a.d. 
expenses of the Civil List. The Assembly in 1809 had 
proposed to assume them; they then amounted to ^40,000. 
The offer had then been rejected ; now, Sir John Sherbrooke 
received instructions from the Imperial Government to accept 
it. The expenses had in the meantime amounted to £60,000. 
This sum the Assembly, which was in a pretty good humour, 
consented to give ; but it would make no permanent appropria- 
tion. It would only pass an annual Bill, and it reserved to itself 
the right of examining into all the details of the expenditure 
of the Civil List. 

4. In order to understand the nature of the dispute that 
arose among the different branches of the Legislature, it is 
necessary to state the sources from which the revenues of the 
Province were derived. It has already been said, that when 
the Province of Quebec was constituted a Government, in 1774, 
an Act was passed to raise a revenue. The right of the Imperial 
Government to raise taxes in the colonies was quietly allowed 




>li!lil ! 


in Canada and Nova Scotia. When the Declaratory Act of 1778 
was passed, abandoning that right as it affected the English 
colonies then in revolt, it still remained in force in the provinces 
named. The right of the Imperial Government was not ques- 
tioned until after the passing of the Constitutional Act of 1791, 
when separate Governments were formed in the two Provinces 
of Upper and Lower Cauada, and when representative institu- 
tions were established. The Assembly then claimed the power 
to raise and appropriate the money necessary to carry on the 
Civil Government to be its inherent right and privilege, and 
started objections to the collection of a revenue by the Crown 
by authority of the Act of 1774. In lieu of that revenue, the 
Assembly had proposed (in 1779) to appropriate permanently a 
certain sum, provided that \,he Imperial Government would 
repeal the Act of 1774 ; and it pa,ssed a Bill to give effect to the 
proposal. But the condition was not complied with — the Im- 
perial Government still maintained its right. 

6. Besides the amount raised by the Act of 1774, a revenue 
— ^the Casual and Territorial — was derived from the sale of 
lands and the lease of mines ; and another revenue was raised 
from duties imposed by the Assembly on articles importel into 
the Province. The Crown, represented by the Governor- 
General, maintained that the Assembly had power of appro- 
priation only over the last named source of revenue, while that 
branch claimed that it had the right to appropriate the moneys 
raised from all the three sources. The Assembly had, in a 
manner, placed itself in the power of the Governor-General ; 
for in passing the Act to raise a revenue from customs-duties, 
it had made that revenue permanent. It might pass annual 
Bills of appropriation, detailing the manner in which that reve- 
nue should be expended. These Bills might be rejected by 
the Upper branches, but the supplies were not thereby stopped ; 
for the money still came into the Treasury, and tlie Governor- 
General might expend it without the consent of the Assembly. 

6. Difficulties somewhat similar, with regard to the control 
of the expenditure of the revenues, were occurring at this time 
in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. In these Provinces the 
Assemblies had taken the precaution to make the Eevenue as 
well as the Appropriation Bill annual, so that on any disagree- 



inent with the Upper branches, it waa iu their power " to stop 
the supplies ;" — that is, to refuse to vote the money necessary to 
sustain the Civil Government. 

7. In the time of Sir John Sherbrooke the temper of the 
several branches of the Legislature wjis not so excited as to 
c«ause them to maintain angrily the rights that each claimed. 
He was succeeded by the Duke of Eichmond. In the 
meantime the expenses of the Civil Government had 1819 
increased. The ^60,000 was now inadequate to make a.d. 
good the deficiency. A demand was made on the As- 
sembly for ^16,000 iu addition. It grew uneasy, remonstrated, 
and insisted on examining into all the details of the expendi- 
ture, and on cutting down some of the items. The Legislative 
Council refused to pass its am ^nded Appropriation Bill, and the 
two branches came into direct collision. 

8. The administration of the Duke of llichmond was of brief 
duration, and ended tragically for himself. While on a tour on 
the Ottawa Eiver he was bitten by a fox, and died in great 
agony. His son-in-law, Major-General Sir Peiegrine Maitland, 
Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada, was appointed ad- 
ministrator. A general election took place in Lower Canada. 
Sir Peregrine called the Assembly together before all the re- 
turns of the newly-elected members >Vere sent in. His act was 
pronounced to be a dangerous stretch of the prerogative ; for, 
as the Assembly argued, if a Governor could convene a House 
before the roll of its members was completed, he might deprive 
the greater part of the Province of representation by calling a 
House together before that roll was half made up. No estimate 
of the expenses of the Civil Government was submitted by the 
Governor, and, altogether, it was an irregular session. Sir 
Peregrine and the same irate Assembly had not an opportu- 
nity of meeting again. The revered and sorely afflicted 

King, George III., died, and the Prince Pegent as- 1820 
cended the throne as George IV. According to cus- a.d. 
torn, on the death of the Monarch all the provincial 
Assemblies were dissolved. The new House of Lower Canada 
met a new Governor-General, the Earl of Dalhousie.^ He 

' The Earl of Dalhousie. — Father of 
the Marquifl of Dalhousie, the most 

distinguished of the Governor-Generals 
of India. 





had administered the governnieut of Nova Scotia for several 
years. He had the reputation of being a proud man, refined 
and courteous in ,his manner, and a rigid upliolder of the pre- 
rogative of the Crown. 

9. At the commencement of the EarPs rule, though there had 
been sharp political contention, there was no disaffection in the 
Province. The idea of establishing " la nation Canadlenne " 
in Lower Canada had not yet taken possession of the minds of 
the majority. The man of most influence over it, Louis Papi- 
neau, Speaker of the Assem1>Iy this year, contrasted, with all 
the force of his eloquence, the happy state of the French 
Canadians with the miserable condition of their forefathers 
under French rule. " On the day on which Canada," he said, 
" came under the dominion of Great Britain, the reign of law 
succeeded that of violence. From that day its treasures were 
freely spent, its navy and its army were mustered to afford 
her an invincible protection. From that day the better part 
of British laws became hers, while her religion, her property, 
and the laws by which they are preserved, remained un- 
altered." A change in a few years came over Papineau's mind. 

10. The Earl of Dalhousie soon showed in what spirit he was 
prepared to meet the Assembly. He demanded that it should 
make the Appropriation Bill permanent, or at least enact it for 
the King's life. On the repeated refusal of the Assembly to 
accede to his demand, he, by the vice of his Council, drew 
upon the money raised by the permanent Revenue Act, which 
was in the hands of the Receiver-General. The Assembly de- 
nounced his act as unconstitutional. There were other causes 
of trouble, arising chiefly from the differences between the 
characters, laws, and customs of the French and British popu- 
lations. The feudal tenure had always been held by the 
British to be degrading and oppressive. A proposal w^as now 
made by the Government to allow holders of land under feu- 
dal' obligations to change the tenure to that of free and com- 
mon soccage. As the laws by which property descended in 
families depended on the permanence of the feudal tenure, the 
French Canadians became alarmed : they imagined that the 
proposed change was to be forced upon them, and that it was 
but the commencement of an agitation for the abolition of all 



their laws and customs. Many members, indeed, of the British 
minority held that ruless Lower Canada was made, in fact, a 
Biitish Province, by banishing the French language from the 
Legislature, and the French laws from the country, it would 
not long remain a dependency of the Crown. This extreme 
section of the British minority, which was well represented in 
tlie Councils, advised the Crown to unite Lower with Upper 
Canada under such conditions as, if they had been fully carried 
ou*^^, might have brought about the result desired. 

IL The government of Upper Canada from 1815 to 1820 
was administered by a rapid succession of Governors : — by 
Lieutenant-General Sir George Murray, from April till July 
1815 ; by Major-General Sir Frederick Eobinson till September 
1815 ; by the Honourable Francis Gore till June 1817 ; by the 
Honourable Samuel Smith till August 1818 ; by Sir Peregrine 
Maitland till he was transferred to Lower Canada in 1819, 
when the Honourable S. Smith again administered the govern- 
ment until Sir Peregrine's return in 1820. In none of the Prov- 
inces was power so firmly centralized in the hands of one class 
as in Upper Canada. Its state in its earliest days almost 
necessarily brought this position about, and the Constitutional 
Act helped to fix it. Its population was scattered, and pos- 
sessed little education; the number of persons possessing means 
and knowledge qualifying them to fill the highest positions was 
limited. Men naturally defend the privileges which they enjoy, 
and to which long usage seems to give them a prescriptive right. 
As the population increased by immigration, the cordon of ex- 
clusiveness was drawn around the party in power — "the 
Family Compact." Its members held all the seats in the 
Executive and Legislative Councils for life, and all the offices 
that had control of the finances and of the lands ; and they 
secretly influenced the Governor. The commerce and the lands 
of the country were mainly in their hands. Through the 
amount of patronage at their disposal, they were enabled to fill 
the Assembly with their adherents ; and all legislation tended 
to maintain the monopoly of power in their hands. They held 
that to give the press liberty to critici'^'e the acts of the Govern- 
ment, or to allow the people to petition against alleged griev- 
ances^ or to agitate them at public meetings, was to encourage a 




I m 

republican wpirit ; aud that to give education to the children of 
the poor was to lift them out of their sphere, to make them too 
independent in thought and action. Such opinions, though they 
might only be lield rigidly by Home, Iiad their influence on all 
the party. As a result of them, a writer for the press who 
dared to h\it at abuses or to suggest reforms had a very hard 
time of it. He was ruined by actions of libel brought against 
him : his types were destroyed, and he was thrown into jail. 
A man who .attended a public meeting ran the risk of having 
disaffection nx^puted to hi:i, And of being deprived of any posi- 
tion he 'night hold under Government. 

12. A question that caused angry feeling was at th;s time 
agitated in Upper Canada. It wai? discovered that many re- 
spectable persons — some of them members of the Legislature — 
who had for a long period enjoyed the privileges of British sub- 
jects, were not entitled to them. They had come from the 
United States and settled in the Province after the Declara- 
tion of the Independence of the English Colonies in 178.3. The 
law declared that they were citizens of the United States, and 
therefore aliens in Canada. Some of the persons pronounced 
to be aliens had served the King during the war of 1812, and 
held offices and lands under patents from the Crown. They 
were exceedingly indignant when called upon to take the oath 
of allegiance again, and to submit to the formality of a seven 
years' residence in the Province before they were declared en- 
titled to enjoy privileges to which they had never dreamed that 
they had not a right. Persons emigrating from Great Britain 
or Ireland, and passing through the United States to Canada, 
were treated as aliens. This strained interpretation of the law 
was made in order to cover the case of a Scotchman, Eobert 
Gourlay, a journalist, who had made himself obnoxious to the 
governing powers, and who was driven from the Province. 
This alien question caused much excitement, until it was settled 
according to the dictates of good sense and good feeling. 

13. The enduring trouble in Upper Canada, the grievance 
that excited the deepest discontent and aroused the angriest 
feelings, arose from the position assumed by the Church of 
England. It was recognized by law ; other sects were tolerated. 
Jts members, among whom were ah the chief officials, assume(| 



tluit it was the dominant, the Stiite Church. In the hands of 
tlie Colonial Secretary was tho bestowal of the patronage of the 
rectories of Quebec, Montreal, and Three Elvers. When the 
Ecclesijistical Hoard was formed (1822), of which the Arch- 
bishops of Canterbury and York and the Bishop of Loudon 
were members, the ai^iiointments were made at its suggesti^ii. 
The clergymen and niissi(/naries of the Church were ai)pointed 
by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel iu Foreign 
Countries,^ whoi' function was the supply and maintenance of 
a body ' f clergyiden for the North American colonies. The 
members of the Cliurch in the colony contributed veiy little 
towards the supi)ort of their clergy. Compared with other 
sects they were less numerous than the Presbyterians or the 

14. The clergy of the Church of England claimed the sole 
enjoyment of the Clergy Reserves, the seventh of the granted 
lauds set a])art by the (Joustitutioi il Act for " the support of a 
Protestant Clergy ; " and by a clause in that Act provision was 
made for the erection of rectories in every parish of the Prov- 
ince. They maintained that under the general term, " Prot- 
estant Clergy," no other sect was included. The members of 
the Church of Scotland were indignant at this assumption, and 
insisted on their right to a share of the Reserves. During the 
debate on the Constitutional Act iu the Imperial Parliament, 
Charles James Fox said that it w^ould be unjust to impose the 
Church of England on Canada, aud that if any Church had a 
claim to be established it was that of Scotland. The Methodists 
and Baptists were displeased at the attempt made to create 
invidious distinctions between the various religious bodies, 
and to place them in a position of inferiority. Along with 
the Roman Catholics they proposed that the Clergy Reserves 
should be sold, and that their jDroceeds should be applied to the 
interests of religion and education, to the building of churches 
and school-houses, and to purposes of internal improvement in 
the Province. 

15. The clergy of the Churcli of England took a practical 

' The Society for the Propagation of I corporated by Royal Charter in 1701, in 
the Gospel in Foreign Countries — In- 1 the reign of William III. 

Il i 








step to assert their sole right to the Reserves. A Clergy Cor- 
poration (of which the Bishop of Quebec and othera, 
1820 chiefly clergymen, were members) was forme<^, under a 
A.D. Royal Charter. It managed the sale of lands, and col- 
lected the rents. At first the profits hardly covered 
the expenses. 

16. Besides the troubles peculiar to each of the Provinces, 
there was a standing cause of quarrel between them. It 
has already heen stated that the commerce of the western 
Province, by way of i'^e St. Lawrence, was controlled by tl^j 
eastern, as there were no ports of entry above Montreal. The 
duibies for purposes of revenue were imposed by the Legislature 
of Lower Canada, and distributed in the proportion, first of 
one-eighthj afterwards of one-fifth, to Upper Canada. The 
people of the British Province were making great advances in 
population and wealth, and they complained that they did not 
receive justice. They grew impatient of the state of thraldom 
in which they vere placed, and sought for a way to escape 
from it. 

Questions. — 1. "What is the pecul- 
iar character in Canadian history of 
the twelve years following the war? 
How was Nova Scotia affected by the 
return of peace? 

2. Who succeeded Prevost as Gover- 
nor of Lower Canada? How did the 
impeachment of the Judges end ? Whet 
were the feelings of the French Cana- 
dians after the war? What gradually 
excited disaffection among them? 

3. Who became Governor-General in 
1816? W):at difficult question had he 
to deal with? What position did the 
Assembly assume w ith reference to it ? 

4. When was the right of the Impe- 
r'al Government to tax the colonies 
questioned in Canada i What proposal 
had the Assembly made in 1779? Why 
had it failed? 

6. What were the different sources 
of revenue In Canada? What different 
views regarding the power of the As- 
sembly were held by the Assembly and 
by the Crown? How had the Assembly 
placed itself in the power of the Gover- 

6. In what other Provinces had si ni- 

lar questions arisen? What precaution 
had the Assemblies in these Provinces 
taken ? 

7. Who succeeded Sir John Sher- 
brooke as Governor-General? What 
brought the Council and the Assem^-iy 
into direct collision? 

8. How did the Duke of Richmond 
die? Who succeeded him? How did 
Sir Perftgi ne irritate the Assembly? 
What terminated his rule? Who suc- 
ceeded him? 

9. Who was the man of most influ- 
ence in the majority of the Assembly? 
What view of the situation of affairs 
did he take ? 

10. What demand did the Earl cf 
Dalhousie maks from the Assembly? 
What did he do when th? Assembly 
refused? What followed? What pro- 
posal alarmei the French Canadians? 
What was the opinion of the extreme 
section of the British minority ? 

11. How many changes in the gover- 
norship of Upper Canada took place 
between 1815 and 1820? Who pos- 
sessed the chief power in that Prov- 
tace^ How did this arise? Describe 



the monopoly of power possessed by 
the Family Compact. By what opinions 
was it influenced? How did those 
who claimed freedom suffer? 

12. What was the alien question? 
How was the law strained in the case 
of Robert Gourlay? How was the 
question at last settled ? 

13. What was the most troublesome 
grievance in Upper Canada? What 

was the position of that Church? By 
wliom were its clergymen appointed? 

14. What did the clergy of the Church 
of England claim ? By whom was the 
claim resisted? In what proposal did 
tlte Roman Catholics join? 

16. What practical step did the 
Church of England party take ? 

16. What standing cause of quarrel 
was there between the Provinces ? 

t^X.i* i.Wy-l ■■ I 








1822 to 1827 A.D. 

The Union Scheme. 

Canada Trade Act. 

Failure of Sir John Caldwell. 

The Canada Tenures Act. 

The Earl of Dalhousie's unpopular acts. 

The Crown lands. 

Statue of Nova Scotia 

Cape Breton, 

Legislative troubles in New Brunswick. 

Death of Governor G. Tracey Smythe. 

Sir Howard Douglas. 

The Great Fire at Miramichi. 

The Disputed Territory. 

The Duties on Baltic timber. 

1. A Scheme of Union was proposed by the Imperial 

Government as a remedy for the evils that afHicted the 
1822 Canadas, separately and in their relations with each 
A.D. other. It met with some favour from the British mer- 
chant class in Upper Canada, and from the British 
population of the townships of Lower Canada. The latter, now 
about 40,000 in number, were placed in a peculiarly disadvan- 
tageous position. A wilderness intervened between them and 
the anciently settled part of the Province. They had no repre- 
sentation in the Assembly or in the Courts of Justice. They were 
compelled, when they wished to seek legal redress, to make au 
PTduous and expensive journey to Montreal, Three Bivers, or 
Quebec, where legal proceedings were conducted according to 
French law and in the French language. Though they held 
their lands under freehold tenure, they were uncertain whether 
their properties were subject to British or to French lav/. 

2. The Union Scheme was almost unanimously denounced by 
the French Canadians ; they looked upon it as an insulting 
measure, and as designed to obliterate their nationality. Two 
most objectionable features in the scheme were, a provision that 
the English language should alone be used in the written pro- 
ceedings, and, at the end of fifteen years, in the debates ei 
the Assembly ; and the proposal to givo the Government the 
privilege of placing two members of the Executive Council 
of each Province in the Lower House, for the purpose of 
carrying through its measures, but without allowing them to 




vote. The Union Scheme was withdrawn, and the Canada 
Trade Act was passed by the Imperial Parliament. It imposed 
certain duties for the purpose of regulating commerce and of 
raising a revenue ; and Commissioners were appointed to distri- 
bute them between the two Provinces. 

3. The disputes in the Legislature of Lower Canada over 
the appropriations were now increasing in warmth. The 
Assembly refused to sanction certain charges for pensions in 
tbfi estimates laid before it. The Legislative Council threw its 
Bill, in which those items were omitted, " under the table," and 
refused to give it any consideration. The Governor-General 
continued to pay salaries and charges on the Civil List on his 
own responsibility. The growing discontent was aggra- 
vated by the failure of Sir John Caldwell, Keceiver- 1824 
General, in whose hands were placed the revenues for a.d. 
r>afe keeping. He could give no account of ^96,000 of 

the money belonging to the Province which had passed through 
his hands. The Assembly now had a just grievan-^f^ This 
officer had been appointed by the Crown, and no proper security 
had been taken that the Province would be indemnified in the 
event of his failure. Though Sir John Caldwell was convicted 
of being a defaulter, he still held his seat in the Executive 
Council. In the Assembly it was said that if the Eeceiver- 
General had been obliged to submit annually to it a full and 
explicit statement of the financial condition of the Province no 
such loss could have occurred. The continued antagonism of 
the Legislative (Jouncil, — several of whose members were 
salaried officers, directly interested in maintaining the expenses 
of the Civil List, and in taking the power to reduce them out of 
the hands of the Assembly, — provoked in that body a desire to 
change the composition of the Upper branch by introducing into 
it members r^ho were independent of the Crown, and whose 
sentiments were more in harmony with those of the body of the 

4. This year the "Canada Tenures Act" was passed, 

making legal the proposal to giv« holders of lands under 

feudal tenure the option to change that tenure to that of "free 

and common soccage ;'' and to establish the operation of English 

law over them. 

(473) 21 

if'^-.^lAj Mil 







5. The Earl of Dalhousie went to England on leave of absence. 
He had not made himself popular ; but Governor-Generals in 
those days did not court popularity. Sir Francis Matthew 
Burton was appointed administrator. The signs of a rising 
tempest disappeared. He conceded the deman^^ that the 
Assembly had been making for several years — to control the 
Crown revenues raised by the Act of 1774. Satisfaction was 
diffused over the Province. Soon, however, the Earl returned, 
and that feeling died away, or was changed to exasperation. 
He undid what Sir Francis had done ; denied the right of the 
Assembly to dispose of the Cro vn revenues ; peremptorily 
called upon it to make permanent provision for the Judges and 
oilier officials ; and on its refusal, issued, without its sanction, 
warrants for the payment of their salaries. He showe . himself 
personally hostile to the chief men in the Assembly, who 
certainly were not chary in condemning his acts. The leader 
of the British minority — Mr. Neilson, editor of the Qii£bec 
Gazette^ an able man and a powerful writer — came under the 
EarFs d ispleasure ; and with his favour another Gazette was 
established on the ruins of the original paper, which bitterly 
assailed Neilson. M. Papineau was now in a state of semi- 
rebellion against British authority. 

6. The House met after a general election. The Earl refused 

to recognize Papineau as Speaker, though he was the 

1827 choice of the majority of the Assembly ; and he violently 

A.D. dissolved the Hoi:se. This action brought matters to a 

crisis. The Constitution was suspended. Excited 
public meetings were held in the districts of Montreal, Three 
Kivers, and Quebec. Petitions, addressed to the King and 
the British Parliament, setting forth numerous grievances, and 
praying for the recall of the Governor-General, received 87,000 
signatures. Messrs. Viger, Neilson, and Cuvillier were deputed 
as agents to present them. The British population of the town- 
ships also met and drew up petitions, and affixed 10,000 signa- 
tures to them. They prayed for a legislative union of the two 
Canadas as the best remedy for all the troubles. 

7. In Upper Canada discontent was not so vivid as in the 
Lower Province. Still many of its people thought that its state 
demanded the consideration of the Imperial Parliament. There 



never would be peace while the Church of En ^land was allowed 
to maintain the sole right to the Clergy Reserves, which then 
amounted to over 3,000,000 acres of land. 

8. The general system of Crown land management was 
much comT>lained of, not only in Upper Canada, but in all the 
British Provinces. Favouritism prevailed in making grants of 
lands. Extensive tracts were given gratuitously to Executive 
Councillors and othej*s, which were allowed to remain in a wild 
state, and which, intervening between settled districts, obstructed 
their progress. This evil was early seen, and Eoyal Instructions 
were issued forbidding the granting of more than 1,200 acres 
to any one individual. In the Canadas such regulations were 
adroitly and systematically evaded. A number of ? iates 
would apply through "a leader" for 1,200 acres t.,jn. In 
many cases their application was a subterfuge, as the combined 
grants, amounting sometimes to 50,000 acres, went to the 

9. After the war of 1812, the Prince Regent signified his 
pleasure that grants of land should be made to the militiamen 
of Upper Canada, in reward for their services. The royal 
bounty was intercepted or rendered of no avail. Difficulties on 
account of the routine of the Crown land department, and the 
amount of fees demanded, met the militiamen when they sought 
to obtain their grants. In cases where they did receive them, 
the lands were sometimes inconveniently located and unfit for 
settlement, and were not unfrequently parted with, it is said, 
by the disappointed grantee to speculators for a mere trifle — for 
a bottle of rum, or some such ridiculous non-equivalent. 

10c An effort was made to turn the waste lands of Upper 
Canada to account. The Canada Land Company (whose 
head-quarters were in London) was incorporated by Royal 
Charter on the 19th of August 1826. It proposed to pui'cliase 
all the Crown and Clergy Reserves. On an objection being 
raised by the Clergy Corporation that the price offered was too 
W, the Company obtained 1,000,000 acres in the Huron country 
in place of the Clergy Reserves. For 3,300,000 in all, the Com- 
pany agreed to pay £350,000 sterling, in sixteen annual instal- 
ments ; and to expend money in opening up roads, and in other 
works of public utility. The portion of the revenue raised by 


!l ^ 

ii| '^ 




authority of the Canada Trade Act being insufficient to pay the 
Civil List of the Province, the annual payments made by the 
Land Company relieved the Imperial Government from the 
necessity of making good the deficiency. 

11. In Nova Scotia, as already stated, there was a great 

decline of prosperity after the war. In 1816 the 

1816—20 revenue amounted to ^96,300, and a surplus of 

A.D. ^60,000 over the expenditure was left. In 1820 

the revenue was ^53,000, and there was a balance 
of debt of ^1,800 against the Province. In these five years 
changes for the worse took place in Halifax. Trade languished, 
many of the inhabitants went away, leaving tenantless houses. 
The Imperial Dockyard establishment was much reduced. Hali- 
fax ceased to be the chief naval station, that distinction having 
h::^i\ transferred to Bermuda. Hundreds of workmen out of 
employment at one time were indebted to the Poor Man's 
Socii^ y for their daily subsistence. The Earl of Dalhousie was 
then Governor. There was little political excitement, and the 
thoughts of public men were directed to the improvement of 
the Province. Pictou Academy and Dalhousie College were 
founded ; the parish school system was inaugurated ; an impetus 
was given to agriculture by the let+ers of Mr. Young, who 
assumed the njm de plwne " Agricola." 

12. On the appointment of the Earl of Dalhousie as Governor- 
General, the Assembly voted ^1,000 to purchase " a sword and 
star," as a testimonial of its esteem. The Earl at first accepted 
the gift with thanks, but afterwards declined it, because, as he 
stated to the Speaker, the Assembly had neglected to carry out 
his suggestions for improving the militia and road service, and 
to provide for a survey of the Province. The Assembly, more- 
over, had shown a want of respect to the Executive Council, 
and had preferred charges against one of its members — the 
Collector of Customs — that affected his character for strict 
honesty ; but above all, the Earl felt sensitive about receiving 
a costly gift in the low state of the finances. When he went to 
Quebec he was succeeded by Sir James Kempt, a veteran 
officer, who had served with Abercrombie in Egypt, and with 
Wellington in the Spanish Peninsula, and who had been 
wounded at Waterloo. 


13. Or the •t&th of October 1820, Cape Breton was formally 
iucorporated with Nova Scotia, much against the will of a 
raajority of its inhabitants. As a county of the Province it 
sent two representatives to the Assembly. 

14. The petition of the Legislature of New Brunswick to the 
Prince Regent, praying for a regularly commissioned Governor, 
was answered in 1818, when Major-General George Tracey 
Smythe was appointed. He had great difficulties with the 
Legislature, as there was constant collision between the Legis- 
lative Council and the Assembly over the question of the con- 
trol of the revenues. He took a firm stand in 1819, and dis- 
solved the Assembly. The new House showed itself a little 
more tractable ; but on the death of the old King, George HI., 
in 1820, another dissolution took place, and the House that 
met the following year followed the evil courses of its prede- 

15. Ill the midst of the session of 1823 Governor Smythe died, 
and contention was stayed for a time. Business was hurriedly 
brought to a close, and the House was prorogued by Chief- 
Justice Saunders and Judge Chipman, on the authority of a 
commission under the Great Seal. A series of rather strange 
casualties followed. The Hon. Christopher Billop (who had 
renounced his own name, Richai J Farmar, and assumed that of 
his father-in-law, on his marriage with an heiress of Staten 
Island), presuming on his position as senior Executive Coun- 
cillor, issued his proclamation as President. Being very old 
and very infirm, he was not considered to be, as the Royal 
Instructions in such cases required, the most fitting and proper 
person for the office. He was superseded by the Hon. 
Ward Chipman. The new President met the Legislature in 
seeming good health in January (1824), but die^ before the 
close of the session, on the 9th February. On that day the 
Legislative Council had under its consideration a bill for the 
interment of Governor Smythe in the parish church of Fred- 
ericki,on. The Hon. James Murray Bliss became President, and 
continued in office until the arrival of Sir Howard Douglas 
in August. The new Governor was distinguished as a soldier 
and as a man of science and letters. 

16. The population of New Brunswick was now 74,000. The 



I IlL, 



settlements were chiefly on the bauks of the rivers. The roiids, 
few in number, ran " up hill and down dale," in the old Eoman 
fashion, and were ill adapted for travel and traffic. Agricul- 
ture was neglected. Large sums were annually sent out of the 
Province to purchase flour, meal, and farm produce. Labour 
was high and scarce. The lumber trade was prosecuted with 
great ardour, and had never been so prosperous. Ship-building 
was prodigiously active. Sir Howard studied the state of the 
Province with solicitude. He deprecated the too exclusive 
devotion to lumbering, and sought to encourage a better system 
of agriculture and of road-making. Through his influence 
King's College at Frederickton was established. On his first 
meeting the Legislature the prospect was full of cheer ; when 
he met it again that prospect was overclouded. 

17. The summer was unusually hot and dry all over the 

American Continent. No rain fell in New Brunswick 

1825 for over two months. There were many fires in the 

A.D. woods. On the 29th of September, Government House, 

in Frederickton, was burned. The drought, with mid- 
summer sultriness, was felt in every part of the Province, and 
continued until October. On the 7th a destructive fire broke 
out in Frederickton, and at the same time a flaming storm swept 
over the country between the Nashwaak and the Miramichi, 
and north to the Bay Chaleur. A terrible scene took place in 
Miramichi. Towards evening a pitchy darkness overspread 
the sky, through which shot tongues of fire ; then a hurricane 
of flame burst, with a fearful roar, and rushed over Newcastle 
and Douglastown, destroying churches and houses and sliips 
upon the stocks. Many old and infirm persons and many children 
perished. The people sought the river for safety ; wild animals 
even, which had been driven from their lairs in the burning 
forest, crept to its bank. The lurid waters were tossed about 
in wild commotion. Vessels, with their rigging all afire, were 
torn from their anchorage and driven on shore. Many of the 
people threw themselves into the river and essayed to cross on 
rafts of logs, in scows, boats, and canoes. On that fearful night 
one hundred and sixty persons perished from fire, water, and 
injuries. Hundreds were maimed. Property worth ^250,000 
was destroyed. The loss incurred by the destruction of the 



forests was incalculable. This calamity evoked wide-spread 
sympathy. Large sums were promptly subscribed in all the 
British Provinces, in Great Britain, and in the United States, 
for the relief of the sufferers. 

18. The Americans had always shown a disposition to en- 
croach upon the Disputed Territory. Governor lin- 

coln of Maine assumed a threatening attitude, and mar- 1827 
shalled the militia of the State upon the frontiers. A a.d, 
fellow named Baker, at the head of a party of fillibus- 
ters, made a dash into the Madawaska district, and hoisted the 
" stars and stripes" upon a pole in token that it was under the 
protection of the U.S. Government. The old Loyalists and 
French settlers had no idea of being made " free and enlight- 
ened citizens" against their will. They appealed to the Gover- 
nor, and Sir Howard Douglas quietly moved troops to the fron- 
tier, and held them in readiness to resist invasion if necessary. 
A constable drove into the Madawaska settlement, levelled 
the staff, bundled the American flag under his arm, seized 
Baker, and carried him off a prisoner, and lodged him in the 
jtiil at Frederickton. Governor Lincoln and his militia fumed 
terribly, but did not cross the frontier. Baker was brought to 
trial before the Supreme Court, and fined. There was great 
excitement : when it calmed down, the Governments of Great 
Britain and the United States, by joint consent, referred the 
question of the boundary to the King of the Netherlands. 

19. About this time Great Britain commenced to throw 
down commercial barriers. Hitherto she had rigidly 
protected the commerce of her colonies. The trade of 1830 
the West Indies was finally thrown open to the Ameri- a.d. 
cans in 1830 ; and the people of Nova Scotia and New 
Brunswick complained that by that concession a great blow was 
given to their prosperity, the West Indies being one of the 
beat markets for their fish and lumber. Dissatisfaction almost 
swelled into disaffection when the report reached New Bruns- 
wick that it was the intention of the Imperial Government to 
repeal the duties on Baltic timber, and con3equently to with- 
draw from the lumber trade the protection it had always 
enjoyed. Nothing but ruin seemed to stare the people in the 
face. The Legislature sent urgent petitions against the contem- 




plated measure to the King .ind the Parlianieut. Sir Howard 
Douglas — who was called to England to give information with 
regard to the Disputed Territory — published a pamphlet in 
which he stated clearly the impolicy and injustice of repealing 
the duties. This brochure had a good effect. The Bill for the 
repeal was defeated in the Imperial Parliament. Joy was dif- 
fused over New Brunswick. A. handsome service of plate was 
presented to Sir Howard. He did not return to the Province ; 
for he felt constrained to resign his governorship, as, in oppos- 
ing the repeal of the Baltic duties, he had acted against the 
Government which had appointed him. The Hon. William 
Black, President of the Council, administered the government 
until the arrival of Major-General Sir Achibald Campbell, 
the new Governor. 





Questions. — 1. What remedy for 
the evils of Canada was proposed in 
1822? Under what disadvantage did 
the British population in Lower Canada 

2. By whom was the Union Scheme 
opposed? What were its objectionable 
features? What was its fate? What 
Act was passed by the Imperial Parlia- 

3. What real grievance had the As- 
sembly of Lower Canada in 1824 ? What 
wish did the antagonism of the Council 
provoke in the Assembly? 

4. What was the Canada Tenures 
Act? When was it passed? 

6. When did the dissatisfaci 'on dis- 
appear? What occurred on the Earl's 
return? To whom did he show him- 
self personally hostile? 

6. What brought matters to a crisis ? 
What steps were taken by the malcon- 
tents? What did the British popula- 
tion of the townships propose ? 

7. What was the state of Upper 

8. What complaints were made 
against the system of Crown land man- 
agement? How were the regulations 
evadev ? 

9. To whom were grants of land made 
after 1812? What difficulties did they 

10. What wm the objAct of fche Canada 

Land Company? Describe its opera- 

11. What was the condition of Nova 
Scotia, and specially of Halifax, after 
the war of 1812? 

12. Why did the Earl of Dalhousie 
refuse the testimonial of the Assembly? 
Who succeeded him as Governor of 
Lower Canada? 

13. With what Province was Cape 
Breton incorporated in 1820? 

14. Who was appointed Governor of 
New Brunswick in 1818? With what 
difficulties had he to contend ? 

15. How was the contention stayed 
for a time? Who held the office of 
President until the arrival of the new 
Governor? Who was he? 

16. What was then the population of 
New Brunswick? What was its condi- 
tion? WhaA improvements did Sir 
Howard Douglas encourage ? 

17. What calamity overtook New 
Brunswick in the summer of 1825? De- 
scribe its details. Whence was relief 
sent to the sufferers? 

18. What encroachment was made on 
the Disputed Territory in 1827? How 
did it end ? To whom was the question 
of boundary referred ? 

19. What measures excited dissatis- 
faction in Nova Scotia and New Bruns- 
wick in 1830? How were these maas* 
ures defeated? 





1828 to 1836 A.D. 

An Age of Political Reform. 
Keport of the Canada Committee. 
Ilecall of the Earl of Dalhousie. 
The Concessioiis made by the British 

Renewed discontents. 

Lord Aylmer. 

Kebellious tendencies. 

The Ninety-two Resolutions. 

Lord Gosford. 

The Commission of Inquiry. 

A dead-lock. 

1. Canada now entered upon the most trying and the most 
important period of its history. In the twenty years from 1828 
to 1848 the battle of " Responsible Government " was fought. 
The oligarchical system, which had prevailed in all the Prov- 
inces since their foundation, was overturned ; and the people, 
through their representatives in the Assemblies, obtained 
control over affairs. A number of causes helped to bring about 
this result. The spirit of the age was in favour of political 
reform. In the countries most intimately connected with 
Canada the people were rising : in fiery France they were pre- 
paring to rush through a revolution to a republic ; in sober 
England they were demanding that classes hitherto excluded 
from the franchise should ha' > the right to vote for representa- 
tives in Pai'liament. A period of protracted commercial dis- 
tress drove thousands from Great Britain to seek an asylum in 
the British American Provinces. Many were destitute — not a 
few were disaffected. Immigrants were not then, as now, 
v/elcomed as friends, nor were lands freely provided for them : 
they found themselves placed under many disadvantages. In 
Lower Canada they were looked upon as intruders by the 
French Canadians, who wished to keep the whole Province to 
themselves, ^ud who threw difficulties in the way of their 
settlement. In Upper Canada immigrants found themselves in 
the position of foreigners ; they were looked upon as aliens by 
the old Loyalists and first American settlers ; they found that 
the avenues to advancement were closed against them, and that 


fit\ ' 





all legialatiou tended to keep them in a position of inferiority. 
Another class — consisting of Americans who had settled in the 
Province after the war of 1812 — found themselves equally dis- 
advantiigeously placed ; and they were imbued with a love of 
republicanism. The amazing prosperity of the United States — 
which was attributed to their free institutions — aroused the 
envy of parties who were neither immigrants nor late American 
settlers : they drew comparisons very unfavourable to the 
British American Provinces ; they thought that like causes 
would produce similar results. They were loyal to the King, 
but their love for the British Constitution did not deter them 
from seeking to break down the monopoly of power held by the 
Family Compacts, with the view of infusing more energy into 
the Government, and of giving freer play to all classes. 

2. The petitions from the seigneuries and townships of Lower 
Canada, and those from Upper Canada, received a favourable 
hearing from the Imperial Parliament. A. Committee was ap- 
pointed, which examined at great length a number of the leading 
men of both Provinces, and of all parties and sects, on the alle- 
gations therein set forth. This Committee drew up a Report in 
favour of concessions and reforms. It recommended that the 
Crown duties raised by the Act of 1774 should be placed under 
the control of the Assembly, on condition that it made perma- 
nent prov'sion for the salaries of the Governor-General, members 
of the F ve Council, i nd the Judges : it suggested that the 

Jud'" .1 the exception of the Chief- Justice, should vacate 

the ,os in the Legislative Council ; and that the Bishop and 
the Ai'chdeacon ought to re/rain from meddling with politics. 
The Committee thought it advisable that a more independent 
character should be given to the Executive and Legislative Coun- 
cils (of both Provinces), by introducing into them gentlemen who 
held no offices under the Crown, and who represented all inter- 
ests ; and, in the case of Lower Canada, without making invid- 
ious distinctions between British and Protestant, and French 
and Catholic sects and nationalities. In order to save Lower 
Canada loss in the future by the defalcation of any Receiver- 
General, the Committee recommended that proper securities 
ahould be taken before the appointment was made, and that a)l 
accounts should be regularly examined by a Board of Audit The 



Committee expressed disapprobatiou of tlie action of the Gover- 
uor-General in taking money (Jl 40,000 in all) out of the Treas- 
ury without the sanction of the Assembly. Complaint having 
been made that the proceeds of the Jesuit estates in Lower Canada 
had been diverted by the Government from their i)roper purpose, 
the Committee recommended that they should be applied, as the 
law directed, to the promotion of education. 

3. An extension of representation, based on the principles of 
population and property, and an enforcement of the clause in 
the Canada Tenures A>^t establishing English law over lands 
held in free and common soccage, were suggested as remedies 
for the grievances of the British population of the town- 
ships ; the French Canadians to be left in undisturbed enjoy- 
ment of their own laws and customs, with the right to acquire 
other new properties under the feud?l tenure. With regard 
to ty^ grievances of Upper Canada, the Committee recommended 
that le unproductive Clergy Eeserves should be sold to persons 
willing to perform the conditions of settlement ; that a tax 
should be levied on the holders of all other unimproved lands ; 
and that the system of granting large tracts gratuitously should 
be abandoned. 

4. " The Report of the Canada CJommittee of 1828" was 
received with an outburst of praise and gratitude. In the 
Assembly of Lower Canada it was pronounced to be an im- 
perishable monument of justice and profound wisdom, and a 
guide for the future in all disputes among the different 
branches of the Legislature. It inspired confidence in the 
impartiality of the British Parliament. 

5. In the course of the twenty years after 1828 the party 
generally termed Reformers, who sought to break down the 
privileges of the Family Compacts, had often occasion to appeal 
to that tribunal. To Downing Street resorted its delegates, 
armed with budgets of grievances in the form of reports and 
petitions, to be laid at the foot of the Throne and submitted to 
Parliament ; there also went the agents of the Compact, official, 
or Tory party, with counter petitions showing forth the utter 
gi'oundlessness of the complaints of the Reformers. It was no 
easy matter to decide between two parties each of which claimed 
that all right was on ite side. The British Government eviiiced 




a strong desire to do justice to both, — to redress all real griev- 
ances. But sometimes its good intentions were frustrated by 
the Governors and Executive Councillors of the Provinces. 
Besides, there often occurred changes in the composition of the 
British Government. Great Britain was then in the throes of 
political agitation. Tory and Whig Governments succeeded 
each other ; at each change of Administration a new Colonial 
Secretary was installed in Downing Street, and the acts c^ one 
were sometimes nullified by those of another. But in spite of 
\e changes in the Colonial Office, there was one circumstance 
that tended to give uniformity to its policy, — the Under Secre- 
tary was a permanent official. Mr. Stephen, who possessed an 
intimate knowledge of the affairs of the colonies, then held that 
position. To him the heads naturally looked for information. 
He was stroiigl}'" imbued with liberal ideas regarding the 
government of the Provinces, and in him the Reformers found 
a stanch friend. It is certain that his influence in Downing 
Street was felt by the Family Compacts, and that they com- 
plained of it. 

6. In Lower Canada, while its grievances were under the 
consideration of the Imperial Parliament, public discontent grew 
stronger. The administration of the Earl of Dalhousie grew 
more and more unpopular: arbitrary acts were committed; 
militia officers were displaced for attending political meetings 
where these acts were denounced. The Earl was recalled, and 
Sir James Kempt was transferred from the Government of 
Nova Scotia to his post. A lull came after the stoim. When 
the Assembly met, the Governor- General recognized M. Papineau 
as Speaker. Animated by the hopes of reform held out by the 
Canada Committee, the Assembly proceeded quietly to business. 

7. The British Government, with an anxious desire to put a stop 
to all complaints, proceeded to carry out the suggestions of the 
Committee. It is unnecessary to enter into minute details of 
all the measures taken to bring about that desirable result; only 
some of the more important need be mentioned. Instructions 
were given to the Governor-General to place at the disposal of the 
Assembly all the revenues, save the Casual and Territorial ; 
to call members of the Reform party to seats in the Executive 
Council ; and to give the preference to French Canadians j— 



accordingly ten of the new members were persons of that 
nationality. The Tjcgislative Tnuncil, as remodelled, contained 
thirty-five members, only sevc^i of whom were officers of the 
Crown. It was considered that a sufficiently independent 
character was thus given to that body. As a measure of justice 
to the British population of the townships, the Assembly was 
left free to increase the number of their members so as to give 
them a fairer representation. The proceeds of the Jesuit estates 
were placed at the disposal of the Assembly, to be applied to 
purposes of education. An improved system of Crown land 
management was inaugurated. General orders, forbidding 
tlie granting of land gratuitously, and commanding that in 
future all lands should be sold by public auction to the highest 
bidder, were issued to all the Provinces. 

8. The satisfaction caused by the Eeport of the Canada Com- 
mittee soon died away in the Assembly. It showed that it 
coDsidered that the concessions that had been made were only 
half measures. The reservation of the Casual and Territorial 
Ee venue aroused its displeasure. Though it obtained the con- 
trol of the Crown duties on the express condition that it should 
make satisfactory and permanent provision for the Judges, it 
refused to do so unless the reserved revenue was handed over 
to it. 

9. Lord Aylmer of Balrath succeeded Sir James Kempt in 
July 1830. On meeting the Legislature, he found that 

the Assembly was as full of grievances as if the Canada 1830 
Connnittee had never made a report, and as if the a.d. 
British Government had never acted upon it. In the 
most candid and conciliatory manner he implored the Assembly 
to make a full and explicit statement of its grievances, and 
promised it ample redress. But its demands reached a height 
beyond what the spirit of concession in the British Govern- 
ment would go. It refused to surrender the Casual and Terri- 
torial Revenue. Th§ Government saw clearly that the aim of 
the Assembly in demanding the disposal of all the revenues 
was to place the Judges and E\ev.utive Councillors, and even 
the Governor at its mercy. The Reformers in the Executive and 
Legi'lative Councils by no means pleased the Assembly. It 
complaineu that the appointments made were hostile to the 







interests of the French majority, and that, in fact, these bodies 
were as exclusively British as ever they had been. It demaD Jed 
that the Legislative Council should be made elective — that is, 
that its members should be elected like those of the Lower 
branch — and that all officers receiving appointments from the 
Crov/n should appear before the people for reelection. By these 
meai.s the Assembly sought to gain the entire control of the 
Government : for as the French Canadians composed the great 
bulk of the population, they would have caiTied all the elections 
for the Legislative Council ; and if the possession of office had 
depended on their votes, the great majority of Crown officei-s 
would have been of their nationality. 

10. The national jealousies, the determination of the French 
Canadian majority to gain control of the Government, and 
the resolute defence of its privileges by the British minority, 
were the real causes of all the difficulties in Lower Canada. 
All other causes of complaint were of comparatively little 
moment. If only the French Canadians could gain control of 
the Government, they could make such laws as they pleased 
regarding schools and roads, and the nianagenieiit of waste 
lands ; they could, if they chose, decree that all properties must 
be held under the feudal tenure, and be subject to all the inci- 
dents of French law ; and they could hamper the commerce of 
the British population by imposing what duties they liked. In 
carrying out uie suggestions of the Canada Committee the 
British Government left much in the hands of the Legislature ; 
but the Assembly wilfully neglected to do its part. To be sure, 
it remodelled the electoral districts of the Province and added 
to the numbe^' of representatives, but in such a way as to in- 
crease its large French Canadian majority. Out of a total 
representation of eighty-eight members only eleven were British. 
The pretensions put forth by that majority tended to consoli- 
date the British party ; even those members of it who had acted 
with the majority up till 1828, when the question became one 
of nationalities, swallowed their own political predilections and 
sided -with their countrjrmen. 

11. For three years (from 1831 to 1834) the contest between 
the branches of the Legislature grew in intensity. The As- 
sembly refused to vote the supplies unless the Casual and Ten i- 

'■■ !..'•(' '-.-a 



tori&l Revenue were surrendered to it. The Governor-General 
was precluded from drawing upon the Receiver-General without 
its sanction, as the Earl of Dalhousie had done. The money at 
his command was totally insufficient to pay the expenses of the 
Civil List. The consequence was that the salaries of Judges 
and officials w( „ not paid, and the excitement of the time put 
an end to all useful legislation. Bills coming up from the 
Assembly to the Legislative Council were thrown out, or so 
amended that they were rejected when sent down again. In 
the Assembly the time was chiefly spent in passing resolutions 
condemning the Governor-General and the Councils. 

12. M. Papineau from the Speakers chair launched forth 
his invectives against the arrogant .yranny of British power, 
and inflamed the mind and heart of his party against it ; yet ten 
years before, no one had been so enthusiastic in praise of it. 
Seized with the revolutionary spirit that possessed his brethren 
in old France, he held up monarchical institutions to execration, 
poured praises on the Government of the United States, and 
expressed a fervent hope that it was the destiny of that great 
country to give republics to America. In the passion of the 
hour he was hurried into saying a great deal more than he 
meant; for, according to his own after-statement, he had no 
serious idea of rebelling, with arms in his hand, against British 
power. But his violent words were committing him to violent 
actions. The Canadien newspaper, which had been suppressed 
during the administration of Sir James Craig, was revived at 
this exciting time, and added fuel to the fire. It returned to 
its old role of denouncing the British as usurpers, foreigners, 
intruders. On the other hand, the British press stigmatized the 
French Canadians as rebels, ungrateful to the authority that had 
treated them too generously. Such recriminations exasperated 
the always strong antipathies of race. Seventy years had 
passed away since the Conquest, and French and British stood 
as distinctly apart as. when they were enemies ranged against 
each other in the 'ranks of war. They did not meet at all in 
society, and not much in business ; in the towns and counties, 
where there was a mixed population, they formed distinct parties. 
There was no disposition on either side to make concessions. 
The French Canadian majority would not submit to the arro- 




gance of the British Councils, and the British minority would 
not endure the tyranny of a French Canadian majority. 

13. A crisis came. The Assembly poured forth its griefs in 

Ninety-two Resolutions. Drawn up by Judge Morin, 

1834 they were moved by Judge Bechard, and supported 

A.D. by Papineau in one of his most inflammatory and 

revolutionary speeches. They reiterated all the com- 
plaints that had been made by the Assembly since Dalhousie's 
time. The substance of this fearful volume of complaint may 
be given in one sentence : — " We, the French Canadians, have 
been treated with contumely ; shut out from all offices of hon- 
our and emolument; defrauded by dishonest British officials, 
and denied all compensation ; attempts have been made to 
change the tenure under which the body of our people hold 
their property, and to introduce laws foreign to our habits and 
customs ; our lands have been recklessly given away : let justice 
be done ; let the will of the majority rule ; throw open to us 
all the seats in the Councils ; give us entire control of all the 
revenues and all the lands; let us establish the authority of 
our own laws and customs all over the Province; — or we shall 

14. The Ninety-two Resolutions, which made a great noise 
in their day, were embodied in the form of an address to the 
King and the Parliament. The British passed counter resolutions 
and drew up a counter address. Both parties received a patient 
hearing in England. The Imperial Government, disregarding 
the covert threats of rebellion couched in the French Canadian 
address, pursued a conciliatory course, to the mortification of 
the British official party, which thought that the time for con- 
cessions was past, and which had hoped to hear a decided 
refusal given to the demands of the majority. Lord Aylmer 
was recalled. Lord Qosford was appointed Governor-General, 
and the head of a Commission — whose other members were Sir 
Charles Grey and Sir James Gipps — to inquire into the giiev- 
ances set forth in the addresses. This Commission of Inquiry 
arrived in Canada in 1835. It did not propitiate the French 
Canadians, and their papers continued to inveigh as strongly as 
ever against British tyranny. 

15. Lord Gosford, an amiable, good-natured nobleman, found 



himself in a difficult position. By his " Instructions" he was 
debarred from granting the majority the only conditions that 
would have pacified it. On meeting the Legislature his lordship 
used language that was calculated to assure the members of 
Assembly that he had full power to settle their grievances to 
their satisfaction, and laid himself open to a charge of duplicity. 
On the strength of the assurance he had given, his lordship 
called on theto to vote the supplies. They were not satisfied, 
and the utmost concession they would make was to vote them 
for six months ; they absolutely refused to pay the arrearages 
of the four preceding years, or to vote the full expenses of the 
Civil List, except on the condition that a fondamental change 
was made in the Constitution ; that is, unless the Legislative 
Council were made elective, and the Executive Council were con- 
verted into a ministry responsible to the people. They also 
demanded that the Canada, Tenures, and Laud Company Acts 
should be repealed ; that all the Crown revenues should be sur- 
rendered to them without any conditions ; and that the man- 
agement of all the waste lands should be placed under their 
control. Affairs had now come to a dead-lock. 


Questions. — 1. On what struggle did 
Canada enter in 1828? When and how 
did it terminate ? How was the move- 
ment affected by the spirit of the age ? 
How by the position of immigrants, 
and of Americnn settlers ? 

2. What was the general tenor of 
the Eeport of the Canadtt Committee? 
What did it recommend with reference 
to the Crown duties? to the constitution 
of the Executive and Legislative Coun- 
cils? to the position of the Receiver- 
General? to the proceeds of the Jesuit 
estates? Of what action of the Gover- 
nor-General did it disapprove ? 

3. What remedies were suggested for 
the grievances of the British population 
of the townships ? What for the griev- 
ances of Upper Canada? 

4. How was the report received in 
Canada? In what did it inspire con- 
fidence ? 

5. What two parties were accustomed 
to appeal to Parliament? How did the 
political agitation in England affect the 
Colonies? What circumstance gave 



uniformity to the policy of the Colonial 
Office? What were Mr. Stephen's politi- 
cal leanings ? 

0. What led to Lord Dalhousie's re- 
call ? Who succeeded him ? 

7. What instructions did the British 
Government give to the Governor- 
General ? Of whom did the Legislative 
Council, as remodelled, consist ? What 
change was made in the mode of grant- 
ing land ? 

8. What aroused the displeasure of 
the Assembly? On what condition 
only would ix- make permanent pro- 
vision for the Judges ? 

9. In what state did Lord Aylmer 
find the Assembly ? What were its de- 
mands ? What end did it seek to ob- 

10. What were the real causes of the 
difficulties in Lower Canada? What 
would have been the consequence of 
making the Assembly supreme? Of 
what neglect had the Assembly been 
wilfully guilty? How were the two 
parties represented in the Assembly? 




What was the effect of the pretenalons 
put forth by the French party ? 

11. What was the state of affairs 
from 1831 till 18S4 ? How was the time 
of the Assembly chiefly occupied ? 

12. To what sentiments did M. Pap- 
ineau give expression? What part 
did the press take in the contest? In 
what attitude did the two parties stand 
towards each other ? 

13. What form did the complaints of 
the Assembly take f Give the substance 
Of these resolutions. 

li. In what were the resolutions em- 
bodied? What step did the British 
party take ? What course did the Im- 
perial Government pursue ? Whom did 
this displease ? What steps were actu- 
ally taken ? When did the Commission 
of Inquiry arrive f 

16. How did Lord Gosford lay him- 
self open to the charge of duplicity? 
What was the utmost concession tlie 
Assembly would make ? What were its 
demands? Into what state had affairs 
now come? 













1828 to 1836 A.D. 

WiUiam Lyon M'Kenzle. 

The Family Compact. 

WiUiam IV.— the People's Friend. 

M'Kenzie expelled from the Asfsembly. 

The People's Agent in Downing Street. 

The Result of the Mission. 

H'Eenzie dragged from his seat. 

Lord Goderich. 

The Fifty-six RectorieB. 

Sir Francis B. Head. 

The Reformers deceived. 

The Tories triumphant. 

1. In Upper Canada, Major-Greneral Sir John Colbome suc- 
ceeded Sir Peregrine Maitland. Great expectations 

were entertained by the Reform party that the sugges- 1828 
tions of the Canada Committee would lead to some a.d. 
change in the composition of the Executive and Legisla- 
tive Councils ; but their hopes were doomed to be disappointed. 
The Governor-General adopted the views of the Family Cora- 
pact. The question of the Clergy Reserves remained as exas- 
perating and as unsettled as ever. 

2. At this time William Lyon M'Kenzie gained notoriety. 
He had, when a poor lad, emigrated from Dundee, Scotland ; 
after a few years' engagement in ordinary business in different 
towns in Upper Canada, he undertook the office of journalist, 
and became editor of the Advocate in York. Robert Gour- 
lay, a precui-sor in the stony and thorny path of reform, had 
some years before been tried for libel, thrown into prison, and 
then, with ruined fortunes and shattered nerves, driven from 
the Province. It demanded much moral courage to be a politi- 
cal reformer in those days. It is difficult now to realize the 
fact that the existing form of government, which is accepted as 
a matter of course, was reached through furious storms of pas- 
sion and obloquy, and at the cost to individuals of mental peace, 
social happiness, and private fortune. From the time that any 
one commenced to criticise the acts of Government he became a 
marked man : old friends fell away from him ; he was subjected 
to outrages and insults most galling to a sensitive mind ; leveller, 


\fif4tt i 

m^{.- ' 




III ill' 

republicau, rebel, were the mildest epithets hurled at him. 
M'Keuzie loved Cauada, the country of his adoption. He con- 
vinced himself that the party in power obstructed its progress 
in improvement and in happiness. He was honest in his inten- 
tions, and had an intense hatred of injustice ; but his impulsive 
temperament hurried him into extremes of word and deed. 
Early in his political career he was imbued with an admiration 
of American republican institutions. In despair of effecting 
coustitutional reform, and exasperated by what he deemed per- 
secution, he rushed without forethought into rebellon. He 
represented that class of British immigrants and American 
settlers who found themselves in the position of aliens and 
foreigners, who formed the extreme section of the Reform party, 
and were actuated by an intense hatred of the Family Compact 
Their intemperate attacks were repelled with scorn. The violent 
and uncompromising temper of the assailants and the assailed 
infused a rancour into the political strife of Upper Canada 
unknown in the other British P' evinces. 

3. Between the two extremes chere was a body of Moderate 
Reformers, — numbering among them such men as Robert 
Baldwin, Dr. Rolphe, Marshall Bidwell, and Judge Rideout,— 
who lepresented a portion of the population in a different social 
position from that of the Radical section, but who were equally 
anxious to break up the Family Compact ; to make the Govern- 
ment responsible to the representatives of the people ; to sweep 
away the invidious privileges claimed by the Church of Eng- 
land ; to promote a better system of Crown land management, 
immigration, and settlement ; to extend education to the chil- 
dren of the poorer classes ; and, generally, to establish a less 
costly and more economical Government, that would spend less 
money on high salaries, pensions, and sinecures, and more on 
roads, canals, and other works of public utility. This body, up 
to a certain point, acted with the Radical section ; but it held 
back when M'Kenzie entered on his desperate course. Yet to 
the impetus given by him the ultimate triumph of their prin- 
ciples was in a great measure due. 

4. Editors of newspapers, fifty years ago, wrote very strong 
articles against their political opponents, but not a whit more 
violent than those that their successors of the present day pen 



when their party spirit is aroused, or their indignation at comip- 
tiou in government is excited. Fifty years ago the most furious 
personal abuse against the opponents of the party in power was 
allowable ; but an attack on the constituted authorities — even 
when couched in terras which would now be considered temperate 
— was a libel deserving of summary punishment. On account 
of some strictures, M'Kenzie came under the ban of the Govern- 
ment. Some youths connected with the official party broke 
into his office, destroyed his presses, and . oattered his types. 
Though they were tried and fined for the offence, they suffered 
nothing in fortune or in reputation ; but the persecution won for 
M'Kenzie popular favour : he was elected one of the members for 
York, and was borne into the Assembly on the tide of sympathy. 

5. A new House met, and the Eeformers formed the large 
majority of the Assembly. An almost unanimous reso- 
lution was passed, calling on the Governor-General to 1829 
change the composition of his Executive Council, and a.d. 
to introduce members into it whose sentiments were in 
accordance with those of the majority of the Assembly. The 
appeal had no effect. The Executive Councillors maintained 
that they held their offices for life ; they would hardly acknowl- 
edge that they were responsible to any power above them; 
they scoffed at the idea of being held amenable to the people 
for their acts ; and totally disregarded the censure of the 
Assembly. The Reformers soon perceived that, while the Exec- 
utive Council bade them defiance, a majority in the Assembly 
was no advantage to them, and that all useful legislation accord- 
ing to their principles was impossible. Their great aim now was 
to make the Executive Council responsible to the Assembly. 

6. The Tory-official party had, from youth up, been trained 
in the belief that the preservation of the Province to the British 
Crown, and the maintenance of the British Constitution, de- 
pended on its upholding the prerogative of the Crown and its 
own privileges, and on its resisting the encroachments of the 
people. Many men of high character and talent belonged to 
it; outside of the placemen who were dependent on it, there 
was throughout the Province an influential body which thought 
that power was s;ifer in its hands than in those of the Reformers. 
The Family Compact was thus strongly intrenched, and it pos- 




m'kenzie twice expelled. 

' 111 

"1 ' 

II r r 

pi-'L'i i 


eessed the prestige that the long enjoyment of high position 
gave it. To seek to destroy its influence was to incur a charge 
of disloyalty ; and people, generally, were anxious to avoid such 
odium. Besides, the Tories were not the only political sinners. 
The Keform majority in the Assembly wjis as extravagant and 
reckless in voting awjiy the public money as ever they had been, 
— a fact that strengthened the argument that it would abuse 
power if it gained it. 

7. George IV. died in June, and was succeeded by William 

IV., " the People's Friend." In the new House that 
1830 Baet the year after (1831), the Eeform majority was 
A.D. reduced to a small minority. The Crown now sur- 
rendered the control of the Casual and Territorial 
Revenue to the Legislature, and the Tories made permanent 
provision for defraying certain expenses in the Civil List. 
Their " Everlasting Salaries Bill " was made a grievance by the 
extreme Reform section. M'Keuzie, after the defeat of his 
party, found himself almost alone in the Assembly. His free 
speech, and the persistency with which he ferreted into all acta 
of the Government that seemed to him to savour of corruption, 
drew upon him the concentrated hostility of the Tories. He 
was expelled from the Assembly on a charge of having pub- 
lished a libel against the Government. His constituents of 
York immediately reelected him. Again he was expelled, and 
declared to be disqualified for sitting in the Assembly during 
the term of the existing House. 

8. This course of persecution elevated M'Kenzie to the rank 
of a martyr for the people's cause. Public meetings were held, 
at which the general policy of the Government and the tyran- 
nical action of the Assembly were denounced. M'Kenzie was 
appointed agent to bear to England a petition to which were 
attached 24,000 signatures, setting forth the grievances under 
which the Province groaned, and indicating the reforms that 

were necessary to give it tranquillity. The time was 

1832 auspicious. The Reform Administration^ of Earl Grey 

A.D. was*in power. In the British Parliament there were 

many members who sympathized with the object the 

' The R^orm Administration. — The 
Administration of Earl Grey, whicli 

passed the Parliamentary Ref ornj . i ct in 
1 832. It lasted from November 1830 iiU 



Colonial Beformera had in view. Lord Goderich, Colonial 
Secretary, lent an attentive ear to the long tiile of grievances 
which the " people's agent " poured in, and promised redress. 
He wrote a despatch to Sir John Colborne relieving Attorney- 
Genera^ Bolton and Solicitor-General Hagernian of their offices, 
!i8 they had been especially active in expelling M'Kenzie from 
the Assembly. 

9. M'Kenzie's triumph was short-lived. While he was in 
England the Hon. E. G. Stanley was transferred from 

the Irish Secretaryship to the Colonial Office, and undid 1833 
what his predecessor had done. Hagerman was re- a.d. 
placed, and Bolton was appointed Chief- Justice of New- 
foundland. This action added to the catalogue of the Reformers 
another grievance; for when they saw that a change in the 
bead of the Colonial Office produced a change in its policy, it 
furnished them with an argument against the system of govern- 
ing the Colonies from Downing Street, by ministers who were 
ignorant of their condition, and who were likely to be biased 
by sympathy with the party in power there. 

10. The official party was indignant at the courteous recep- 
tion accorded to M'Kenzie. In an address to the Governor- 
General both branches of the Legislature denounced him as 
heing unworthy of credit, and characterized the grievances set 
fortli in the petition as groundless. They treated the sugges- 
tions of Earl Goderich with hardly a show of decency. The 
result of M'Kenzie's mission to England was not great. 
Quakers, who had hitherto been prevented from voting, were 
granted the privilege; representatives of the towns were de- 
clared to be, equally with those of the counties, entitled to 
remuneration ; the Government was commanded to lay detailed 
accounts of all receipts and expenditures annually before the 
Assembly ; and the education of the people was brought under 
its notice as a subject worthy of serious consideration. During 
his absence M'Kenzie had been reelected for York. He 

July 1834, with the exception of one 
week In 1832 (May 10 to 18), when the 
Buke of Wellington tried to form a 
Ministry, but failed. Lord Goderich 
was Colonial Secretary till March 1833, 
when he was made Lord Privy Seal, 

with the title of Earl of Ripon. He 
was then succeeded by the Hon. E. G. 
Stanley (afterwards Lord Stanley and 
Earl of Derby), who till that time had 
been Chief Secretary for Ireland in the 
same Ministry. 

P '|.»4 






entered tlio House, but waa dragged from his seat by the Ser- 
geant-at-arma, and compelled to retire. This proceeding created 
extraordinary popular excitement. It elicited remonstrancea 
from Downing Street; M^Kenzie, ueverthelesa, waa not y)or- 
mitted to take a seat during the term of the Hcjiise. 

1834 The town of York waa at this time incorporated, and 
A.D. became the city of Toronto, and M'Kenzie was elected 

its first Mayor. 

11. In the new House, which met the following year, the Re- 
formers mustered in force. Mr. Bidwell, an American by 
descent, and in bad odour with the Family Compact, was 
elected Speaker. At this time communications passed between 

the Assemblies of Upper and Lower Canada, and their 

1835 members commenced to act in concert against the Gover- 
A.D. nors and the Councils. A volume of complaints, known 

as the " Seventh Report of Grievances," was drawn 
up. It received the sericms consideration of King William ami 
his Ministry. Sir John Colborne was superseded by Sir Fran- 
cis Bond Head,^ who carried out with him an answer to the 
Report, which was intended to be conciliatory. 

12. Sir John Colborue bequeathed a legacy of trouble to his 
successors, by sanctioning, before leaving his Government, the 
erection of fifty-six rectories out of the " Clergy Reserves." 
This act was pronounced legal, according to the provisions of 
the Constitutional Act of 1791, but it provoked the jealousy and 
aroused the hostility of the other denominations. On the eve 
of his leaving for England, Sir John was detained and appointed 
Commander-in-Chief of the forces of British North America. 

13. Sir Francis Bond Head arrived in Toronto in Januaiy. 

Even M^Kenzie and his party looked with hope to him. 

1836 The rumour that he was a friend to reform preceded 
A.D. his coming. Never was rumour so falsified by fact. 

His appointment at so grave a crisis was regarded by 
some people as throwing doubt on the asserted good intentions 
of the British Government. Sir Francis himself looked upon 

* Sir Francis Bond Head. — Born 
1793 ; author of several humorous books 
of travel, as, "Rough Notes of some 
Rapid Journejrs Across the Pampas," 

and " A Fortnight in Ireland." He pub- 
lished, in 1838, a "Narrative" in de- 
fence of his Administration in Upper 



it at first as a ministerial joke, for he frankly confessed his 
entire ignorance of everything pertaining to the colonies and 
their government. He was an author of some repute, and had 
given evidence of business capacity as a Poor Law (Commissioner; 
but his political prejudices unfitted him for conducting a mis- 
sion of conciliation. His first official act caused endmrrassment. 
His " Instructions " wore almost identical with those which had 
been given to Lord Gosford, and were adverse to the popular 
demands for an elective Legislatix'e Council and a responsible 
Executive. He submitted them in full to the Assembly, con- 
trary to the intention of Lord Glenelg,^ then Colonial Secretary. 
Papineau and his pai-ty in Lower Canada thus received confir- 
mation of their suspicions, and grew more rebellious in their 
utterances, inveighing against the bad faith of the British 
Government and the duplicity of the Governor-General. 

14. Sir Francis Head animated the hopes of the Reformers 
Duly to sink them in the depths Oi disappointment. He called 
three members of the party — Baldwin, Kolplie, and Dunn — to 
seats in the Executive Council, but refused to recognize the 
principle of responsibility to the Assembly, on which they in- 
sisted. He told them that they were responsible for their acts 
to him alone, while he was responsible to the King and the Par- 
liament ; that he was not bound to ask the advice of his Coun- 
cil, and would only do so when it suited himself. The three mem- 
bers resigned, and a break-up of the Council ensued. Sir Francis 
then threw himself into the arms of the FarLiijy Compact. A 
new Council was formed, composed entirely of riioiibers of that 
party. There was war to the knife between the Governor 
and the Reformers. An address condemning the action of 
Sir Francis, and airaigning him for want of truth and can- 
dour, was passed in the Assembly ; and, for the first time, it 
refused to vote the supplies. At the close of the session 
Speaker Bidwell read a letter from Speaker Papineau, calling 
on the Reformers of Upper Canada, and of all the British 
Nortli American Provinces, to unite in order to obtain redress 
ot their common gi'ievances. The British lion was aroused in 
the heart of -Sir Francis. He conceived that the purport of the 

' Lord Olenelg. — Colonial Secretary 1836 till 1839, when he was succeeded 
in Lord Melbotmie's Ministry, from by the Marquia of Normanby. 






letter was revolutionarj" — that it showed a design to subvert 
the British Constitution and to establish a republican form of 
government, und conveyed threats of foreign interference iu 
the domestic quarrel. Alluding to the letter, in his speech 
before dissolving the House, he said that the people of Upper 
Canada were loyal, and detested democracy ; and then, throw- 
ing out a challenge to an imaginary host of foreign invaders, 
he exclaimed, " Let them come if they dare." 

15. Sir Francis Head was convinced that "Monarchy or 
Democracy " was the issue at stake in the political contest in 
Upper Canada. He conceived that it was his mission to fight 
against Democracy. As visible evidence that he was deter- 
mined to uphold monarchical institutions, he caused the royal 
standard to be unfurled over Government House, " for the first 
time in the history of the Province." He threw himself heart 
and soul into the elections. In addresses and speeches he put 
the issue before the people. The contest was bitter in the 
extreme. The battle was for the Constitution lb it was, and 
for the preservation of its privileges, and the whole mfluence of 
the Family Compact was brought to bear to defend them. The 
result was victory for Sir Francis and the Tories. M'Kenzie, 
Bidwell, and other Reformers, were not returned as members 
of the new House. The unfair m aans that their opponents, as 
they conceived, had taken to defeat them rankled in their 
hearts. Sir Francis congratulated himself that the question 
was settled — Monarchy had triumphed, and Upper Canada was 
pacified. He soon afterwards received a despatch from Lord 
Glenelg instructing him to enlarge his Council, by adding to it 
members who represented the different interests of the Province, 
and who possessed the confidence of the people. Such a meas- 
ure of concession, faithfully carried out, would have satisfied 
the more moderate of the Reformers. Sir Francis, however, 
would not pursue a conciliatory course ; he ran counter to his 
instructions, and widened the breach between himself and the 
whole party. 

Questions. — 1. Who succeeded Mait- 
land as Goyernor of Upper Canada? 
What views did Colboroe adopt? 

2. Who was Wi:'iam Lyon M'Ken- 
xie? What dangers had political re- 

formers to encounter in those days? 
Wherein was M'Kenzte indiscreet? 
What class did he represent ? 

8. Who were the Moderate Eefoim- 
ers ? What wore their aims ? 



4. How did M'Kenzie fall under the 
ban of the Government ? How was he 
persecuted ? What eflfect had his perse- 
cution ? 

5. What resolution did the new House 
of Assembly pass ? What did the Exec- 
utive Councillors maintain ? ' Vhat did 
the Reformers then perceive ? 

6. What were the views of the Tory- 
official party ? How was it supported ? 
To what charge had the Eeform majority 
laid itself open ? 

7. How was the position of parties 
changed in 1831? What concession 
did the Crown make? For what was 
M'Kenzie expelled from the Assembly? 
What followed f 

8. On what mission was M'Kenzie 
employed? Why was the time auspi- 
cious? How was M'Kenzie received? 
What steps did Goderich take? 

9. What led to the reversal of Gode- 
rich's policy? What effect had this 
action ? 

10. How did the official party ^^ve 
e:!cpression to their views on M'Kenzie 
and the petition ? What were the only 
results of his mission? What took place 

when he took his seat; in the Assembly ? 
What honour was conferred on him in 

11. Who was elected Speaker of the 
new House ? With whom did the As- 
sembly begin to act iii concert? What 
volume was prepared? What effect 
had It? 

12. What legacy of trouble did Col- 
borne bequeath to his successor ? Whose 
jealousy did the Act excite? 

13. How did Sir Francis Head dis- 
appoint the expectations which had 
hc^.n formed regarding him? What 
was his first official act? W^hat em- 
barrassment did it cause ? 

14. What led to the breach between 
Sir Francis and the Reformers? What 
extreme step did the Assembly take? 
What letter did Speaker Bidwell read 
at the close of the session? How did 
Sir Francis deal with the letter ? 

15. What did Sir Francis conceive to 
be the issue at stake? How did the 
contest end? What instructions soon 
afterwards arrived from the Colonial 
Secretary ? How did Sir Francis widen 
the breach ? 





■\.t% : 


■J'. ■.; A 



1832 to 1837 A.D. 

The Family Compact of Nova Scotia. 

Joseph Howe and L. A. Wilmot. 

Division of the Council of New Bruns- 

Crown Land Department. 

Mission of Messrs. Simonds and Chand- 

Surrender of Casual and Territorial 

Mission of Messrs. Crane and Wilmot. 

Sir Archibald Campbell. 
Hon. G. F. Street in Downing Street. 
The Civil List Bill passed. 
Harvey and the Reign of Harmony. 
Joseph Howe. 
The closed doors. 
The Twelve Resolutions. 
The doors opened. 

The King's gracious intentions de- 

1. In the Lower Provinces, at this time, there was much 
political agitation. It was comparatively mild in its character, 
as neither New Brunswick nor Nova Scotia was troubled by 
those questions of race and origin which aroused such rancor- 
ous feelings in Lower and Upper Canada. The form of their 
government was, however, similar, and excited similar discon- 
tent. The events passing in the Upper Provinces had an influ- 
ence on the people of the Lower, and helped to break them 
away from their habit of " passive obedience," of which some of 
the leaders among them complained. 

2. In Nova Scotia the domination of a Family Compact was 
as firmly established as in Upper Canada. The Executive and 
Legislative Councils (as in New Brunswick) formed one branch, 
and combined the functions of making and administering the 
laws. The members were all residents of Halifax, and did not 
represent the interests of other parts of the Province. All the 
principal offices were in the hands of two or three families, and 
the subordinate places were distributed among their adherents. 
Ten of the twelve Councillors were members of the Church of 
England ; the other two were members of the Church of Scot- 
land ; all other denominations were unrepresented. The Bishop 
sat at the Council board, the Chief-Justice mingled in political 
disputes. Five of the Councillors were partners in a bank. Tlie 



Council sat in secret conclave, with closed doors, contemptuous 
towards the House of Assembly and defiant of public opinion. 

3. In New Brunswick the Council was similarly constituted, 
but the members did not keep themselves so rigidly aloof from 
the people or their representatives, and they represented fairly 
the interests of the whole Province. In some respects the posi- 
tion of the sister Provinces was singularly alike. The interest 
of a political struggle sometimes centres in a particular individ- 
ual. In Nova Scotia at this time, Joseph Howe, the son of a 
Loyalist, was rising into notice. He had qualities that fitted him 
to become a leader of the people. He had a very sociable tem- 
per, and was a ready, vigorous, eloquent, and humorous speaker 
aud writer. His occupation of journalist made him intimately 
acquainted with the political questions of the day ; and he came 
into close contact with all classes of people in the Province. The 
name of " Joe Howe" soon became as familiar in their mouths 
as a household word. By his writings in the press, by his 
speeches and acts in the Assembly, by his letters to public men 
in Great Britain, he did much to subvert the old system of rule 
in the Provinces, to make the principles of responsible govern- 
ment undei*stood, and to draw attention to British North Amer- 
ica. In New Brunswick, Lemuel Allan Wilmot took the 
lead of the reforming party. On both sides of his family he 
was connected with the old Loyalists and the party in power. 
He was a member of the profession of law, which, in the Prov- 
inces, soonest leads to political distinction. On his first enter- 
ing the Assembly the influence of his brilliant eloquence was felt. 

4. At that time two military men of the same name, and 
alike in character, ruled in the sister Provinces. Sir Colin 
Campbell was Governor of Nova Scotia ; Sir Archibald Camp- 
bell, of New Brunswick. They were brusque soldiers, bred in 
the habits of command and implicit obedience, and possessing 
little of the suavity and ductility of polished politicians. They 
naturally ranged themselves on the side of the constituted 
authorities, and in opposition to innovation and reform. 

5. The first movement towards political change was made in 
New Brunswick. A division was made by which the 
Legislative Council became a branch separate from the 1832 
Executive Council. The latter body was composed of a.d. 



'N'l II 


five members, — Honourables Wlmiwu Bailey, Frederick ^ 
Robinson, William F. Odell, Greorge F. Street, and John S. 
Saunders. The ostensible object of the division waa to open up 
a channel of communication between the Executive and the 
Assembly, by appointing members of the latter body to seats in 
the Council. As no increase was made to the number of five, 
the change was regarded as having been made entirely in the 
interest of the old " Compact" party, and excited much dis- 
satisfaction among members of the Legislative Council and the 

6. New Brunswick had many grievances then ; the chief of 
all was the state of the Crown Land Department. The sys- 
tem of granting lands favoured the rich, the influential, the 
large lumber operators, and was very obnoxious to the people. 
The head officer, the " Chief Commissioner," was appointed by 
the Crown, and was in a position to disregard their censure. 
He enjoyed a large salary, swelled by fees and perquisites, out 
of proportion to the incomes of other officials. This enabled 
him, it was said, to live in a style that set a bad example of 
extravagance. Out of the proceeds of the sales of lands — the 
Casual and Territorial Eevenue — the salaries of the Governor, 
Judges, and officials were paid ; and a surplus remained after 
the payment of this Civil List. The Assembly had no control 
over the management of the Crown lands and the revenue 
derived from them. During the session of 1832 that body 
prayed the Governor to submit to it detailed accounts of the 
moneys received and expended by the department. The request 
was brusquely refused. The Assembly then deputed Messrs. 
Charles Simonds and E. B. Chandler delegates to make arrange- 
ments with the Imperial Government for the surrender into its 
hands of the Casual and Territorial Eevenue. Terms were pro- 
posed by Mr. Stanley, then Colonial Secretary (1833), and 
accepted by the Assembly ; but through some misunderstand- 
ing, or secret influence, the arrangement was not carried out. 
One of the alleged causes of the failure was the refusal of the 
Secretary to include in the surplus the payments made by tiie 
New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Land Company.^ 

* Land Company. — The Company I but was not incorporated by Eoyal 
named was formed in London in 1831, I CSharter until 1834. It« object was to 



7. The Assembly again grappled with the Crown laud ques- 
tion. Dissatisfaction with the 8t.'>tc g2 the department 

had, in the meantime, increased. The battle was com- 1836 
menced by L. A. Wilmot moving an address to the a.d. 
Governor for detailed accounts of the lands sold during 
the previous year. In answer. Sir Archibald Campbell caused 
a mere general statement to be laid before the Assembly. This 
course showed disregard to the instructions he had received 
from the Colonial Office, and incensed the members. An address 
to the King, praying for the redress of grievances, was passed ; 
and Messrs. Crane and L. A. Wilmot were appointed delegates 
to carry it to the foot of the throne. • 

8. The spirit of the AddresB of the Assembly met the 
marked approval of King William. Lord Glenelg evinced a 
disposition to meet the views of the delegates. After several 
interviews, at which the surrender of the Casual and Territo- 
rial Revenue was considered in all its bearings, a definite ar- 
rangement was concluded, and the draft of a Bill for the sup- 
port of the Civil Government of the Province was drawn up. 
By its provisions the net amount of the Casual and Territorial 
Revenue was placed at the disposal of the Assembly, on condi- 
tion of its making a permanent provision of ^£14,500 currency 
annually, for the support of the Civil List. The salaries of 
the officials on the list were not touched, but a reduction was 
promised, in some cases, in event of death and f new appoint- 
ments. The management of the Crown lands was vested in the 
Governor and Council; but they were commanded to submit 
detailed accounts, fourteen days after the opening of each ses- 
eion, to enable the Assembly to maintain a supervision over the 
department. The principle of calling members of the Assembly 
to the Executive Council was recognized, but no peremptory 
rule was laid down. The selection of members of the Legislative 
Council from the ranks of gentlemen representing the variou =» 


promote emigration from the over- 
crowded parishes of England, and to 
give employment to the poorest class 
in making roads, clearing land, and 
building houses. It also held out in- 
ducements to officers retired from the 
military and civil services to settle on 

farms, and increase their means by 
husbandry. A traot of over 600,000 
acres, between the St. John and Mira- 
michi Rivers was purchased, for the 
sum of £56,000, of which £21,000 
was paid down, leaving a balance of 



' « ■ w\ 

•J- ■ 

J ' ',a 

■ -1 

it-' »:: 

interests of the Province was recommended. All grants and 
leases of lauds, unless sold by public auction to the highest 
bidder, were declared null and void. 

9. The Assembly seemed to have gained a victory i tint 
the battle was only half fought. The members of Council liad 
a strong personal interest in maintaining the old order of thiugs. 
They raised objections to the Bill, to the insufficiency of the 
sum of £14,500 to cover all the expenses of the Civil List, as the 
salaries of the Judges of the Circuit Courts and several contin- 
gencies had been omitted ; and to the injustice that would be 
done to a numerous and useful class of squatters, who could 
show no title to the land they were living on if the clause 
regarding sale by publicv auction were carried into effect. 

10. The views of Sir Archibald Campbell might have beeu 
coloured by the sentiments of his Council, but he was in a 
position to be independent. He was opposed to the Surren- 
der of the Casual and Territorial Revenue into the bauds 
of the Assembly. He was afraid that the large surplus from 
that revenue, amounting to ^5171,222, would be squandered, as 
he thought that it was unsafe to intrust a legislative body 
with the expenditure of mone}'^ ; while, if the sum were propeily 
invested, it would secure a permanent Civil List, and leave the 
annual revenues free to be devoted to purposes of general im- 
provement. In answer to the despatch of Lord Glenelg, trans- 
mitting the draft of " the Civil List Bill," the Governor wrote 
counter despatches pointing out errors and omissions, and 
suggesting amendments. 

11. The Legislature met in January. Sir Archibald Campbell 

had not received an answer to his despatches, and he 
1837 wished to gain time. He assumed a cold and stiff atti- 
A.D. tude, and signified his desire that, in the event of the 
Civil List Bill being past^ed, a "suspending clause" 
should be appended to it. The Bill wjis passed by the Assem- 
bly and the Legislative Council by large majorities. To meet the 
viewfe of the Governor and his Council, they declared themselves 
willing to provide for all necessary expenses and to protect all 
just rights; but they refused to make any alteration in the Bill, 
or to append to it the suspending clause, the effect of which would 
have been to render the Act inopeirative until the will of the 



King concerniug the amendments suggested by the Governor 
should be known. They were apprehensive that, in the event of 
these amendments meeting the approval of the Colonial Secre- 
tary, the Bill would be so altered by their insertion that the 
law officers of the Crown might advise His Majesty to refuse 
his assent to it. A deputation of the Legislature waited on the 
Governor to request that he would give his assent to the Bill. 
"Not without the suspending clause," said Sir Archibald. 
Later, the deputation again approached him with the question, 
" Would His Excellency assent to the Bill in the event of his 
receiving an answer to his despatches before the close of the 
session?" Sir Archibald would give no direct answer. 

12. On the 7th of February the Legislature was startled by the 
report that the Hon. George F. Street had secretly departed on a 
mission to Downing Street. This sudden movement of the 
Governor and the Council excited alarm and suspicion. Ees- 
olutions, pitched in a tone of strong indignation, denouncing 
the acts of the Council, and demanding the recall of the Gover- 
nor, were passed by the Assembly ; and an address to the King, 
embodying their se itiments and spirit, was drawn up. When 
this address w presented to Sir Archibald Campbell, the old 
soldier met tL ensure of the Legislature with an air and with 
words of perfect indifference. The temper displayed by the 
Governor was not calculated to allay the angry excitement. 
Messrs. Crane and Wilmot were again deputed delegates to lay 
the address at the foot of the throne. They left Frederickton on 
the 9th amidst demonstrations of popular feeling. On the 21st 
they had an interview with Lord Glenelg in Downing Street, 
when they were informed that Sir Archibald Campbell had 
resigned, and that Major-General Sir John Harvey had been 
appointed to succeed him. Their arguments and representa- 
tions nullified the efforts of the Hon. G. F. Street, the Council's 
delegate, to obtain a modification of the Bill. 

13. The Civil List Bill became law on the 17th of July. 
The Reformers rejoiced over the great boon which they had 
obtained. Honours were bestowed on the delegates ; Mr. 
Crane was called to a seat in the Executive Council ; Jar,. 
Wilmot was appomted King's Counsel. In the overflow of its 
gratitude, the Assembly requested Lord Glenelg to allow his 

(473) 23 





r,itv ■■;i'|i;li:i;,'- .ti . 

full-length portvait to be taken; and it now hangs over the 
Speaker's chair in the chamber in Frederickton. The principle 
of the Civil List Bill was the basis of the Constitution wliich 
the Imperial Government proposed to extend to all the British 
North American Provinces. It was objected to by Sir Francis 
B. Head, who complained that Messrs. Crane and Wilniot 
had made a Constitution for Upper Canada without its assent 
being asked. The Reformers, however, in that Province and 
in Lower Canada looked upon the concessions made by the 
Imperial Government as most unsatisfactory. They stifled 
political agitation in New Brunswick, and, under the benign 
rule of Sir John Harvey, the Beign of Harmony between all 
the branches of the Legislature was inaugurated. 

14. The contest did not commence in earnest in Nova Scotia 
until it was almost ended in New Brunswick. Joseph Howe 
entered the Assembly for the first time in 1837. He had proved 
himself to be a bold and acute reasoner. Two years before, he 
had been tried for publishing a libel on the Board of Magis- 
trates which governed the town of Halifax. He proved the 
charges of incapacity and corruption that he had preferred 
against them, and was triumphantly acquitted. He acted as 
his own counsel on the occasion, and showed himself to be 
eminently qualified to take his own part. The Reformers looked 
to him as to tliie Ajax who should " defy the lightning" of the 
Council. It required a bold man to do that. On his motion a 

demand was made that the doors of the Council should 

1837 ^e thrown open. It was met by defiant taunts. Howe 

A.D. returned to the charge, and hurled at the heads of the 

Council Twelve Resolutions, which repeated the de- 
mand for " open doors," and denounced the Council, in a body, 
as being exclusive, intolerant, opposed to the spread of civil 
and religious liberty, enlightenment, and education among the 
people, and actuated by motives of self-interest that were pre- 
judicial to the trade and commerce of the Province. Stung by 
the imputation on their character, the members of Council 
angrily called on the Assembly to rescind the obnoxious resolu- 
tions, threatening to stop all legislation in case of refusal. A 
collision, which would have been very hurtful to the country, 
was adroitly jiverted. The resolutions were cancelled j but 



they were embodied in an address to tlie King, in which the 
members prayed for, among other reforms, the exclusion of the 
Bishop and Chief-Justice from the Council, and for an elective 
Legislative Council. 

15. Lord Glenelg extended to Nova Scotia the provisions of 
the Civil List Bill of New Bruna ** ick. Nearly everything was 
conceded save the elective Legislative Council. The doors 
were thrown open at last. The Assembly, however, soon began 
to complain that it had been amused by a mere mockery of con- 
cession. The gracious intentions of the King, it was said, were 
defeated by the manner in which the Governor carried them 
out. The Council was divided into two branches, but the new 
appointments were made from the Family Compact. The As- 
sembly refused to make permanent provision for the Civil List, 
on the ground that the scale of salaries was too high for so poor 
a Province. The surrender of the Casual and Territorial 
Revenue was not an object of so great importance to it as it 
had been to the Assembly of New Brunswick. The proceeds 
were not nearly so great, and there was not only no large sur- 
plus in the treasury, but Nova Scotia was in debt. 

16. Events in the Canadas were now running in a revolution- 
ary current. Those who in Nova Scotia raised their voices for 
an elective Legislative Council were pronounced to be par- 
tisans of Papineau, and were stigmatised as rebels and repub- 
hcans. The Reformers shifted their ground, and directed all 
their efforts to remodel the Executive Council, and make it 
"responsible to the people." 

Questions. — 1. What made the po- 
litical agitation in the Lower Provinces 
milder than that in the Upper? What 
effect had the events in the latter Prov- 
inces on the former? 

2. What was the state of affairs in 
Nova Scotia? Who were the members 
of the Supreme Council ? What was its 
attitude towards the Assembly, and to- 
wards public opinion? 

8. How was the Council constituted 
in New Brunswick? What two men 
came into notice as political leaders in 
Nova Scotia and in New Brunswick? 
Sketch their characters. 

4, Who were then Governors of the 

sister Provinces? Describe their com- 
mon character. On which side did 
they range themselves? 

5. Where was the first movement 
made towards political change? Of 
what did it consist ? Whom did it dis- 
satisfy? Why? 

6. What was the chief grievance of 
New Brunswick? What was the re- 
sult of the negotiations with Mr. Stan- 

7. When did the Assembly again 
grapple with the land question? How 
did the battle commence? How did 
the Governor incense the Assembly? 
Wh^t did it then do? 



f 'I 

8. How wa8 the address of the As- 
sembly received by the King and by the 
Colonial Secretary? What were the 
chief provisions of the Civil List Bill? 

9. What objections did the Council 
raise to the Bill? 

•10. What were the views of Sir 
Archibald Campbell? How did he an- 
swer Lord Glenelg's despatch ? 

11. What proposal did the Governor 
make, in the event of the Bill being 
passed? Why did the Assembly op- 
pose the suspending clause? What 
position did the Governor take up? 

12. What movement of the Governor 
and Council er cited alarm? What did 
the Assembly consequently do? What 
did the delegates learn from Lord Glen- 

13. When did the CivU List Bill be- 
come law? How were the delegates re- 

warded? What compliment was paid t > 
Lord Glenelg? Of what did the Blh 
lay the foundation? What objection 
did Sir Francis Head make to it ? How 
were its concessions regarded by the 
Keformers in tlie Canadas? 

14. When did the contest begin in 
Nova Scotia? On what occasion had 
Howe proved his ability? What mo- 
tion did he make in the Assembly? 
What did he do when the demand was 
refused? How was a serious collision 
averted ? 

15. What was the result of the appeal 
to the Imperial Government? What 
complaint did the Assembly soon be- 
gin to make? 

16. How were events now running in 
the Canadas? What led the Reformers 
to shift their ground? To what did 
they direct their efforts? 




1837 A.D. 

Lord John Russeirs Resolutionn. 

Opinions regarding Responsible Gov- 

Final Dissolution of the Legislature of 
Lower Carada. 

Sir Francis Head tranquilly a\Kaits Re- 

The Meeting of the Five Counties. 

" The Dorics " and "Sons of Liberty." 

Affairs at St. Denis and St. Charles. 

Flight of Papineau. 

M'Kenzie threatens Toronto. 

The Rebels defeated at Montgomery 

Loyal enthusiasm of Militia of Upper 

Insurrection in the Two Mountains 


1. The crisis now came. In Lower Canada legislation was 
at a stand-still. Since 1832 the Assembly had refused 

to vote the supplies. Great suffering was the result to 1837 
individuals. The Judges and officials, who were chiefly a.d. 
British, were reduced to dire straits. Yet such was 
the rancorous spirit of the strife, that the members of the 
Assembly, who were mainly French Canadians, mocked at 
the misery which they had created. 

2. On the meeting of the Imperial Parliament in February, 
the Reports of the " Royal Commission of Inquiry " were 
laid before it. On the 6th of March, Lord John Russell ^ intro- 
duced a series of Ten Resolutions, which embodied the chief 
suggestions made in them, and a coercive measure empowering 
the Governor-General to talie, without the sanction of the 
Assembly, ^142,000 out of the moneys in the hands of the 
Receiver-General, to pay the arrears of the Civil List. In 
the House of Commons, the friends of the French Canadians 
warned him that such an arbitrary stretch of power would drive 
them into rebellion, and into the arms of the United States. 
Lord John Russell met the prediction coolly and quietly. He 

' Lord John Russell. — ^Born 1792 ; 
third son of the Duke of Bedford ; 
entered Parliament 1813; took office 
1830; introduced the first Keform BiU 

to the House of Commons 1831 ; three 
times Prime Minister of England, 1846, 
1851, 1866 ; raised to the peerage as Earl 
BusseU, 1861. 



wfls not apprehensive that the United States would provoke a 
quarrel with Great Britain. The Imperial Government did 
not propose to tiike money out of the Canadian treasury for its 
own purposes, but to do an act of justice to individuals. The 
Lower Canadians had no real giievances. The people were 
very lightly taxed; the Assembly had control over the ex- 
penditure of the revenues ; and the Executive and Legislative 
Councils would be remodelled in such a way as to give them 
a fairer representation. 

3. In the House of Lords, Brougham alone protested against 
the policy of the Government. That policy was opposed to tie 
chief demands of Papineau and his party. It refused to con- 
vert the Legislative Council into an elective body. The feel- 
ings of the King were opposed to such a change ; which change, 
moreover, would tend to subvert an important principle of the 
Constitution. The Legislative Council, a body in some measiii 
analogous to the House of Lords, was constituted to be a check 
to the encroachments and hasty legislation of the Assembly. If, 
like the latter, it were made elective, it would equally repre- 
sent popular sentiment and feeling, and the barrier would be 
swept away. The Government policy also refused to make the 
Executive Council responsible to the people. The reasons for 
the refusal advanced by Lord John Eussell were then very 
generally held by Liberals as well as by Tories in England, and 
were for a long time stumbling-blocks in the way of the Ee- 
formers. It was maintained that colonies held a different 
position from that of the mother country, and that the exact 
form of government that obtained in the latter was incompatible 
with the condition of the former, as dependent, subordinate 
provinces. In Great Britain, the King was placed above the 
passions of political strife. He represented the abiding power 
of the State. The Government was carried on by a body of 
advisers, a Ministry commanding the support of a majority of 
the people's representatives in the House of Commons. For its 
acts the Ministry was responsible to them. When it no longer 
met support, when the majority dwindled into a minority, the 
Ministry resigned its offices into the hands of the leadei"s of the 
party opposed to it, who enjoyed the confidence of the majority. 
The Ministiy might doubt if the majority against it in the 



House of Commons represented the real sentiments of the mass 
of tlie electors ; it might advise the King to disKolve the House 
and appeal to the people, in whose power was the ultimate fate 
of Ministries. If, after standing the test of a general election, 
the Ministry found that its acts were condemned, and that its 
supporters would ^>e in the minority, it gave place without 
further demur to its oj)ponent8. To his new body c" advisers 
the King, whose position was unatFected by the war of parties 
and the fall of Ministries, gave his confidence as representing 
the mind of the majority of the nation. But the Governor of 
a province was not a ruler in that supreme sense. He was ap- 
pointed by the King and the Parliament, and was re8})onsible 
to them for his acts. He received his instructions from the 
Colonial Office, and with the aid of his Executive Council carried 
them out. If the Executive Council were converted into a Minis- 
try responsible to the people, as in Great Britain, the Governor 
would become a mere cipher ; power would be transferred from 
King and Parliament to the body of electors in the Province, 
and the Province would become independent. Its position in 
relation to the Empire would be changed. The ultimate re- 
sult of this state of virtual independence would be the severance 
of the tie that bound the mother country and the Province to- 
gether, — the overthrow of monarchical and the establishment of 
republican institutions. 

4. The moderate Reformers contended that such extreme re- 
sults would not follow upon the granting of responsiole govern- 
ment to the Provinces. The supreme power of the Crown 
would remain unquestioned. The Governor, as the representa- 
tive of the King, would, under imperial direction, have the 
command of the naval and military forces, the power of making 
treaties and binding the colonies, and of regulating their com- 
merce according to the general interests of the Empire. It was 
only over mere local affairs, of which the Imperial Govern- 
ment could have no intimate knowledge, and in which it had 
really no interest, that they sought to establish the principle 
of the responsibility of the Executive to the people. The 
spirit of the great majority of the colonists was misunderstood. 
Their loyalty to the Crown and to the Britifih Constitution was 
deep-seated. They were bound to their fellow-countrymen at 




home by the ties of pride in the past history of the Empire, 
and of social and commercial interest in the present. They 
claimed the same lineage with them, spoke the same language, 
obeyed the same laws ; all they asked was, that they should 
not be placed in an inferior position, as regarded their govern- 
ment, to their brethren in the old country. 

5. When the Eesolutions of Lord John Russell were read 
in Lower Cauada, they excited exultation in the British and 
rage in the French Canadian party. The Act empowering tli 
Governor-General to take £142,000 out of the treasury, was 
denounced by Papiueau and other leaders as being quite as 
unjust and arbitrary as any that had driven the ximericau 
Colonies into rebellion. They would not listen when it was 
said that the Imperial Government was justified in exercising 
extreme authority, since the Assembly had abandoned its 
legislative functions, and for five years had refused to vote the 
supplies. To show their detestation of imperial tyranny, they 
counselled the habitans not to use any dutiable articles, and to 
resort to smuggling rather than help to raise a revenue. In 
their rage and disappointment at being denied the changes in 
the Constitution which they had demanded, they entered upon 
the most violent courses. Abandoning the position of Re- 
formers, they became flaming Patriots, determined to obtain 
by force of arms the concessions that had been refused to their 
addresses. The crisis demanded the exercise of calm judgment, 
and la^ver were its dictates less regarded. 

6. The Russell Resolutions affected Upper Canada equally 
with Lower Canada, and dashed the hopes of the extreme 
sect? vLi of the Reform^ s. M'Kenzie and Papineau now 
clasped h:A,ndc;, and took the same desperate resohe — to rebel. 
"^f they had listened to the counsel of their best friends in 
F~\gland, chey would have paused before committing them- 
selves to so mad a course. The Imper'al Government, they 
were told, had shown a disposition to be oonciliatory ; it could 
not be expected to break loose at once from the system of 
government that had obtained in the colonies ever since i'ae 
colonics had had an existence. It would be wisdom or the paii; 
01 the Reformers to accept the concessions offei 3d in the same 
spirit, and to wait until it was seen how they should be carri'^d 




out befoiv. making further demands. Equally, however, it be- 
hoved the opponents of reform to be moderate. The gracious 
intention of the Imperial Government to remodel the Executive 
and Legislative Councils, by appointing members fairly repre- 
senting the interests of all parties in the Provinces, might bo 
defeated b}'- the way in which it was carried out ; its letter 
might be obeyed by increasing the number of members of the 
Councils, but its spirit disregarded by selecting them from 
persons in whom the people and their representatives had no 
confidence. That was not the time for the party in power to 
intrench itself selfishly behind its privileges, but to yield 
gracefully to necessity. They took counsel, however, of their 
pride. Papineau and his party gave way to their rage and 
disappointment. The seemingly i 'resolute tone assumed by 
Lord John Russell tended to draw them into the path of danger. 
If they had been met with the stern announcement that the 
Imperial Goverimient had conceded so much and would con- 
cede no more, and that the force of the Empire would be 
us'^d to crush rebellion^, it is scarcely conceivable that they 
would have harangued the simple habitans on their duty as 
patriots to free themselves from British tyranny, and coun- 
selled them to attend political meetings with arms in their 

7. About the end of June, Lord Gosford, alarmed at the 
turn that affairs were taking, issued a Proclamation, 
warning the people of Lower Canada of the danger -tnon 
they were incurring by attending seditious gatherings. 
Copies were posted up in public places, and on the walls 
of the churches ; but they were torn down with shouts of " Dowii, 
with the „>oclamation ! " " Long live Papineau, our deliverer !" 
"Hurrah for liberty!" In the course of the summer all the 
British troops wrre concentrated in and about Montreal. Two 
additional regiments were called for from Nova Scotia and 
New Brunswick. Unwilling to proceed to extremities. Lord 
Gosford convened the LeQ;i'jlature towards the end of August. 
In his opening speech he besought the members of Assembly 
to resume their duties, to pass the supplies, and to accept the 
concillatciy neasures offered by the Imperial Government. 
But his friendly overtures we.e met by demands for an elective 


; « i 





4:C^.*»--,4 -*■-'■:-:■-.- 


Legislative Council, a responsible Executive, full, unconditional 
control of all the revenues and lands, and a termination of 
imperial interference in provincial affairs. Lord Gosford had 
no option but to dissolve the House and let rebellion run its 

8. Immediately after the dissolution, agitation was carried 
on with increased fury. Papineau traversed the country from 
Montreal to Eimouski. Dr. Wolfred Nelson, Lafontaine, 
Girouard, and other leaders, held insurrectionary meetings in 
the counties south of the St. Lawrence. The blessing of the 
Church was not on the work. The clergy were solemnly in- 
structed by the Bishops of Quebec and Montreal to refuse the 
rites of the Church to those who took part in it. But even 
the threat of excommunication had no terrors : the habitana 
turned on their priests, and told them not to meddle with 
matters political. 

9. In Upper Canada the Tories were triumphant, and the 
Reformers were driven to desperation. To M'Kenzie's soured 
spirit and excited mind the opportunity, now that Lower 
Canada was on the eve of open rebellion, appeared to be 
favourable to shake the Province free of Sir Francis Head and 
his band of hireling officials. He wildly reasoned himself into 

the conviction that success was possible. On the 2ud 
Aug. 2. of August, the Declaration of the Reformers, in 

whicn they set forth at lentjCh their unredressed griev- 
ances, renounced imperial authority, and gave their active sym- 
pc^vuy to the cause of the French Canadians, was published. It 
was signed by M'Keuzie and other membeis of the extreme sec- 
tion ; but the more moderate men, Baldwin, Rolphe, and Bidwell, 
carefully abstained from appending their signatures. A Vigi- 
lance Committee was formed in Toronto ; and Reform Unions 
were established in the Home and Gore districts. M'Kenzie 
travelled from village to village, inflaming the minds of the 
people. Sometimes he barely escaped very rough usage from 
the Loyalist farmers and men.bers of the Irish Orange Society. 
Sir Francis gave him full scope to say and do what he pleased. 
He might easily have nipped the rebellion in th^ bud ; but he 
chose to allow it to grow to a head. He sent all the regular 
troops out of the Province to aid Lord Gosford and Sir John 




Colborue, and proclaimed his intention to trust to the loyalty 
of the brave militia of Upper Canada. " With folded arms" 
he awaited the outburst of the rebellion. 

10. By the middle of October the state of Lower Canada 
became alarming. From the county of the Two Mountains the 
British settlers flocked into Montreal, leaving their farms to be 
ravaged by the excited habitans. On the 25th a great gather- 
ing took place at St. Charles on the Richelieu. — the Meeting of 
the Five Counties, as it was called. On the meadow a column 
was erected surmounted by a cap of Liberty, and bearing the 
inscription, " To Papineau, by his grateful brother Patriots." 
A b?-nd of armed militia kept the ground. Inflammatory 
speeches were made, and revolutionary resolutions passed 
amidst wild acclamations, followed by volleys of musketry. 
The young Patriots marched past the leaders ; at the column 
of Liberty they paused, and laying their hands on it, solemnly 
vowed to devote themselves to the service of their country. 
Political organizations were formed in Montreal and Quebec, 
which marked the division of the races and provoked a 
disturbance of the peace. On the 6th of November, Nov. 6. 
the British " Doric " Club dispersed, by force, a meet- 
ing of French Canadian "Sons of Liberty." No life was 
taken on either side ; but f.he afiair was remarkable as being 
the first collision that took place, and as a proof that both 
parties were prepared to come to blows. 

11. The Governor-General now gave orders for the arrest of 
the ringleaders of the revolt on the southern bank of the St. 
Lawrence. A party of volunteer cavalry, returning from St. 
John's by way of Argenteuil, were surprised by a body of 
insurgents, and routed, with the loss of two prisonei-s whom 
they had taken. A simultaneous attack was made on the 
strongholds of the rebels on the Richelieu Eiver. On 

the night of the 22nd November, Colonel Gore, with Nov. 22. 
five hundred men, one gun, and a few mounted police, 
advanced from Sorel to St. Denis, where Dr. Wolfred Nelson 
and a body of rebels held a strong position. Colonel Wetherall, 
With 'A slightly larger force, moved from Chambly to St. 
Charles, where "General" Stowell Brown and a party of 
habitans were posted in an old French chateau, within well- 

Id. . ' -.-5 ' 







barricaded grounds. The weather was dark and stormy, and 
the mud on the roads ankle-deep. It was ten o'clock the follow- 
ing morningbefore Colonel 
THREE RWERs^^ Gore's force reached St. 

Denis, a distance of six- 
teen miles from Sorel. 
Dr. Nelson had his men 
posted in a strong stone 
building, and in houses 
that lined the road leading 
to it. As the British 
soldiers, exhausted and 
foot-sore, advanced to at- 
tack the main position, 
they suffered a galling fire 
on their flanks. They 
could make no impression 
on the stone house ; so 
leaving their one gun 
stuck fast in the mire, 
they retreated, crest-fallen, 
carrying sixteen of their comrades killed and wounded. A 
young officer, Lieutenant Weir, carrying despatches from 
Gore to Wetherall, was intercepted by some of the insur- 
gents, and murdered in the most barbarous manner. 

12. Owing to the frightful state of the roads and the destruc- 
tion of the bridges, it was noon of the 25t"ii before Colonel 
Nov. 25. Wetherall reached St. Ghaxles. The old chateau T^as 
strong, but its defenders were wretchoaly armed w h 
untrustworthy muskets and fowling-pieces. " General" Brown 
was a very different leader from the intrepid Doctor of St. 
Denis, and he fled after the first shot was fired. The deluded 
habitans made a stand for a time, till the red-coats, charging 
over the barricades^ broke into the chateau grounds and poured 
a deadly volley of musketry upon them. All then fled who could 
flee. At the close of the contest, Colonel Wetherall counted 
fifty-six dead bodies of the insurgents. In revenge for the 
murder of Lieutenant Weir, the soldiery let loose their fury on 
the villagers. Daunted by the fate of St. Charles, Dr. Nelson 




evacuated St. Denis on the 5th, on hearing the report of the 
advance of Colonel Gore with a fresh force. Emeutes among 
the habitans of St. Ours and Hyacinthe were promptly quelled. 
Papineau, the "head and front of the rebellion," and other 
leaders, were by this time across the frontier, and safe in 
the United States. Dr. Wolfred Nelson, in attempting to 
escape, was captured and lodged in Montreal jail. 

13. Not until the fate of Papineau and his party had been 
decided at St. Denis and St. Charles did rebellion break out in 
Upp^r Canada. Deceived by the seeming indifference of Sir 
Francis Head, and the defenceless state of Toronto, M'Kenzie 
was drawn on to tempt Fortune. Fifteen hundred men enrolled 
themselves to fight under his flag, on which was inscribed the 
legend, " Bid well and the glorious Minoiity of 1837 ; a good 
beginning." He had not arms for a tiiird of the number. On 
the night of the 4th of December a band of four hundred 
met at Montgomery's tavern, in Yonge Street, the great Dec. 4. 
road running north from Toronto. The city was un- 
gaarded; there was not a British soldier in it save the guard at 
Government House. A sudden, determined attack, might have 
placed the city, the Governor, and the Government in M'Kenzie's 
hand. A patrol riding out from Toronto brought back word 
hurriedly that the rebels were advancing. The alarm-bell 
rang and awoke Sir Francis out of a sound sleep. Hastily 
the citizens gathered around the City Hall, where four thousand 
stand of arms were stored. The first to seize muskets were the 
Attorney-General and the Judges. Messengers were despatched 
to Colonel M'Nab and the officers commanding the militia of 
the Gore, Newcastle, and Midland districts to come to the 
rescue. M'Kenzie lost his opportunity. His force, undis- 
ciplined and wretchedly armed, would not obey the word of 
command. Midway to the city they were struck with panic, 
and fled bacfeto their head-quarters at the tavern. Sir Francis, 
under the mask of indiff'erence, had been very uneasy. He was 
greatly relieved when Colonel M'Nab appeared with the militia- 
men of Goye. They were not clad in scarlet tunics and armed 
with regulation rifles, like our modern volunteer force. They 
mostly wore their ordinary gray homespun ; and many of them 
carried old muskets, and even pikes and pitchforks. On the 



heels of the men of Gore followed the militia of the north- 
western districts. Unwilling to shed blood in civil broil, or 
anxious to gain time until he had an overwhelming force, at his 
command, Sir Francis sent a messenger to the rebels to call on 
them to lay down their arms ; but he curtly refused the con- 
dition demanded by M'Kenzie, that he would summon a Con- 
vention for the redress of all grievances. 

14. About noon of the 7tli, Sir Francis Head marched out 

of Toronto with a force of five hundred men to give 
Dec. 7. battle. The rebels, commanded by M'Kenzie, Van 

Egmond, an old officer who had served under Napoleon, 
and Lount, a blacksmith, were posted on both sides of the 
great road, and had the protection of a copse and a few houses. 
The Loyalists advanced with spirit to the sound of military 
music. They opened fire with two pieces of artillery. For a 
brief time the rebels bore it and the continuous volleys of 
musketry; then they broke into utter rout. To mark his 
vengeance. Sir Francis gave orders to bum the tavern, and the 
private dwelling of one of the rebel leaders ; but he generously 
extended pardon to a few prisoners. He proclaimed M'Kenzie 
an outlaw, and offered a large reward for his capture. Euined 
and well-nigh reckless, that ill-starred man escaped pursuit, and 
found safety and sympathy for a time in the United States. 
In a week from the time of the first rising, the abortive 
rebellion w crushed. The militia flocked to Toronto in such 
numbers that Sir Francis felt constrained to announce that 
he had no need of further help, and to direct the enthusi- 
astic volunteers to go home, or to march to the aid of Sir John 
Colborne. His confidence in the loyalty of the yeomanry of 
Upper Canada had not been misplaced. The Province was far 
from being restored to a state of quiet and contentment. The 
harsh manner in which the Government used its victory, the 
revengeful spirit with which it pursued some of the ringleaders 
of the revolt to the bitter death, and persecuted those who 
were suspected of sympathizing with it, offended many loyal 

15. Rebellion still raised its head in Lower Canada, in the 
county of the Two Mountains. On the 13th of December, Sir 
John Cojborue set out from Montreal with a force of thirteen 



hundred men. in his train followed many of the British settlers, 
who at the outbreak of the revolt had been compelled to Hy 
from their farms : they were in a bitter mood. When 
Sir Jolin entered the village of St, Eustache, the main Dec. 13. 
body of the insurgents, under Girod, fled before him. 
Dr. Chenier and four hundred of the more resolute threw them- 
selves into the church and into adjoining buildings. They 
found themselves penned as in slaughter houses. The stone 
walls of the church fell before the fire of the British artillery, 
the wooden rafters took fire from the shells. In an hour's 
time the position became utterly untenable. Chenier and one 
hundred men were shot dead. Then the rest fled ^rom the 
ruins of the church and from the burning outposts. One hun- 
dred more were taken prisoners. On the 15th, Sir John Colborne 
advanced to St. Benoit, where the fiercest resistance was ex- 
pected. The leaders fled (as nearly all of them had done in 
the course of this luckless rebellion), daunted by the near ap- 
proach of the danger whi( h they had courted. A deputation 
came out to meet the General, and made peace for the insur- 
gents. They did not escape punishment. In the night a part 
of the village was destroyed by fire, — a deed of vengeance 
attributed to the British settlers who had followed the camp. 

Questions. — 1. When did the crisis 
come? What had been the state of 
affairs in Lower Canada since 1832? 

2. On what ground were the proposals 
of the Government opposed in the 
House of Commons ? What was Lord 
John Rxissell's reply? 

3. Who alone protested in the Lords 
against the Government policy ? What 
were the objections to making the 
Legislative Conncil elective? What 
contrast was drawn between the posi- 
tion of colonies and tliat of the mother 
country in regard to the supreme 
pover? What conclusion was drawn 

4. What was the contention of the 
moderate Reformers? In connection 
with what affairs only did they seek to 
make the Executive responsible to the 

5. What effects had the Russell 
Resolutions in Lower Canad|a? To 

what did the Leaders chiefly take ex- 
ception? What character did t.hey 
assume ? 

6. Who were disappointed by the 
Resolutions in Upper Canada ? What 
resolution did M'Kenzie and Papin^jau 
take? Whar, advice was given them by 
their best friends in England? By 
whom should the advice of moderation 
also have been followed ? What tended 
to draw Papineau and his party into 
the path of danger? 

7. What step did Lord Gosford ta'ice 
about thii end of June ? How was the 
rroclamation treated? In what terms 
did Lord " osford address the Assembly ? 
Ho-v were his overtures met? What 
did he then do? 

8. By what was the dissolution lol- 
lowed? Who took part in it? What 
part did the Church take in it ? 

0. What docunient did the Reformers 
issue iu Upper Canada ? How was the 



agitation carried on? What attitude 
did Sir Francis Head assume ? 

10. Describe the Meeting of the Five 
Counties. What Icind of political 
societies were formed in Montreal and 
Quebec ? Wh en did the flrst collision 
take place ? 

11. What orders did the Governor- 
General then give? Describe Colonel 
Gore's attack on St. Denis. What was 
t^ J fate of Lieutenant Weir? 

12. Who attacked St. Charles? What 
was the result? What became of 
Papineau ? and of Dr. Nelson ? 

13. How many men had M'Kenzie 
under his flag? What city did he 

threaten? How were the authorities 
warned ? How did the rebels conduct 
themselves? What message did Head 
send to them ? 

14. Describe the affair of the 7th 
December. Whatbecameof M'Kenzie? 
How long had the rebellion lasted? 
Who were enthusiastic in their loyalty? 
How did the Government offend many 
loyal people ? 

15. Where did Sir John Colborne 
defeat the insurgents in Lower Canada? 
Where hnd they taken refuge? How 
wore they driven out? What was the 
fate of Chenier? How did the affair 






1838-1839 A.D. 

Loyal feeling in the Maritime ProTincos. 
M'Kenzie on Navy Island. 
The burning of the steamer Caroline. 
American sympathizers invade Canada. 
Suspension of the Constitution of Lower 

Sir Francis B. Head resigns. 
Execution of Lount and Matthews. 
Earl Dnrhnm, High Commissioner. 

Amnesty to political prisoners. 

The Earl abruptly leaves Canada. 

Fresh outbreak. 

Affairs at Napierville and Odell-to>»Ti. 

"The Hunters" invade Canada. 

The Disputed Territory. 

Warlike excitement in Maine and New 

The Ashburton Treaty. 

1. The rebellion in the Canadaa called forth the British 
feeling of the Maritime Provinces. The people of Nova Scotir- 
aud New Brunswick stood ready to march to support Gosford 
aud Head in their defence of monarchy. In the hour of danger 
their love for their Queen, and the dear old mother country 
and its institutions, rose above all political discontent. The 
uprising, however, obtained the sympathy of the A'liericans on 
the frontiers. In all the towns the feeling was openly expressed. 
In Buffalo, M'Kenzie, the attainted rebel, was received with 
entliusiasm and offers of aid. Lawless men enrolled themselves, 
in the desecrated name of Liberty, to " free Canada from op- 
pression." Preparations for inYasion went on before the eyee 
of the authorities of the States of New York, Ohio, and Michi- 
gan, who unaccountably could see in them nothing amiss. The 
State arsenals were broken into, new muskets were pu) loinedf- 
and no remonstrance was made. Great Britain and the United 
States were at peace, but the President issued no Proclamation 
warning the citizens not to levy war against a friendly nation. 

2. M'Kenzie joined a General Yan Rensselaer, who, with a 

bodv of Canadian refugees and American adventurers, 

Doc 13 
took possession of Navy Island in the Niagara River, . '* 

a short distance above the Falls, on the 13th of Decem- ' 


ber. Here, on British territory, M'Kenzie proclaimed 

a republic for Upper Canada, and promised grants of land and 

.^73) 24 



money bounties to all who would volunteer to fight under the 
flag of Liberty. He offored a reward of £500 for the capture of 
Sir Francis Head. Kecruita did not flock to his standard. 
Colonel M'Nab and his militia confronted him at Chippewa, 
and a brisk but not deadly fire was kept up between the shore 
and the island. The conduct of the American General did not 
inspire confidence ; for he had a strong propensity to lie in 
bed, drink brandy, and write love-letters, instead of attending 
to his military duties. The situation had a ludicrous aspect, 
but an event happened which threw a serious shade over it. 
Shortly before midnight of the 27th a flotilla of boats, under 
Lieutenant Drew of tlie Royal Navy, swept c»ver to Fort Schlosser 
on the American side and surprised a steamer belonging to the 
marauders. Her crew was landed, and the Caroline^ on fire, 
was towed into mid-stream above " the rapids" and abandoned. 
Drawn in by the current, she wa§ carried swiftly, in a flaming 
mass, right over the crest of the Horse Shoe Falls. Soon after 
this incident M'Kenzie left Navy Island. 

3. The destruction of the " Caroline " won applause from 
the British Government for Colonel M'Nab, under whose orders 
it had been done. He was shortly afterwards knighted. By 
the United States authorities it was dt .ounced as an infraction 
of the law of nations. Very angry feelings were aroused by 
this aff'air, which at one time threatened to embroil the two 
great nations in war. While the Americans were very sensitive 
on this point, they saw unmoved the attempt of some of their 

citizens to invade Canada. A plan was concocted to 

1838 attack it in three directions, — from Ogdensburg, from 

A.D. Buff'alo, and from the Detroit frontier. Fortunately 

there were too many generals who claimed the honour 
of leading these enterprises. Every one wished to command ; 
none cared to obey. They grew jealous, and thwarted each 
other's plans. Mutual charges of treachery and cowardice were 
made. The consequence was that many of those who had con- 
sented to act as privates became disgusted, and deserted at the 
critical moment. On the 22nd of February a force of some 
1500 men crossed over .to Hickory Island from a point of ; 
the St. Lawrence below Kingston. While there their leader, 
Yan Rensselaer, misbehaved himself as usual, whereon the 

POINT PEl£ island. 


woiild-be marauders took the alarm and hastily made their 
way to the mainland. 

4. In the west a force, styled the Patriot Army, made a land- 
ing on Bois Blanc Island,* opposite Sandwich. Their general, 
Sutherland, issued a proclamation to the Patriots of Ui)per 
Canada, calling on them to rise and rally around the standard of 
Liberty and free themselves from the parasites of the British 
Crown, who were fattening on their substance. A schooner, 
carrying arms and ammunition, ran aground and was captured 
by the British ; whereon Sutherland in real or feigned alarm 
ordeired a hasty retreat. Loud accusations of treachery were 
raised against him. He took part in another foray 

made by the Patriots on the 4tli of March. Four Marcl) 4. 
hundred made their way to Point Pele Island, forty 
miles south-east of Amherstburg.^ They were met by Colonel 
Maitlaud at the head of several companies of regulars, and 
driven from the island. Two companies, posted on the frozon 
river, cut off their retreat. Throwing themselves behind blocks 
of ice, the Patriots kept up a stinging fire until they were dis- 
lodged by a charge of British bayonets, and compelled to seek 
their own shore in great disorder. Sutherland was among the 
prisoners taken. He was arraigned before a court-martial by 
Sir Francis Head. Before the trial took place, when lying in 
the jail at Toronto, he attempted suicide, having previously made 
a confession, in which he accused the United States Govern- 
ment of having abetted the attempts at invasion, and of harbour- 
ing the design of conquering Canada as it had done Texas. 
Whether the charge was true or not, it was implicitly believed 
by the impulsive and outspoken Governor, who did not fail to 
give the United States authorities his opinion of their conduct. 

5. Lower Canada was now reduced to a wretched state. 
Civil government was suspended, and the people were placed 
under martial law. The unhappy events of the rebellion, the 
barbarous murders, the wanton destruction of property, widened 
the gulf between the hostile races. A return to the state of 

' Bois Blanc Island. — In Detroit 
River. Sandwich is on the Canada 
side, 3 or 4 miles south of Detroit. See 
Map, p. 289. 

'^ Amherstburg.— On Detroit River, 
11 miles south of Sandwich. For this 
place, and for Point Pel^ Island, see 
Map, p. 289. 








■^ !■■ lllll 

Its , 
















■■ M 







affairs previous to the outbreak, when a French majority con- 
trolled the Assembly and a British minority ruled in the 
Councils, was impossible. The British minority appealed to 
their brethren in the other Provinces for sympathy. "The 
Constitutional Society of Montreal" sent an address to the 
several Legislatures, in which they depicted their unhappy 
condition, living in the midst of a majority speaking a foreign 
language, and subjected to the operation of barbarous laws, 
which repressed commerce ard retarded progress. The remedy 
they sought was the abolition of the French laws and lang! 
and the Union of Lower with Upper Canada. They asked 
for a favourable expression of opinion from the legislatures to 
aid them in obtaining these reforms. The address was discussed 
in the Legislatures, and sympathetic answers were sent from 
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. But Eeformers like Howe 
would no. sanction the intolerant spirit of either the address 
or the ans\7ers, which was shown in the desire expressed to Au- 
glify the French Canadians. It was not wise statesmanship to 
endeavour to crush out a national feeling by sweeping away the 
language, laws, and customs by which it was sustained. Besides, 
it was impossible to make a Frenchman act and think like an 
Englishman. The only way to avoid perpetual civil strife was 
to act justly, and in framing a Constitution to consult the feel- 
ings, customs, and prejudices of the French Canadians. 

6. Though to all appearance the active spirit of rebellion was 
crushed out, disaffection smouldered ; the rebellious gathered 
some hope from the actions of the sympathizers along the 
American frontiers. Lord Gosford was recalled, and Sir John 
Colborne was appointed Governor, with supreme power, in con- 
junction with his Council, to make, enact, and carry out, such 
laws as were necessary. It was a return to the absolute form 
of government erected in the Province after the Conquest. 
The Constitution of 1791 was suspended. 

7. In Upper Canada the state of atfairs was not much more 
satisfactory. Sir Francis Head set his face against conciliation, 
and absolutely refused to carry out the recommendation of 
Lord Glenelg to promote certain prominent members of the 
Reform party. As he chose to act in opposition to the policy of 
the Government that had appointed him, he felt constrained to 

J 7 . 




He chivalrously sacrificed himself to preserve the Con- 
stitution and the privileges of the Compact party. He was 
rewarded by the presentation of numerous addresses from all 
the Provinces expressing admiration of his conduct and regret 
at his departure. He was succeeded by Colonel Sir George 
Arthur, formerly Governor of Van Diemen's Land, a penal 
colony. He had a firm and heavy hand. He entered into the 
views of the party in power, and ridiculed what he called 
lYrKenzie's scheme of Responsible Government. The jails 
ill Toronto and other places were now crowded with political 
prisoners. Many had fied from the Province to escape trial 
for high treason. The triumphant Tories were in no lenient 
mood. They even showed zeal in punishing suspected sympathy 
with the rebellion, and dissatisfaction with the existing order. 
Lount and Matthews, in contempt of an urgent and numer- 
ously signed petition, were executed. Lord Glenelg inter- 
fered to stop the wanton spilling of blood in revenge. The 
body of the people had vindicated their loyalty, but the uncom- 
promising attitude of the Family Compact in opposition to 
reform tended to unite all parties and sects outside of it, — Catho- 
lics, Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists, — and to form in them 
a resolve to obtain some constitutional change. 

8. The affairs of the Canadas engaged much attention in the 
Imperial Parliament. The Government was aroused to take 
an earnest step to give peace to the distracted country. The 
appointment of Sir John Colborne was only temporary, pending 
the arrival of the Earl of Durham, " Governor-General of all 
the North American Provinces, and ITigh Commissioner for the 
adjustment of certain important questions depending in the 
Provinces of Lower and Upper Canada, respecting the future 
government of said Provinces." He had had gi'eat experience 
as a statesman, and belonged to the Liberal school. He possessed 
much ability and many accomplishments, and was of a refined 
and courteous nature. But he was proud and sensitive ; he 
asserted his own opinions very strongly, and could not patiently 
brook contradiction. His liberality was princely. He was 
clothed with great powers, which he was disposed to use on the 
side of mercy and justice. 

9. Lord Durham arrived with his retinue in Quebec on the 



21st of May. He was received with the greatest cordiality by 
all parties. The people were impressed by thi viceregal poniji 
with which he was surrounded. The thoughtful looked forward 
with hope to his administration. In order to keep himself free 
from the suspicion of being influenced, he called no members of 
any existing parties to his Spf ial Council. This Council was 
composed of five members, Vice-Admiral Sir Charles Paget, 
General Sir James MacDonnel, Lieutenant-Colonel Grey, Colonel 
Cowper, and Hon. Charles BuUer. His first acts were to 
despatch Colonel Crey to Washington to make representations 
against hostile demonstrations of American sympathizers, and 
to put the frontiers in a state of defence. On his staff were 
several gentlemen of great ability. To them was confided the 
task of collecting information concerning the political grievances 
and the general condition of the Canadas. Major Head was 
despatched to the Lower Provinces for a like purpose. Invita- 
tions were sent to the Governors of Nova Scotia, New Bruns- 
wick, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland, to meet and 
confer with the Earl in Quebec. Deputations com])Osed of the 
leading members of the legislatures of the Provinces accom- 
panied them. 

10. The disposal of the political prisoners was a subject 
of anxious consideration. In the exasperated state of the 
country it was needless to bring them to trial. No French 
Canadian jury would ever convict a fellow-couutryman, how- 
ever heinous his offence. No mixed jury of French and British 
could be found who would agree on a verdict. And the act of 
bringing offenders to trial would stir up smouldering party 
hatreds. As Papineau and other leaders had fled from the Prov- 
inces, Lord Durham found that there were very few who were 
amenable to the grave charge of high treason. He issued an ordi- 
nance causing Dr. WoFrod Nelson and eight other ringleaders 
to be transported to Be muda, under penalty of being liable to 
captur'e, trial, executi<>n if they ventured to return to the Prov- 
ince. An amnesty was extended to all other offenders. 

11. Lord Durham had acted from the best of motives, but he 
had committed a technical error. The Governor of Bermuda 
raised the objection that he had no legal authority to restrain the 
party sent to him, or to detain them as prisoners in the island. 

THE hunters' lodges. 


The difficulty was not insuperable, but the question was taken 
up in the Imperial Parliament. The political opponents of the 
Earl had shown a disposition from the very first to criticise his 
acts in a keen and captious spirit. The extent and expense of 
his retinue and the number of his secretaries had been objected 
to. They now condemned his action in transporting the po- 
liticjil offenders to Bermuda on his own authority as an illegal 
exercise of power. They ought to have been brought into 
court, tried by a jury, and sentenced by a judge. An Act was 
passed disallowing the ordinance, but indemnifying those who 
had issued and acted under it. This action deeply wounded the 
proud and sensitive Earl. He complained that while he had 
been unfairly assailed by his opponents, he had been but coldly 
supported by his friends. The course pursued by Parliament 
weakened the influ' nee of his authority in Canada, and destroyed 
his power of doing good. He gave way to irritation, and re- 
solved to throw up his commission. In publishing the Act of 
Indemnity he proclaimed that, as the Imperial Government had 
disallowed his act transporting the nine to Bermuda, the am- 
nesty that he passed for minor offenders was extended to all. 
The force of this declaration was to extend pardon to Papineau 
and all others charged with high treason. This hasty interpre- 
tation of the Indemnity was understood as tending to encourage 
sedition. The Earl abruptly terminated his mission and re- 
turned to England. 

12. The departure of the Earl of Durham seemed to be the 
signal for a fresh outbreak in Lower Canada, and for a renewal 
of hostile demonstrations on the American frontiers. Early 
in May secret societies, called " Hunters' Lodges," had been 
formed in all the towns and villages from Cleveland to Ogdens- 
burg. Their members took an oath to uphold republican 
institutions on the American Continent, and to fight for the 
independence of Canada. Among them -were a number of 
refugees, but the greater part were American adventurers. A 
simultaneous rising had been arranged for a certain day, but 
there was no discipline or unity among the predatory hordes. 
Their generals, as usual, quarrelled among themselves and abused 
each other. Their pretensions to conquer Canada were absurd, 
but they could commit acts of rapine and murder, and keep up 




a state of dangerous excitement. A spirit almost app/oaching 
to disaftection was manifested among a portion of the :j:iilitia of 
Upper Canada, who were annoyed at the lenity shown to par- 
ticipants in the late rebellion. 

' 13. Early in October revolutionary societies were formed iu 
Lower Canada. Again the British Loyalists fled from the dis- 
tricts about Montreal and Quebec into the cities ; again tlie 
habitans in the counties north of the St. Lawrence gathered in 
large bodies. On Sunday the 5th of November they rose in 

Beauharuois county. At Caughnawaga, on news arriv- 
Nov. 5. ing that the insurgents were close at hand, a party of 

Indians, who were attending divine service, rushed out 
of the chapel, fell on them, and took many prisoners. The cl-ief 
force of the reb.'llion was collected at Napier ville, in La Prairie 
county, under Dr. Ro]?ert Nelson, brother of Wolfred. Here 
he proclaimed the independence of Canada and his intention of 
founding a republic. General Sir James MacDonnel advanced 
with a force of regulars and militia. Thereupon Nelson retired 
towards the boundary line with the expectation of uniting with 
a body of American sympathizers. A party marching in ad- 
vance was interrupted by two hundred militiamen, and put to 
flight. The victorious Loyalists then fell back on Odell-tov»'n, 
and on the approach of the main body of the insurgents under 
Nelson, threw themselves into a church. A spirited attack Wc\s 
made on this strong position, but failed to dislodge its defenders. 
After suffering a loss of fifty killed, and as many wounded, the 
deluded habitans retired aoross the line. The rebellion was 
crushed with extreme violence in the counties where it had 
raised its head. Tracts of land were made desolate, houses and 
barns were given to the flames ; with brutal violence suspected 
rebels were hauled to prison, and crowds of distracted women 
and weeping children followed the devastating march of the 

14. In the meantime the members of the Hunters' Lodges 
had been active ; but Sir George Arthur was on the alert. His 
agents on the frontiers had discovered the secret of the intended 
rising. A large body of sympathizers assembled at Ogdensburg, 
and the inhabitants of that town collected in gleeful crowds to 
witness the invasion. As usual, there was trouble am'»ng the 



" generals." The head one suddenly fell sick, and the Huntera, 
thinking that cowardice was the cause of his illness, refused to 
put their lives in peril. On the 11th of November, Van Schultz, 
a Pole, crossed to Prescott^ in a schooner with one hundred 
and seventy men. There they intrenched themselves on rising 
ground behind stone walls. On the 15th they were attacked by 
a party of marines and militia from Kingston, and driven to 
take refuge in a circular stone mill and stone house adjacent. 
The position was so strong that the guns of the steamer Victoria 
could make no impression on it. Van Schultz sent urgent re- 
quests to his friends across the river for assistance, but they were 
unheeded. On the 16th, companies of the 83rd and 93rd Eegi- 
meuts arrived on the ground. The mill was surrounded, and 
the stone walls were battered down by artillery. Van Schultz 
was compelled to surrender at discretion. His force suffered 
severely. He was executed along with eleven other prisoners. 

15. A body of sympathizers assembled in the west. By this 
time President Van Bur en had issued a Proclamation, warning 
the American people not to give countenance to hostile enter- 
prises against a friendly nation. But the citizens of Detroit 
were not prevented from turning out in great numbers, in the 
gray light of a December morning, to cheer on a body of in- 
vaders as they crossed to Sandwich. They saw them burn a 
steamer and set fire to barracks; but it was not long before 
they beheld the remnant of the invaders flee in all haste to the 
river's side, and throw themselves into boats and canoes and 
cross again. They had left many of their comrades dead, 
v/ounded, and captive in the midst of the town, and in the 
hands of the enraged mihtia commanded by Colonel Prince. 
Four of the prisoners were shot without trial. This act was 
condemned by many. 

Ifi. The attack on Sandwich v\^as the last attempt at the inva- 
sion of Canada ; but the frontiers were still in an un- 
settled state. Amidst the dangerous excitement of the 
time, the people of Maine and of New Brunswick quar- 
relled over the old bone of contention — the Disputed 
Territory. The King of the Netherlands had (in 1831) given 

' Pre«co«.— See Map, p. 297. 






liis decision. His Majesty " split the difference," and gave the 
United States the Uon's share ; but as nothing save the whole of 
tlie land would then satisfy their claims, they refused to be 
bound by the award. Early in January a paity of lawless {)ei- 
sons made a dash into the debatable land to cut timber. Gover- 
nor Fairfield of Maine despatched a sheriff with a strong party 
of constables to expel the " intruders " and seize their lumber. 
A fracas occurred between them and a body of New Bruns- 
wickers. M'Intyre, the land agent for Maine, was captured, 
bundled into a sled, and driven off to Frederickton. M'Laughlau, 
the British warden, was seized by the Americans and carried 
off to Aiigusta. Maine and New Brunswick went aflame 
with excitement. Governor Fairfield ordered Colonel Jarvis 
with eighteen hundred militiamen to march to the support of 
the sheriff". Sir John Harvey issued a proclamation, in which 
he asserted the undoubted right of Great Britain to guard the 
territory while it was in dispute, and called on the Governor to 
withdraw his troops. Fairfield answered by a counter-proclama- 
tion, denying that right, and by a call upon the State for ten thou- 
sand men, horse, foot, and artillery. Sir John then despatched 
Colonel Maxwell with the 36th and 69th Regiments and a train 
of artillery to the Upper St. John, to watch the movements of the 
Maine militia. Great enthusiasm was shown by the people. 
Volunteers from St. John, Frederickton, and York, along with 
those from Woodstock, were attached to the army of the Mada- 
waska under Maxwell, w^ho opened communication with Sir 
John Colborne at Quebec and Sir John Harvey at Frederickton 
by means of a corps of York light dragoons. 

17. The people of Nova Scotia heard not unruffled the news 
of these movements. In the Legislature angry discussion was 
stilled for a time. Measures were enacted placing a strong body 
of militia and ^100,000 at the disposal of the Governor. Eeso- 
lutions expressive of sympathy were passed. In the excite- 
ment of the moment the members of Assembly, carried out of 
their usual decorum, gave vent to their feelings in hearty 
British cheers, which were caught up and prolonged by the 
people in the crowded galleries. This action excited the admira- 
tion and gratitude of the Legislature of New Brunswick, and 
gave rise to a counter-demonstration. 




18. In the United States the warlike ardour of the anti- 
British party was aroused, ))ut the uation as a whole did not 
respond to its clamour. President Van Buren took a temperate 
view of the difficulty, and thought it capable of peaceful 
adjustment. The great Daniel Webster accused him of want 
of nerve, and declared that if Great Britain would not enter 
into negotiations under the Treaty of 178;i, the United States 
should take forcible possession of the territory on the 4th of 
July. (Conciliatory notes passed between the British Minister 
at Washington and the United States Secretary of State. The 
President then despatched General Winfield Scott to Maine 
with full power to settle the difficulty. When he arrived at 
Augusta he at once countermanded the march of the valiant 
ten thousand. This decided step at once abated the excite- 
ment. He then entered into a friendly correspondence with 
the Governor at Frederickton. He and Sir John Harvey had 
fought on opposite sides at Stoney Creek and Lundy's Lane, 
but they addressed each rthcr as comrades. They came to an 
understanding, which was made the basis of the terms agreed 
to by the British and American Ministeiu Maine consented to 
withdraw its militia ; and Great Britain undertook, in case of the 
necessity arising, to expel intruders from the Disputed Territory. 

19. Thus ended the " Aroostook War," It left the bound- 
ary question as unsettled as ever. To finish this story: the 
people of Maine, under specious pretexts, continued to advance 
into the territory and to put up block-houses. Fresh surveys 
we^ft ordered by the British and United States Governments. 
The reports of the respective engineers made out for their own 
couutry a right to the territory which they both claimed. To 
settle the interminable difficulty, and to avert war, Lord Ash- 
burton, an amiable aged nobleman, was sent out from 
England in 1842. Daniel Webster was intrusted by 
the President to look after the interests of the United 
States. Of the twelve thousand and twenty -nine square 
miles in dispute, seven thousand and fifteen were ceded to the 
Americans, the rest were given to Great Britain. The Ameri- 
CJin portion was not only the larger, but was also the more valu- 
able for lumbering and agricidtural purposes. This decision 
certainly did not please the people of New Brunswick. They 









, ( 






could only bow iu acknowledgment of the right of the Crown 
to settle, in the interest of the whole Empire, a question which 
was a continual source of international irritation.^ 

Questions. — 1. What feeling did the 
Canadian rebellion call forth in the 
Maritime Provinces? Whose sympathy 
did it obtain ? Of what remissness were 
the United States authorities guilty? 

2. Where did M'Kenzie fix his ren- 
dezvous? Wio confronted him ? What 
exploit did Lieutenant Drew perform ? 

3. How was the destruction of the 
Caroline regarded by the United States 
authorities? How were the plans of 
the marauders disconcerted ? 

4. Where did the Patriot Army make 
a landing? What was the issue? In 
what other foray did Sutherland take 
part? Describe the encounter on the 
Ice. What confession did Sutherland 
make when in jail? 

6. What step was necessitated by the 
v~etched state of Lower Canada? What 
remedy was proposed by the Constitu- 
tional Society of Montreal ? What ob- 
jections did Reformers like Howe make 
to these proposals ? 

6. What extraordinary powers were 
given to Sir John Colborne and his 
Council ? 

7. Whai; led Sir Francis Head to re- 
sign? Who succeeded him ? How dH 
he treat the fallen party ? To what did 
the uncompromising attitude of the 
Family Compact lead ? 

8. Who was the new Governor-Gen- 
eral? With what powers was he in- 
vested? What was his character? 

9. Of whom did Lord Durham's 
Special Council consist? On what mis- 
sion was Lieutenant-Colonel 'Grey de- 
spatched ? What means did Lord Dur- 
ham adopt to obtain information and 
advice ? 

10. What difficulties beset the ques- 
tion of the disposal of the political pris- 
oners ? What course did the Governor- 
General follow? 

11. What technical error had lie 
committed? Who condemned his ac- 
tion? What did Parliament do? Of 
what did he complain? What inter- 
pretation of the Act of Indemnity did 
he publish ? What did he then abruptly 

12. What were the " Hunters' 
Lodges " ? Of whom were they chiefly 
composed? Why did their rising fail? 
What offended a portion of the Upper 
Canada militia? 

13. Describe the rising in Beauhar- 
nois county. Where was the chief 
force of the rebellion collected ? Wliat 
success had it there? In what manner 
was the rebellion crushed? 

14. Who headed the invaders of Pres- 
cott? Where did they take refuge? 
How were they dislodged ? 

15. What damage did the party 
which attacked Sandwich in December 
do ? How did the raid end ? 

16. What quarrel between Maine and 
N3W Brunswick was reopened in 1839? 
What had been the decision of the 
King of the Netherlands ? What effect 
had it? What led to a serious fracas? 
What r''jht did Sir John Harvey claim ? 
What l^rce did Governor Fairfield call 
for? How did the people of New 
Brunswick show their enthusiasm ? 

17. How did Nova Scotia show its 
sympathy ? 

18. What did President Van Buren 
think of the difficulty? What was 
Daniel Webster's opinion ? What prac- 
tical step did the President take? 
What was the result of General Scott's 

19. When was the boundary question 
finally settled ? By whom ? How was 
the Debatable Territory divided? To 
whom T-as the decision unsatisfac- 

See Map of Disputed Territory, p. 258. 

LORD Durham's report. 




1839 to 1849 A.D. 

Lord Durham's Report. 

Charles Poulett Thompson. 

The Union Act of 1841. 

Meeting of first Parliament of United 

Death of Lord Sydenham. 

Sir Charles Bagot and Sir Charles Met- 

The right of Appointment to Office. 

Lord Elgin and the Reform Ministry. 

Nova Scotia. 

Reconstruction of the Executive 

Lord Falkland. 

Responsible Government carried. 
New Brunswick. 
The Provincial Secretaryship. 
Charles Fisher's Resolution . 
Rebellion Losses BilL 
Lord Elgin mobbed. 
The Parliamert Buildings burned. 
Seat of Govei .mont question. 

1. The shcrt administration of Lord Durham was an important 
epoch. It was a turning-point in the history of the 
British North American Provinces. The Report he 1839 
submitted to the Imperial Parliament gave a clear view a.d. 
of all the difficulties besetting their government. He 
suggested a Confederation of the Canadas, Nova Scotia, New 
Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland, and the 
construction of an intercolonial railway. In view of the 
difficulties of immediately carrying out the more comprehensive 
scheme, he advised the establishment of a Legislative Union of 
Upper and Lower Canada, and the recognition of the principle 
of the responsibility of the Executive to the representatives 
of the people. The Report was bitterly attacked by the Tory 
party in England and in the Provinces. Its statements were 
denied, its suggestions were ridiculed ; but they had the eflfect 
of modifying the opinions of the Imperial Government. 

2. The Hon. Charles Poulett Thompson, President of the 
Board of Trade, a statesman of liberal political principles, of fine 
judgment, and of great tact, was appointed Governor-Greneral. 
He arrived in Quebec on the 13th of October, and relieved Sir 
John Colborne in Lower, and Sir George Arthur in Upper, 
Canada. He had a task of great difficulty before him. He 

' --i . 



found everything in a diRorganized rtate. In the Lower Prov. 
ince the Britisli and the French Canadians were much cxfiH- 
pcrated against each other ; in the Uj)per Province the Tory 
party was dominant in both branches of the Legishituie, and 
repelled the idea of constitutional change ; while the Ileforniei's 
were increasing in number and in determination to attain tlieir 
end. Both parties had been so long fighting for power, that the 
gaining of it seemed to be the chief object of their desire, to 
which the advancement of the general welfare, and the im- 
provement of the internal condition of the country, were merely 
secondary considerations. The establishment of Resi)onsil)le 
Government would be a boon only if it produced good measures. 

3. Soon after his arrival, the Governor-General published 
two Despatches from the pen of Lord John Russell, which 
conveyed the views of the Imperial Government with regard tc 
colonial rule. His Lordship, in the tirst despatch, maintained 
that the system of government established in Great B' ain was 
incompatible with the dependent position of provinces ; yet 
while he insisted that imperial control over colonial affairs was 
necessary in order to uphold the honour of the Crown and the 
unity of the Empire, he admitted that the affectionate attach- 
ment of the people was the best security for permanent dominion. 
He declared that the Imperial Government had no desire to 
retard in any way the improvement of the Provinces ; and that 
it was earnestly desirous to give men of character and ability 
advantages similar to those which talent and character obtained 
when employed in the United Kingdom. Without laying dowu 
definite rules, he left it to the judgment, good sense, and good 
feeling of Governors on the one hand, and of Assemblies on 
the other, not to push the exercise of the prerogative of dissolu- 
tion or of the right of withholding supplies to an extreme. 

4. In his second despatch, his Lordship laid down rules 
regarding the tenure of the chief offices. Members of the 
Executive, and such officers as the Receiver, Surveyor, Attorney 
and Solicitor Generals, were notified that they must consent to 
hold office, not as heretofore, during good behaviour and practi- 
cally for life, but dependent on the will of the Sovereign, or of 
her repiesentative. A motive of policy, or the appointment of 
a new Governor, w^as to be regarded as sufficient reason for 



making a change in the composition of the Executive Council 
uiul in the heads of departments. This despatch on the tenure 
of ofB.ce was hailed by the Reformers in all the Provinces, as 
bestowing — to use the words of Sir John Harvey, Governor of 
New Brunswick — " a new and impro ed Constitution" upon the 

5. Mr. Poulett Thompson triumphed over all difficulties. He 
convened the Special Council of Lower Canada, laid before it 
the draft of a Bill for uniting the two Provinces, and carried it 
by a majority. One gi'eat objection was the ncjessity that 
would be imposed on Lower Canada of bearing its proportion 
of the large debt of Upper Canada, which would be assumed 
by the united Provinces. The French Canadian party was not 
consulted, as it was considered hoj^eless to expect that it would 
consent to a mc^' :e which it regarded, in its angry and jeal- 
ous state of feei-jg, as a design to destroy its nationality. Mr. 
Thompson experienced great difficulty in gaining the assent of 
the Tory party in Upper Canada, but an effectual append to its 
loyalty was made by him. The Union Bill was introduced 
into the Legislature as a Government measure : it was first 
passed by the Legislative Council ; and then, after a long and 
hot debate, obtained the consent of a majority of the 
Assembly. The draft of the Bill was introduced into 
the Imperial Parliament, and being slightly modified, 
was finally passed in July 18-10, and was proclaimed to be law 
in the following year. 

G. The Act of Union of the Two Canadas provided that 
i-here should be one Legislative Council and one Assembly. 
Equal representation in both branches was granted t the two 
Provinces. The Legislative Council was composed of twenty 
members, who were appointed by the Crown, and held their 
seats for life. The Assembly was composed of eighty-four 
members, forty-two for each Province. A permanent Civil 
List of ^75,000 was established. The control of all the revenues 
was granted to the Assembly. An Executive Council was 
formed of eight members : such of them as held seats in the 
Assembly went back to the people to be reelected. By taking 
this step, and gaining their reelection, ministerial office-holders 
were assured that they possessed the confidence of their con- 






stituents. This Executive Council held office as long as it, as a 
body, commanded the support of a majority of the representa- 
tives of the peo; le in the Assembly. All measures involving 
expenditure of money were submitted to the Legislature by the 
G'^vernment. Previous to the passing of the Act of Union, the 
initiation of the money-rolls was in the hands of the members 
of Assembly, which led to improvident and reckless expenditure. 
This practice was maintained in Nova Scotia and in New Bruns- 
wick long after it had been abolished in Canada ; for in spite of 
advice from Downing Street, and the arguments of their leading 
members, the Assemblies clung to what they considered the 
most convenient mode of voting grants for the public service. 

7. The Hon. C. Poulett Thompson was elevated to the peer- 
age with t-he title of Lord Sydenham of Kent and Toronto. 
In the course of the summer he visited the Maritime Provinces. 
His presence in Halifax animated the hopes of the Reformers, 
In New Brunswick he was leceived in a manner befitting his 
high position as Governor-General of all British America. 
Popularity is a very uncertain element. A few years previous, 
when he was plain Mr. Thompson, he had been burned in 
effigy in King's Square, St. John, and on the Old Church Green 
in Frederickton, for his hostility to the interests of the Province. 
As President of tlie Board of Trade he had favoured the abro- 
gation of the duties on Baltic timber. 

8. The first session of the first Parliament of the United 

Canadas was opened at Kingston on the 13th of June 
-Q^-'1841. Lord Sydenham, in addressing the assembled 
legislators, said that he had been commanded by Her 
Majesty to administer the government in accordance 
with the well understood wishes of the people, and to pay their 
feelings, as expressed througli their representatives, the defer- 
ence that was justly due to them. The principle of Respon- 
sible Government was thus acknowledged, but not till several 
years had passed was it carried out in perfect practice, and un- 
hesitatingly accepted as the established rule. 

9. The Union did not put an end to the old bitter conflicts 
between parties, or all at once assuage the jealousies and an- 
tipathies of race. But the field was broader ; there was less 
danger of parties coming into direct collision, and they had 



acquired some moderation from the dangers they had incurred 
aud the miseries they had enciured in the past. The English- 
speaking population could not say that their representatives 
were outnumbered bv the French Canadians ; for the British 
members of Upp'" and Lower Canada were now in the majority. 
Tlie French Canaa.aus, on the other hand, could not complain 
that their influence was swamped by the British majority, and 
tliat their language, laws, customs, and institutions were in 
danger of being swept away. They had their full, some said 
more than their full, share of power. Parties aro^e in the 
Legislature, Tories (or to use the milder term, Conservatives) 
aud Reformers ; and the French Canadian party, by throwing 
its influence into the one scale or the other, managed to hold the 
balance of power in its hands. Union eventually put an end 
to the war of races, but in time it promoted another war — that 
of sections. Upper against Lower Canada. But its immediate 
eiFect was to calm the mind of the country so far, that it was 
enabled to give more attention to the consideration of reforms 
necessary to advance its prosperity. A number of important 
measures were introduced during the first session. The founda- 
tion was laid for many of the improvements that were after- 
wards carried out. Bills were introduced to establish municipal 
institutions and a system of common school education, and to 
promote the building of public works and the extension of the 
canal system. Laws were passed regulating the currency and 
adjusting the scale of customs-duties on imports and exports. 
Lord Sydenham did not live to see the system of government 
which he had inaugurated carried into successful operation. 
He was thrown from his horse, and being worn out by his 
arduous exertions, he could not bear up against the shock given 
to his constitution : he died on the I7th of September. At his 
dying request, Major General Clitheroe was appointed to admin- 
ister the government. 

10. At this time a change of Government took place in Eng- 
land. The Conservatives came into power. Sir Robert PeeP 

' Sir Robert Pfiel.—Borv 1788 ; died 
1850. His father specially educated 
him for political life. He took a 
double flrst-class degree at Oxford — 



lirat in classics and first in matliemn* 
tics. He began hLs Parliamentary 
career as a Tory. Twice his convic- 
tions led him to abandon his party, and 



became Premier in the place of Lord Men30ume ; Lord Stanley, 
Colonial Secretary in the room of Lord John Euspell. The old 
official party ^»'as buoyed up with hopes that the new system of 
Kesponsible Government, which it had not accepted even in 
theory, would be overturned. These hopes were further 

1842 raised by the appointment of Sir Charles Bagot, a 
A.D. good old Tory and High Churchman, as Governor- 
General. But Lord Stanley followed up the policy of 

his predecessor, and Sir Charles Bagot faithfully carried out 

his" instructions. Baldwin, Lafontaine, Hincks, Dominic, Daly, 

prominent members of the Reform party, were brought into 

his Executive Council. The old feuds of party and race 

1843 were revived in the Legislature. This Administration 
A.D. was of very short duration. Sir Charles was forced to 

resign in March, on account of ill health. He died at 
Kin^stc n in May, and was succeeded by Sir Charles Theophi- 
lus (afterwards Lord) Metcalfe. 

11. The new Governor-General had many of the qualities 
that gain esteem even from political opponents. He had held 
a similar high position in India. Those who disliked his 
policy said that his experience in that country had unfitted 
him to administer the government of a free country like 
Canada. He had been accustomed to exercise the prerogative 
of the Crown without question. Contact with the wily, supple, 
dishonest natives, had made him incurably suspicious. But by 
the Tories he was considered a model Governor. He main- 
tained their favourite doctrine, that Responsible Government, 
as carried out in England, was incompatible with the dependent 
position of a colony. He held that he was responsible to tlie 
Queen and the Parliament ; and that the right of patronage and 
appointment to office was vested in him as the representative of 
the Crown. Acting up to his high idea of the prerogative, he 
made one or two appointments without the advice, consent, 
or knowledge of the leaders of the Go.'ernment. Messrs. 
Baldwin and Lafontaine had accepted office, on the express 

to advocate measures he had previously 
opposed — Catholic Emancipation in 
1829, and the Repeal of the Corn Laws 
in 1846. He was one of the greatest 
financial reformers oi oiodein times. 

His death was caused by a fall from 
his horse. His second Ministry lasted 
from September 1841 till June 1846, 
when his free trade policy lost him the 
confidence of his party. 



understanding that they woiihl only retain it as long as they 
could command the support of a majority of the AsHembly. 
They were responsible to it for all acts done by the Government. 
If appointments were made that were unacceptable they would 
lose the confidence of their supporters, and would be forced to 
resign. They remonstrated with the Governor, and requested 
him to give up the right of patronage ; but Sir Charles Metcalfe 
absolutely refused. He would not degrade the prerogative of 
the Crown to enable them to purchase support" in the Assembly, 
or allow them to reduce his office to a nullity. Messrs. Baldwin 
and Lafontaine resigned. This quarrel not only raised great 
excitement in Canada, but it was watched with keen interest 
by the people of the Maritime Provinces. Everywhere the 
stand taken by Sir Charles Metcalfe was supported by those 
who had always opposed the Reformers. A general election 
took place, and the Governor-General was sustained. A Tory 
Ministry was formed, of which Mr. Draper was the leader. 
Metcalfe was soon afterwards created a peer, — a pretty sure 
proof that the Imperial Government did not disapprove of his 
action. The attitude he had assumed tended to array Tory 
against Reformer, and to increase the number vl the adherents 
of the latter party. 

12. The harsh and angry feelings aroused by rebellion were 
now subsiding. Many people began to entertain gentle thoughts 
of Papineau and M'Kenzie. Instead of execrating them as 
rebels, they were inclined to sympathize with them as martyrs 
to the popular cause. The Imperial Government had now pro- 
claimed an amnesty, which included all the leaders save M'Kenzie 
(who was not pardoned till 1850) ; and some of them were re- 
turned members of the new Parliament, which met in Montreal 
for the first time on the 28th of November. 

13. Lord Metcalfe suffered under a grave malady — a cancer 
in the face. He wa^ compelled to resign his position 

and return to Enghnd, where he died the following 1845 
year. Major-Generai Lord Cathcart was appointed a.d. 
Administrator, and afterwards Governor-General. Dur- 
ing his time a question was rai£:.d which threw Canada into a 
turmoil for several years, and threatened to revive the war of 
I'aces in all its rancour. A number of persons had sutfered loss 

\-l ■• 

1 » 







of property during the rebellion in Upper Canada. Tlie Draper 
Government proposed to indemnify them. The Lower Cana- 
dian members consented to support such a measure on couditiou 
that parties who had taken no part in the rebellion in tliat 
Province, and who had lost property, should receive like com- 
pensation. A Commission was appointed to make inquiry into 
the amount of loss sustained, and the number of parties justly 
entitled to indemnification. A Eeport was submitted 

1846 to Parliament, which was deemed unsatisfactor3\ But 
A.D. an Act was passed which provided for the full payment 

of the Upper Canadian losses, and for a small portion 
of those of Lower Canada. The question was left in an un- 
settled state. The French Canadians were unsatisfied, while 
the Loyalists »i Jpper Canada, who looked upon them as hav- 
ing been reb 's in a body, were enraged at their receiving any 
compensation all. A Liberal British Ministry^ came into 
power this year. Earl Grey, the Colonial Secretary, wrote a 
despatch confirming that of Lord John Kussell in 1839 con- 
cerning the tenure of office. Lord Elgin, a son-in-law of the 
Earl of Durham, imbued with the Liberal sentiments of that 
nobleman regarding colonial government, and endowed with 

strong sense, sound judgment, and commanding elo- 

1847 quence, was appointed Governor-General. He arrived in 
A.D. Canada in 1847. From his time is dated the final estab- 
lishment of Responsible Government in that Province. 

14. A general election took pla 3 in Canada the year after 
the arrival of Lord Elgin. The Tory party had for some time 

beoii losing strength in the country. The Eeformers 

1848 were thoroughly aroused. The French Canadian party 
A.D. acted with them. When the new Parliament met, j\ii. 

Draper found that he could not command the support 
of a majority of the Assembly. Acting on the now recognized 
pri \ciple, he resigned, and Messrs. Baldwin and Lafontaine 
assumed the reins of Government. 

15. NOVA SCOTIA.— -The course of events in Great Britain 
and the Canadas affected the political struggle in Nova Scotia. 

The rage of the Family Compact was now excited rnd then 

— — ^ 

' A Liberal British Ministry. —That i in power till 1862, when Lord Dei'oy's 
of Lor4 John itnssell, who continixed first Adminiatration ww formed. 



soothed, according as affairs looked unfavourable or favourable 
to their views. The Reformers aldo had their cold and their hot 
fits. ?''he action of the Imperial Govornment in pronouncing the 
principle of '^responsibility to t^e people" incompatible with 
the dependent position of colonies, elated the Tories and morti- 
fied the Reformers. The mission of Lord Durham was watched 
with intense interest by the latter ; its abrupt termination filled 
them with sorrow. When "the Report" appeared, they re- 
ceived it with applause. Joseph Howe pronounced it to be a 
masterly review of the difficulties of government in the Prov- 
inces, and said that the remedy proposed in it — namely, the 
establishment of the principle of responsibility — was both easy 
and efficient. The Tories in the Legislative Council — to mark 
their contempt of the suggestion of a Confederation of all the 
Provinces — passed condemnatory resolutions, averring that the 
scheme would be destructive to the interests of the Empire and 
of the Provinces, and would lead inevitably to their separation 
from the mother country. 

16. To Downing Street, at this time, delegations from both 
parties — Tories and Reformers — frequently resorted. When 
Lord John Russell's despatch concerning the tenure of office 
appeared, it was immediately adopted by Howe and the majority 
in the Assembly ; and they called an the Governor to put "the 
new and improved Constitution" into practice by dismissing 
those of his advisers who did not possess their confidence. Sir 
Colin Campbell chose to be governed by the despatches of Lord 
Glenelg (1836), in which the principle laid down by Lord John 
Russell was not recognized. The gallant veteran at the head of 
the Government was esteemed by Howe and his party, but the 
persistency with which he opposed their demands provoked 
them to address Her Majesty praying for his recall. Party 
feeling now ran very high, and the Province was thrown into 
a state of feverish excitement. Tories and Reformers held 
meetings in Halifax, and all over the Province. The farmer 
was drawn from his fields, the fisherman from his nets, and the 
labourer from his work, to listen to eloquent speeches from 
Joseph Howe, who fired their imagination and aroused their 
hopes by dilating on the great happiness and prosperity that 
would shiue on the Province when Responsible Government 





Lord Falkland. 

should be established The expectations of the people "were 
raised and dejiressed by contradictory rumours : now they re- 
joiced, when they heard that Sir Colin Campbell was to be 
recalled ; then they grieved, when it wshj said tJ^at he was t ) 
be sustained by the Imperial Government. 

17. Lord Sydenham arrived in Halifax in Jul}, and assumed 

the government. He reconstructed the Executive Coun- 

1840 cil by dismissing four members who held seats neither 

A.D. in the Legislative Council nor in the Assembly, aud 

appointed Howe and others belonging to the Keform 
party in their place. The new members accepted office on the 
express understanding that they held it only on the tenure of 
public confidence. Among other measures, a Bill to incorporate 
Halifax was brought in by this coalition Government. Sir 
Colin Campbell retired, and left Nova Scotia with a pleasaut 
farewell to his stanchest political opponents. Lord Falkland 
became Governor. He expressed a determination to preserve 
to the people the rights and privileges of the British Constitu- 
tion, and to give talent, industry, and integrity their due share 
in the Government. His sincerity was not doubted. He 
quickly achieved popularity, and his cheering presence broke 
through the cloud of political discontent. 

18. The hopeful aspect of affairs did not long continue. The 
four Executive Councillors who had been forced to give way to 
the Reformers, would not remain quiet. The members of the 
coalition Government did not agree very well among them- 
selves : their opinions on some important questions were dia- 
metrically opposed. The old Tory members scouted the idea 
that their tenure of office was dependent on a majority vote 
in the Assembly, and they rather looked down on their uew 
colleagues ; and the Reformers soon began to sus[)ect that the 
Governor was under their influence. Mr. Johnston, the leader 
of the Tories, and Mr. Howe, the head of the popular party, 
differed widely on the subject of education : the former was 
in favour of sectarian schools supported by grants of public 
money ; the latter, of a free common-school system. While the 
country wtis agitated by this question, the Governor, acting, it 
was suspected, in the interest of the Tory section of his Council, 
and without consulting Howe, dissolved the House aud ordered 



{I general election. A small nuijoi'ity of membei's was ieturiied 
who suppoited Mr. Johuston'd policy. Bitter eumities were 
provoked by this action, aud the fiercest political storm that 
ever rent the Province arose. 

19. Another stretch of the preropfative angered the Ileformers. 
Lord Falkland, like Sir Charles Metcalfe, maintained that the 
right of appointing to office was in the hands of the Governor, 
ne called to the Executive Council a gentleman (a friend of 
Mr. Johnston) who held a seat neither in the Upper nor in the 
Lower branch of the Legislature. As this appointment was very 
disjileasing to the Eeformers, Howe and his colleagues felt con- 
strained to resign. In taking that step they fultilled the pledge 
they had given on entering the Executive Council, and carried 
out the principles of Responsible Government. Lord Falkland 
afterwards made overtures to the retired members, with the 
exception of Howe, and offered them their seats again, on the 
condition of their deserting their leader and their principles ; 
but they refused. A wide breach was now made between the 
Governor and the Reformers, who felt as if the fruits of their 
long struggle had been snatched away from them. A fierce 
literary war ensued. Lord Falkland was overwhelmed with 
ridicule and invective in poetry and prose : he wrote indiscreet 
despatches to the Colonial Secretary, which stigmatized the 
leaders of the Reform party; and they were read by the Speaker 
in the Assembly. Howe attacked and insulted him in language 
which no provocation could justify. The heats and enmities of 
party conflict were carried out of the political arena into society. 

20. Lord Falkland's influence for good was destroyed. Sir 
John Harvey was called from Newfoundland to take his place. 
The great " Political Pacificator," as he was called, attempted 
to form a Government of " all the taler " by taking into it 
the most influential men of both parties ; bat he failed. Howe 
and the Reformers distrusted coalitions : they were conscious of 
their strength, and were content to bide their time. A general 
election was close at hand, and the Imperial Government was 
now in favour of the principle of responsibility. A despatch 
from Earl Grey (dated 17th March 1847), pointedly confirming 
the celebrated document from the pen of Lord John Russell 
(1839) on. the tenure of oflice, was received by the Johnston 





... ■;. 







Government ; but it 'iid not see the light until the elections 

were over, and until the victory of the men who had so long 

been fighting to carry out the principles there laid down 

1848 was made sure. Eesponsible G)vernment was fairly 

A.D. established. Howe was called to the head of affairs. 

The vexed question of the surrender of the Casual and 

Territorial Revenue was now settled by the Assembly making 

provision for a permanent Civil List. 

21. NEW BRUNSWICK. — Political parties were more 
evenly balanced in New Brunsv/ick than in Canada and Nova 
Scotia ; a spirit of greater moderation actuated its people. 
Some of the leaders, who had been instrumental in obtaining 
the concessions granted by the Civil List Bill, now rested con- 
tent. When a resolution to give effect to the principle laid 
down in Lord John Russell's despatch on the tenuie of office 
was introduced into the Legislature, it was defeated by the 
casting vote of the Speaker, Charles Simonds. The Governor, 
Sir John Harvey, showed a decided leaning to the cause of 

'political reform. He had the happy art of making himself 
popular. He was exposed to pemstent and bitter attacks from 
the portion of the press that supported " the small and disap- 
pointed party " which had opposed the surrender of the Casual 
and Territorial Revenue, and all concession. The appointment 
by him of a relative to office, and an addition to his salary of 
^500 for table-money, voted by the Legislature, were made 
the grounds of slanderous attacks. Notwithstanding such dis- 
agreeable incidents, his administration was successful. He 
safely carried New Brunswick through the trouble regarding 
" the Disputed Territory." When he was appointed (1841) to 
the Government of Newfoundland, he was presented with a 
handsome service of plate, which he received as a memorial of 
the unsurpassed legislative harmony that had reign^ during 
his term. 

22. His successor was Major- General Sir William Colc- 
brooke. Not long after hi;i arrival the Province was subjected 
to one of the periodical depressions of its timber trade. It was 
unusually severe and prolonged, and was followed by a general 
depression of all branches of business. The gloom of the times 
was deepened by a great fire that occurred in St. John. The 


revenues fell off. The Province was in debt, and in need of a 
loan ; and Lord Stanley, then Colonial Secretary, informed the 
Legislature that its improviJenc mode of voting away the reve- 
nues tended to depreciate the financial credit of New Bru7i.swick 
in England. The large surplus placed at its disposal in 1837 
was all spent. The opponents of the suiTender of the Casual and 
Territorial Revenue seemed to be justified. But then, investi- 
gations had been made into the management of the Crown Land 
Department in 1839-40, which disclosed serious deficiencies 
in its accounts, and proved the absolute necessity of theii* annual 
supervision by the Legislature. 

23. A general election was held in 1842. Responsible Gov- 
ernment was the rallying cry of the Reformers. But 
(ho mass of the people appeared to be indiffei^ent, ani 1842 
they were defeated. Conservatism had a strong hold a.d. 
on the Province. In the contention between the Gover- 
nor-General and his advisers as to the right of appointing to 
office, the majority of the Legislature applauded the stand 
taken by Sir Charles Metcalfe, and eulogistic addresses were 
passed thanking him for his defence of monarchical institutions. 

24. The question raised by Sir Charles was soon brought 
home to the Legislature. On Christmas day the Hon. 
William Odell died. He had succeeded his father, the 1844 
Hon. and Rev. Jonathan Odell, in 1818, in the office of a.d. liilii' 
Provincial Secretary, and for quarter of a century had 

been a power in the Province. Sir "William Colebrooke, assum- 
ing that his right was acknowledged, appointed his son- ' J 
in-law, Mr. A. Reade, provisionally. This action ex- 1845 ||i|pill 
cited the greatest dissatisfaction among all parties. a.d. . - l 
Four members of the Executive Council resigned their 
seats. The Hon. Messrs. Hugh Johnston, E . B. Chandler, and R. 
L. Hazen, professed themselves prepared to maintain the pre- 
rogative of the Crown in its fullest sense ; they only objected 
to its exercise in this particular case. Lord Glenelg (in 1835) 
had laid down an explicit rule, that public employ ments should 
I only be bestowed on natives and settled inhabitants of the 
I Province. Was Mr. Reade a settled inhabitant of the Province ? 
I He might become one if he received the appointment, but no 
I one cared to have him on such terms. The Hon. Mr. Wilmot 







not only held that all appointments of honour and emolument 
Bhould be bestowed on inhabitants of the Province, as the hopo 
of gaining them was an incentive to the honourable ambition 
of its youth, but sought to make this incident a means of 
advancing the cause of Responsible Government. The office of 
Provincial Secretary was a Crown appointment, and held for 
life. He wished to erect it into a department, and i)lace at its 
head a member of the Executive Council, who should be respon- 
sible to the Assembly. This reform was not effected till several 
years later. Mr. Reade's appointment was not sanctioned by the 
Colonial Secretary, and the Hon. J". Simcoe Saunders succeeded 
to the office. 

25. The question of Responsible G'^vernment was tested in 

1848. Mr. Charles Fisher, member for York, holding 

1848 that the subject of Earl Grey's Despatch (of 1847) was 

A.D. as applicable to New Brunswick as to Nova Scotia, 

framed a resolution expressing full approval of its con- 
tents. The rule laid down by the Earl was, that those 
officers who directed the policy of the country should hold their 
places on the tenure of pleasure ; that is, only as long as they 
could command the confidence of a majority of the representa- 
tive branch. Members of the Executive Council and heads of 
departments were included in this cat-agory. All officers under 
the Government were to hold their places on the tenure of 
good behaviour. They were excluded from either branch of 
the Legislature, and were not to be subjected to removal on a 
change of Government. The resolution was debated on the 
24th of February, and carried, the members of the Conservative 
Government voting with the large majority. Shortly after- 
wards, Messrs. L. A. Wilmot and Charles Fisher entered its 
ranks. A great outcry was raised by some of their supporters, 
who accused them of having deserted their principles ; but as 
Responsible Government had been almost unanimously ac- 
cepted, they could say that there was nothing really inconsisteu 
in their conduct. Many of the Reformers were not content with 
a triumph of principle; the victory was incomplete until the 
control of all the offices should be in their hands. 

26. Sir "William Colebrooke, being seized with indispositiou 
while in St. John, summoned the Legislature to meet in the 



Court House of that city. Hei-e, on the 3()th of March, }io 
prorogued the House he was not to meet again. He was called 
that year to the government of British Guiana. For a long 
lime the legislators retained a lively recollc'jtion of the inci- 
dents tliat marked the close of the memorable session of 1848. 
Sir Edmund Head, grandson of a baronet of the same name 
Mho had been forced to flee with the Loyalists from the States 
ill 1783, was the next Governor, and the first civilian ever 
regularly appointed to the position. 

27. CANADA. — One of the first acts of the Baldwin and La- 
fontaine Administration in Canada was to introduce a Bill into 
the Legislature t< • provide for the indemnification of parties in 
Lower Canada whose property had been destroyed during the re-' 
bellion. It authorized the raising of ;£ 100,000 for the purpose. 
Tl)is step was taken to satisfy those parties whose claims had 
uot been paid in 1846. Tlie Government, to avoid the charge 
of indemnifying rebels, excepted from the benefit of the Act all 
persons who had been convicted of high treason since 1st 
November 1837, or who had been transported to Bermuda. 
This measure excited the most furious opposition, both within 
and without Parliament, of the party now called distinctively 
"British." They would make no exceptions, and raised the 
cry, " No pay to rebels." Anger reached the point of disaftec- 
tiou. The British North American League was formed at 
Montreal, with the avowed object of breaking up the Union. 
Its r.embers turned to Nova Scotia and New Brunswick for 
comfort, and proposed a Confederation of all the Provinces as 
the best means of breaking down the influence of the French 
Canadians ; if they were denied that remedy, they declared 
that they would throw themselves into the arms of the United 

?8. Lord Elgin, though urgently pressed by the Opposition to 
take a contrary course, deemed it his duty to give his assent 
to the Rebellion Losses Bill. In resolving on this step he 
fairly carried out "Responsible Government." The occasion 
was an extreme one, and well calculated to test the value of 
the ])rinciple. The measure in question had been proposed by 
a Government which enjoyed 'he confidence and commanded 
the support of a majority in the Upper and Lower branches of 






H'-'v. .. , 




B >''-'^'i<^^^ 




the Legislature, and the matter involved was entir+^ly within 
their jurisdiction. They proposed to pay local clainiH with 
money raised in the Province. The exasperation of the Op- 
position minority was great : its members were among the 
most respectable and influential in the community, and Lord 
Elgin would certainly offend them intensely should he Suuc- 
tion a Bill that seemed to them to depreciate loyalty and to 
put a premium on rebellion. Yet, if he had become a partisdi. 
Governor, and had adopted their views, he might have rekindled 
the flames of civil war. For if he had refused his assent to 
the Bill, the French Canadians might have thought that it 
would be for ever after impossible to obtain, by constitutional 
forms, what they deemed justice. If Responsible Government 
broke down at this crisis, v/hat hope could there be that it 
would ever be firmly established ? 

29. Lord Elgin, acting on his own judgment, gave his assent 
to the Bill on the 26th of April. As he was leaving the Par- 
liament Buildings, he was received with mingled jeers and 
cheers by a small " well-dressed " crowd that was assembled 
about the entrance ; and as the carriage drove off" it was pelted 
with stones and malodorous eggs. Two hours had hardly 
elapsed after it was known that the assent had been given, 
when a great concourse of people was assembled in the Champ 
de Mars, to mark its reprobation of the action of the Govei jor- 
General. They were not ir a mood to listen to L.jg speeches. 
Some one cried out that the time for action had come ; and 
then the cry, "To the Parliament Buildings," was raised. 
Preceded by a party bearing lighted torches, the excited crowd 
rushed thither. It was night : the Assembly was sitting, and 
the halls were brilliantly lighted. A shower of stones shivered 
the glass of the windows, and broke up the meeting in " the 
most admired disorder." As a party of armed men entered the 
Assembly Chamber tumultuously, the members and the lady 
visitors in the galleries took shelter in the lobbies. One fellow 
seated himself in the Speaker's chair, and placing " the hat " 
upon his head, roared out, "Gentlemen, the French Parlia- 
ment is dissolved." Another sshouldered the mace and walked off 
with it. Then the cry of " Fire" was raised, and a general 
was made from the building. The flames did their work with 



furious r.ipidity. Before midnight the buildings, with their 
spleudid libraries, containing thousands of vahiable vohunea 
and the records of the Provijice, were utterly consumed. For 
some days afterwards stormy excitement prevailed in the city. 
Tarliaraent met in Bon Secours Market on the 27th. A reso- 
lution, expressing approval of the action of the Governor- 
General in jiasenting to the Eebellion Losses Bill, was moved. 
It was violently opj)osed by Sir Allan M'Nab and the British 
party ; but was carried by a large majority of the Assembly. 
On the Biime day a number of the c 'tizens of Montreal met on 
the " Champ de Mars," and carried resolutions for an address 
to the Queen, praying Her Majesty to disallow the Bill, and 
to recall the Governor-General. 

30. The course taken by Lord Elgin was sustained by the 
Imperial Government. The British party did not recover its 
temper for some time. It is strange, but the good old Tories — 
the Loyalists — showed symptoms of rebellion, and spoke of 
cutting off connection with the mother country. Three hundred 
aud fifty persons, mostly of local note in Montreal, signed a 
document, in which, after drawing in the blackest colours a, 
picture of impoverished, bankrupt, and backward Canada, they 
declared that annexation to the United States was its only re- 
source in its dire extremity. Of course, this manifesto was a 
mere ebullition of feeling. 

31. Parliament met no more at Montreal. At the last 
stormy meeting in Bon Secours Market the question of ''dter- 
mining the future seat of Government was debated. John A, 
McDonald moved that Kingston should again become the 
capital of Canada. A proposal was made to move the seat 
of Government to By town on the Ottawa ; but the course was 
adopted of transferring it to Quebec and Toronto every four 
years alternately. The removals from one city to another being 
both inconvenient and expensive, the question of fixing a 
permanent site was placed before the Queen in 1858. Her 
Majesty's choice fell on Bytown, to which the name of Ottawa 
was then given. ^ 


' Responsible Government was estab- 
lished in Prince Edward Island in 1851, 
when Sir Ale'^ander Bannerman was 

Governor; and in Newfoundland during 
the aduiinistration of lion. Kor B. 



Questions. — 1. What were the chief 
suggestions of Lord Durham's Report ? 
What tentative measure did he advise ? 
How did tlie Tories treat the Report ? 

2. Who was appointed Governor- 
General in 1839? What were the diffi- 
culties of the task he had before him ? 
For what were the rival parties chiefly 
striving ? 

3. What was the tenor of Lord John 
Russell's first despatch ? What advici 
was given to colonial Governors aud 
Assemblies ? 

4. What was the subject of the 
second despatch? What important 
change did it introduce? How was it 
regarded by the Reformers ? 

5. Whose consent did Mr. Poulett 
Thompson first obtain to his Union 
Scheme? What was one great objec- 
tion to it ? Who opposed it in Upper 
Canada? How was their opposition 
overcome ? When was the Bill passed 
by the Imperial Parliament ? 

Q. Mention the chief provisions of 
the Act of Union. Ir what particulars 
was the new Government "respon- 

7. What honour was conferred on 
Mr. Thompson? How did hie career 
illustrate the uncertainty of popu- 

8. When was the first session of the 
United Canadian Parliament opened? 
How was the principle of Responsible 
Government recognized on the occa- 

9. What effect had the union on the 
conflict of parties? How did the 
French Canadians retain a large share 
of influence? What war of sections 
arose ? What important Bills were in- 
troduced? How did Lord Sydenham 

10. What change of Government took 
place toward tlie end of 1841 ? Whose 
hopes did it raise ? How far were they 
justified ? Why was the new Adminis- 
tration shor^ lived? 

11. What was the opinion of Lord 
Metcalfe entertained by those who dis- 
liked him ? What did the Tories think 
of him ? Why ? What led to the res- 
ignation of JKlessTS. Baldwin and La- 
fpnte^ne? What was the result of the 

general election? What Ministry was 
then formed? 

12. How did Papineau and M'Kcnzie 
begin to be regarded? Who was ex- 
cluded from the amnesty? When was 
he pardoned? 

13. Who succeeded Lord Metcalfe? 
What question was raised in liis time ? 
What Act was passed regarding it ? In 
what state was the question left? 
What was the result of the change of 
the British Government? What is 
dated from Lord Elgin's time ? 

14. What was the result of the gen- 
eral election in 1848 ? Who were at the 
head of the new Ministry? 

15. What was the state of parties in 
Nova Scotia? What was Jorjeph 
Howe's verdict on Lord Durham's 
Report? What did the Tories think of 
Confederation ? 

16. What despatch of Lord John 
Russell's was adopted by Howe and 
his party ? Who refused to be guided 
by it? What were the consequences ? 

17. What changes took place in 
1840 ? Who succeeded Sir Colin Camp- 
bell ? What determination did he ex- 
press ? 

18. What disturbed the peaceful 
aspect of affairs? What question 
brought on a crisis? How did tlie 
Governor's conduct provoke enmity? 

19. To what further stretch of pre- 
rogative had Falkland recourse ? How 
did he try to break Tip Howe's party? 
What ensued ? 

20. Who was called to take Falk- 
land's place? What kind of Ministry 
did he try to form ? Why did the at- 
tempt fail? What despatch was re- 
ceived from Earl Grey ? When was it 
published? Who was then called to 
the head of affairs ? 

21. What was the state of political 
parties in New Brunswick? Toward? 
what were the leanings of the Gover- 
nor? To what did this expose him? 
In what was he nevertheless success- 

22. Wlio succeeded Harvey? What 
serious difficulties had the Province to 
encounter soon afterwards? What 
proved the necessity of the annual 
supervision of the expenditure ? 



23. What was the restilt of the gen- 
eral election of ]842? What further 
proof of its Conservatism did the Prov- 
ince afford ? 

24 What incident brought homo to 
the Legislature the question of ap- 
pointments ? What different effects 
did it produce? What view did Mr 
Wilmot take ? What was the issue as 
regarded Mr. Reado's appointment? 

25. What was the substance of Mr 
Charles Fisher's resolution? What 
had been the rule laid down by Earl 
Grey? What was the result of the 
debate? For what were Messrs Wil- 
mot and Fisher afterwards blamed v 

20 When did Sit W. Colebrookere- I 
tire ? Who succeeded him ? 
27. What was one of the "first act? of I 

the Baldwin and Lafontaine Ministry 
in Canada? Whose opposition did the 
measure excite? What League <li<l 
they form? WHh what object? What 
seemed to be the only remedy for 
the case? ' 

28. What course did Lord Elgin 


29. How did the Briti-sh party show 
Its reprobation of Lord Elgin's action? 
What outrage did the mob perpetrate ? 

q7^..P'"°'''®^'°^' ^'«« 'i followed? 

dO. What was the verdict of the 
imperial Government? What did the 
Bruish party threaten to do ? 

21. What course was adopted with 
ref.'rence to the seat of Government? 
wiiat change was adopted In 1868? 



. 'ii'^K' 

■f:.< •» .^ f 

- , 



1850 to 1858 A.D. 

Commercial independence. 

Measures of Progress. 

Municipal Institutions. 

The Intercolonial Railway. 

Delegations and Conferences. 

The Reciprocity Treaty. 

The Clergy Reserves question settled. 

Feudal Tenure abolished. 


The Hudson Bay Companv. 

Tb-^ North-West Territc 

Selkirk Settlement. 

Feuds of rival traders. 

British Columbia. 

1. In the year 1850 the British Korth American Provinces 
fairly entered on their political !nanhood. From this period 
may be dated the final acceptance by all parties of the system 
of government that gave t,o each Province the management of 
its own local affairs, free from the dictation of Downing Street; 
leaving to the Imperial Government the burden of defending 
them, the power of binding them to treaties, and the right of 
disallowing any acts of the local Legislatures which it deemed 
prejudicial to the interests of the Empire. From the same 
year may also be dated the commercial independence of the 
Provinces. Four years before, in 1846, during the administra- 
tion of Sir Robert Peel, the Corn Laws were repealed, and Great 
Britain entered into free trade with all the world. The effect 
of this measure was to place Canadian exporters of grain in 
a position similar to that of foreigners. In comparison with 
the Americans, they were placed disadvantageously, as the for- 
mer had greater facilities for exportation. Formerly, when the 
trade of the Provinces was regulated by the Imperial Govern- 
ment, higher duties v/ere imposed on articles imported into 
them from foreign countries than on similar goods from Great 
Britain. These discriminating duties in favour of the British 
merchant were repealed by permission of the Imperial Gov- 
ernment in 1847. This was one concession in favour of the 

2. In 1849 the last barrier of protection was thrown down, hy 





the Repeal of the Navigation Laws. American ship-owners 
were then permitted to register their shipa in British ports, and 
to compete with the ship-owners of the Provinces in the carry- 
ing trade to Great Britain and her colonies. This state of 
commercial independence, which enabled the people of the Prov- 
inces to trade freely with any part of the world, to import 
articles of necessity and luxury from any country they pleased, 
and to manufacture among themselves whatever they chose, 
was not at first looked upon ab a great boon and precious privi- 
lege. The repeal of the Corn and Navigation Laws disarranged 
trade ; tb • people endured a long and severe depression in all 
branches of business, and many grew discontented, and cried 
out that the mother country was casting off the Provinces. As a 
means of allaying the discontent, the Imperial Government was 
induced to give instructions to Lord Elgin to use all his influ- 
ence to promote reciprocal free trade between the United States 
and the Proviiices. The spirit of commercial independence 
forced upon them tended to awaken among the people a spirit 
of self-reliance, and to arouse a desire for enterprise. In the 
fourteen years between 1850 and 1864 (when the Provinces 
were agitated by another political change), matters of internal 
improvement were carried out ; — municipal institutions were 
established in Canada ; laws were simplified and codified ; 
common-school education was extended and placed on a syste- 
matic basis ; internal means of communication were extendetl 
and improved ; lines of railway were constructed with aid from 
the Government. By private enterprise, telegraphs were 
erected, and a line of ocean steamers was established between 
Montreal, Quebec, and Liverpool. 

3. No more can be attempted here than a brief statement of 
the improvements carried out during the period in question. 
Much had already been done in Canada between 1841 and 
1850. The beginning of all the reforms, it may be said, was 
then made. The system of canals was extended and com- 
pleted. They wjre built to overcome the obstructions of the 
St. Lawrence from its numerous rapids and falls, and to open 
up an uninterrupted course of navigation from Lakes Erie and 
Ontario by the great river to the ocean. The canals were 
hardly finished when the people of the United States com- 

(473) P'G 

!. ;■' 




menced making railways ; and the Canadians, in self-defence, 
were compelled to undertake similar works. 

4. Ihe acknowledged cause (dwelt upon by Lord Durham 
in his Report) of the rapid advance of the United States, was 
the early establishment among them of municipal institutions. 
The people of every town, village, and township, obtained full 
control of their own local affairs ; — such as the management of 
the common schools, and the levying of rates and taxes for 
their support ; the opening up and maintenance of highways ; 
the building of bridges, court-houses, and jails ; the support of 
the poor; and generally all matters pertaining to the health, 
cleanliness, and local traffic of their districts. By throwing so 
many matters of local concern on local bodies, the Legislatures 
were relieved of much business, and the people were brought 
to take an intelligent interest in their own affairs. Having 
the power to provide for their local wants, they did not look to 
the State to do everything for them. The want of local control 
over local affairs was early felt, especially in Upper Canada ; 
but it was not until 1849 that an efficient system of municipal 
institutions was established there. Lower Canada had not the 
benefit of them till 1850 ; and it was several years after that 
time before the system in either of the Provinces was per- 
fected. In the smaller Provinces of Nova Scotia and New 
Brunswick no great desire was manifested by the people at 
large to take tlie control of their own local affairs. In the 
earliest period of their history they were compelled to look to 
their Legislatures for the support of their roads, bridges, and 
schools ; and they have not grown out of the habit. In New 
Brunswick, Sir Edmund Head endeavoured to rouse the people 
to look less to tho State and more to themselves ; but muni- 
cipal institutions, as carried out in the Canadas, have as yet 
taken no root in the Lower Provinces. 

5. Between the years 1841 and 1846, common-School educa- 
tion was placed on a systematic basis in Upper Canada. It was 
not until the year 1850 that the people of Lower Canada were 
roused from their apathy towards this question. A system 
suited to their wants was then established. After this time 
much attention was given to improving the grammar-school 
and collegiate systems of both Provinces. 



6. The people of the British American Proviuces were in a 
measure excited by the railway mania that raged in Great 
Britain in 1845. A great many projects were brought before 
the Legislatures, but no great undertaking was carried out 
until seventeen years afterwards. The railway from Portland 
to Montreal was then commenced, by the American, St. Law- 
rence, and Atlantic Company. This line was afterwards leased 
by the Grand Trunk Company, and became part of the great 
Canadian railway. 

7. An Intercolonial Railway, from Halifax to Quebec, waa 
a scheme that early engaged the attention of all the Provinces. 
In connection with that scheme their legislators for the first 
time met o common ground j and though for fifteen years 
afterwards i thing was done, their raeetin/^ led to most im- 
portant results. Lord Durham, in his Eeport, was the first to 
show the vast importance of railways as a means of strengthen- 
ing the hold of Great Britain on British N orth America, and 
of uniting the Upper an^ Lower Provinces. 

8. After tlie settlement of the boundary question in 1842, the 
Imperial Government contemplated making a great military, 
macadamized road through New Brunswick, from the Bend of 
the Peticodiac to Quebec. A London company ofi'ered to sub- 
stitute a railway, on condition that part of the money neces- 
sary to make the road should be granted to it. This scheme 
excited attention in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, but 
awakened very little interest in the Canadas, especially in 
Upper Canada, the people of which were more interested in the 
construction of a railway from Montreal to the western bound- 
ary. Nova Scotia gave an impetus to the project. The Govern- 
ment of Lord Falkland considered it idle and visionary to expect 
that a vast undertaking, which held out no inducement of imme- 
diate profit, could be carried through by a company. It could 
only be constructed by the Imperial Government, with the com- 
bined and spirited cooperation of the three Provinces. 

The Lower Provinces undertook to bear the expenses 1846 
of an exploratory Burvey of the country through which a.d. 
the railway muat pass. Canada, for the sake of the 
great national project, agreed to join with them. The British 
Government, in response to their united request, sent out Major 



William Kobinson and Captain Henderson of the Koyal En- 
gineers, with a staff, to undertake the work. 

9. The Keport of Major Kobinson was submitted to the Legis- 

latures of the three Provinces in 1849. It gave an en- 

1849 thusiastic estimate of the resources of the country, and 
A.D, of the importance of the railway for their development. 

Out of the several routes explored the preference was 
given to that by the coast of the Gulf,—" The North Shore,"— 
as the best for purposes of military defence. The cost was calcu- 
lated at X5,000,u()0 sterling. In anticipation of the immediate 
action of the Imperial Government, Canada, Nova Scotia, and 
New Brunswick voted aid to the extent of £6,000 a year, and 
ten miles of ungranted lands on each aide of the railway. But 
this scheme was most unfavourably criticised by Captain Har- 
ness, one of the Railway Commissioners of the Board of Trade. 

To the joint proposal of the three Provinces, Earl 

1850 Grey returned a most discouraging answer. This was 
A.D. the first of many checks to the Intercolonial Railway. 

Repelled by the Imperial Government, the Lower 
Provinces now looked in another direction. The desire for 
closer commercial intercourse between the Provinces and the 
United States was then growing strong. This feeling took 
form in a Convention held at Portland on the 31st of July. 
Delegates from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick met repre- 
sentative men from New England. In the hall where they sat 
the red-cross banner and the stars and stripes were intertwined, 
— the emblem of a union that many desired to promote. Out 
of this meeting grew the project of the European and North 
American Railway, by which Halifax was to be connected with 
Bangor, Portland, and the railway system of the United States, 
by a line passing through New Brunswick by way of St. John, 
and extending westward to the frontier of Maine. 

10. Joseph Howe now entered the railway field. He was 
not carried away by the enthusiasm created by the Poi-tland 
Convention, and was opposed to placing a railway running over 
British territory under the control of an American company. 
He held that the only safe way to construct great public works 
was by the Government raising money on the credit of the 
Provinces or under imperial guarantee, on the security of the 



lauds aud revenues of the Provinces. He carried the people 
of Nova Scotia along with him. Bearing a letter of introduc- 
tion from Sir John Harvey to Earl Grey, he crossed over to 
England with the view of raising a loan of ^^'800,000 by aid of 
the Imperial Government, to construct a line of railway from 
Halifax to Windsor. 

11. With regard to railway projects. Nova Scotia stood in a 
more favourable position than New Brunswick. Whether the 
line from Halifax to Quebec alone were made, or the line to the 
Maine frontier, or both combined, the railway by the proposed 
route was equally necessary. In New Brunswick it was ex- 
tremely difficult to reconcile the clashing interests of the differ- 
ent parts of the Province. Every scheme proposed met with 
this sectional opposition. The line running we.^ ward tu the 
frontier of Maine was looked npon as advantageous chiefly to 
St. John. The people of the northern counties favoured the 
railway to Quebec by the North Shore route ; those of the 
river counties .hat by the v alley of the St. John ; while the 
people of Charlotte thought that a line from St. Andrews run- 
ning nearly parallel with the United States frontier was the 
most direct and advantageous route. 

12. Joseph Howe, by his speeches and letters, created a 
favourable feeling in England. With his robust and florid 
eloquence he brought British North America with its vast re- 
sources prominently into view. Earl Grey was so far over- 
come by his arguments as to invite him to reopen the 
Intercolonial Railway Scheme. In a letter to him, 1851 
written on the 10th of March, by Mr. Hawes, Under- a.d. 
Secretary of State, the aid of the Imperial Government 

was pledged, and the statement made that no objections would 
be offered to the European and North American Bail way form- 
ing part of the Intercolonial. At the suggestion of Earl Grey, 
Lord Elgin called^ at Toronto, a meeting' of delega^:es from 
the Three Provinces concerned, to arrange the terms and settle 
the amount of responsibility to be borne by each. 

13. The glowing pictures drawn by Mr. Howe of the re- 
sources of British North America, and the prospect of the ex- 
penditure of millions raised under imperial guarantee, offered 
great inducements to a celebrated firm of railway contractors — 




Messrs. Jackson and Company— to transfer their organized 
force of engineers and labourers to so inviting a field. Through 
their agent, Mr. Archibald, they made overtures to the Govern- 
ments of the Provinces. 

14. The movements of Joseph Howe had been watched with 
some suspicion by the party in New Brunswick that favoured 
the line proposed al the Portland Convention, A Bill was 
passed through the Legi3lature providing for the construction 
of a railway from St. John to Shediac, which should form 
part of the Intercolonial ; and the resolution was taken not to 
construct the New Brunswick portion of the railway from Hali- 
fax to Quebec unless imperial aid were given to the line from 
St. John to Shedi; c. Howe, passing through New Eiunswick 
on his way to Toronto to join the meeting of the delegates, 
smothered opposition by showing, by Ihe letter of Mr. Hawes 
of the 10th of March, that the Imperial Government was 
pledged to aid both lines. 

15. The delegates met at Toronto on the 21st of June. Sev- 
eral proposals were made. The one agreed to provided that 
the line from Halifax to Quebec should be u .dertakeu on the 
joint account of the three Provinces, which should grant five miles 
of Crown lands on each side ; and that, until the payment of the 
cost of construction and interest, the receipts should be com- 
mon property, after which each Province was to own that 
portion of the road passing through its own territory. The 
New Brunswick Government agreed to this proposal on the 
distinct understanding that imperial aid should be given to 
the European and North American Railway. The Government 
of Nova Scotia afterwards generously offered to make thirty 
miles within New Brunswick. Everything seemed to be now 
satisfactorily settled. But there is many a slip between the 
Cup and the lip. Earl Grey, by a despatch dated the 27th of 
November, apprised the Government of Nev/ Brunswick that 
Mr. Howe had misinterpreted Mr. Hawes's letter ; — the Im- 
perial Government would not aid the European and North 
American Railway. This announcement, after high hopes had 
been raised, caused deep disappointment. Many accused Howe 
of having made a wilful mistake. He, however, maintained 
that the interpretation he had put upon the letter had been at 




first accepted by Earl Grey, and that his Lordship must after- 
wards have changed his mind. This misconception tended to 
engender mistrust among the Provinces. 

16. Unwilling to stop the works of the Intercolonial Eail- 
way, the Government of New Brunswick then announced that 
it was prepared to abide by the Toronto aiTangement, provided 
the route by the valley of the St. John were chosen. But " No/' 
said the men of Nova Scotia. " We undertook one-third of 
the line on the understanding that it should go by the North 
Shore ; the adoption of the St. John valley route would nullify 
the advantages that made us willing to agree to undertake so 

17. Another meeting of delegates took place at Halifax 
the following January, to reconsider the whole matter. 

The Hon. Messrs. Hincks, Tache, and Young, of the 1852 
Canadian Government, submitted a final proposal to a.d. 
the Maritime Provinces. Before it was taken vp, 
the Hon. E. B. Chandler of New Brunswick intimated to Mr. 
Hincks that a body of English capitalists (including Jackson and 
Co.), and calling themselves the North American Railway 
Association, were about to make a proposal to construct the 
two proposed lines en condition of receiving an annual grant of 
^90,000 a year for twenty years, and 5,000,000 of acres of 
Crown lands. Would he consider it ? " Not for a moment," 
answered Mr. Hincks. The Canadian proposal was then ac- 
ce]ited. It bore hard on New Brunswick, for that Province 
was called to undertake five-twelfths of the cost of construction ; 
but, hard as were the terms, its Government accepted them 
rather than bear the odium of staying a great national work. 

18. A deputation was appointed to proceed to England to 
solicit imperial aid for the Intercolonial Railway on the new 
basis. There now appeared to be a want of cordial cooperation 
among the Goverimients of the three Provinces. The dele- 
gates of Nova Scotia did not join the delegates of Canada and 
New Brunswick, so that Messrs. Hincks and Chandler were left 
to make what arrangements they could. They were coldly re- 
ceived by the Government of Earl Derby. They suspected 
that some secret hostile influence was at work. Aggrieved at 
being slighted, impatient at being kept waiting for an answer 





to his communication to the Colonial Secretary, Mr. Hiucka 
wrote a sharp letter to Sir John Pakington, in which he 
bluntly stated that Canada, which he represented, came not 
as a humble suitor for aid, but on the invitation of the Imperial 
Government to take part in a great national work. The an- 
swer the delegates at length received was adverse. Imperial 
aid could not be given to a railway by the valley of the St. 
John: so again the great project fell to the ground. Each 
Province was now left to construct the works most advai- 
tageous to its interests on its own responsibility. Messrs. 
Hiucks and Chandler threw themselves into the arms of Jackson 
and Co., and made ia'rangements for Canada, New Brunswick, 
and also on o.lialf A Nova Scotia ; but the people of the last- 
named Province, hearkening to the advice of Howe, would not 
enter intc copartnership with contractors, however eminent, and 
called on the Government to undertake the works. 

19. This year the Grand Trunk Company was incorporated 
in Canada to make a railway from Montreal to Toronto, and 
from Quebec to Riviere du Loup ; and the work was commenced. 
In the same year in New Brunswick, the Legislature ratified a 
contract with Jackson and Co. to make the line from St. John 
to Shediac. 

20. By the influence of Lord Elgin, the negotiations for the 
establishment of a sys^-^m of Free Trade between Canada and 
the United States w" ^ brought to a successful conclusion. By 

their express desire, the Maritime Provinces were in- 

1854 eluded. On the 5th of June 1854 the Reciprocity 

A.D. Treaty was signed and sealed at Washington by Lord 

Elgin and the Hon. W. L. Marcy,the American Minister. 
By the articles of the treaty the produce of the sea, the soil, 
and the forests were mutually admitted free ; the Amei"icans 
gained a full participation in the sea fisheries and in the naviga- 
tion of the canals of Canada, and of the rivers St. Lawrence 
and St. John. The treaty was to continue in force ten years 
from the time when it came into operation, and a year after 
either of the contracting parties signified a desire to terminate 
it. It was very favourable to the interests of the farmers of 
tipper Canada, but in the Maritime Provinces it evoked dis- 
satisfaction. The course pursued by Lord Elgin awakened 



displeasure. He was accused of hurrying oflF to Washington 
withouii giving their delegates due notice, and of signing away 
their interests without giving tliose delegates an opportunity to 
make, if possible, a better bargain. The objections raised to 
tlie treaty were, that though the United States had nothing to 
exchange comparable in value to the priceless fisheries of British 
North America, and though their ships were placed on an 
equality with the ships of Great Britain, they still peremptorily 
declined to concede the only equivalent they could offer — 
iijiniely, the admission of colonial vessels to registry in their 
])orts and to their coasting trade. Great Britain, in the spirit 
of the policy she had pursued since the last war with the United 
States, conceded much to preserve amicable relations. The dis- 
content in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick was only a passing 
feeling. The events of the times were such as called forth the 
sympathy of all the Provinces towards the mother country ; for 
Great Britain, in alliance with France, had declared war 
against Russia,^ and while Lord Elgin was signing the treaty 
at Washington, the forces of the com>.)ined powers were collecting 
at Varna,^ preparatory to an invasion of the Crimea. 

21. Dui'ing the course of the iiummer of 1854 Sir Edmund 
Head was appointed Governor-General in the room of Lord 
Elgin, and the Hon. J. Henry Thomas Manners-Sutton 
assumed the Governorship of New Brunswick. At this time 
Sir J. Gaspard le Marchand was Governor of Nova Scotia, and 
Sir Dominic Daly of Prince Edward Island. 

22. In Sir Edmund Head's time the questions that had con- 
tinually provoked jealousy and discord in Upper Canada were 
settled in an amicable manner. After the Union, several 
attempts were made to dispose of the difficulty arising ou of 
the claim of the Church of England to the sole enjoyment of 
the Clergy Reserves. The establishment of fifty-six rectories 
hy Sir John Colbome had brought the contest between that 

' War against Russia. — Russia seized 
the Principalities of Moldavia and Wal- 
lachia, north of the Danube. France 
and Britain, holding this to be a dis- 
turbance of the balance of power, 
firmed an alliance in aid of Turkey. 
I'he Crimea was the chief theatre of the 

war which ensued. The Allies gained 
the great victories of the Alma, Inker- 
mann, Balaklava, and the Tchernaya. 
The war was ended by the Treaty of 
Paris, March 1856. 

' V'^ma. — A sea-port of ';^irkey, on 
the western shore of the Black Sea. 

, *^ 1 





body aud the other sects to a direct isstie. That act formally 
gave the Church of England connection with the State aud tlio 
position of an Established Church, which it had always claimed. 
But such {jretensions were exceedingly distasteful to the mem- 
bers of the other sects, who formed the majority of the popula- 
tion. The discussions in Parliament over this question reviv. d 
the fingry passious of the past, and tended to perpetuate discor«l 
and disquiet throughout the Province ; but in 1854 this trouble 
was disposed of. Parliament, acting under authority of au 
Imperial Act, passed a measure decreeing the separation of the 
State from connection \Vith any Church, providing for the pay- 
ment to the incumbents of the rectories of a sum equivalent to 
the value of the existing stipends, and making provision for 
the support of the widows and children of clergymen. After 
all just claims were satisfied, the remaining Clergy Reserves 
and funds were divided among the municipalities according to 

23. At the same time an important step was taken, to abolish 

" the Feudal Tenure" in Lower Canada ; but this 

1855 reform was not finally carried out until 1859. The 

A.D. body of the Censitaires had long desired to be freed 

from the state of semi- vassalage in which they were 
kept, and which so plainly placed them in a position of inferiority 
as compared with the British population. The Seigneurs were 
naturally unwilling to relinquish their feudal rights and privi- 
leges ; but their opposition was at length overcome, and full 
justice was done. The Censitaires paid a small sum, and the 
Province generally contributed ^650,000, to indemnify the 

24. Measures were taken to promote settlement. The treat- 
ment that immigrants had formerly received in the Provinces 
was disgraceful. Nothing was done to *?ncourage or cheer 
them. The vessels that brought them were frequently unsea- 
worthy, overcrowded, and plague-stricken. On landing, many 
brought with them fever^ disease, and destitution. Such as 
had means were waylaid by villains, whose only object was to 
rob and mislerd them. To obviate these evils quarantine 
harbours were established, and the sick received medical care 
in the hospi*'^\^ ; officers were appointed to give the immigranta 

tllE NOIltli-WKJiT TKIlUnoUY. 


voliable infonuatiou regarding the mode of obtaining grants of 
land, and of reaching their allotted destinations. The tendency 
of the Governments and people of the Provincec ic to show to 
immigrants increasing care and kindness, — to welcome them as 
friends and labourers whose toil will increase tue wealth and 
greatness of the Dominion. 

25. In the year 1858 attention was drawn to the North-West 

Territory. It will be convenient here to take a glance at the 

progress of events in that quarter. The Hudson Bay Company 

(incorporated by Royal Charter in 1670) remained in undisputed 

posseHsion of a boundless dominion, after the French King, by 

tlie Treaty of Utrecht, had relinquished all claim to it. In fact, 

its boundaries were, as defined in the treaty, a ridge of highlands 

extending, or which was supposed to extend, along the sources 

of the rivei-s falling into St. James and Hudson Bays. This 

definition was vague enough to encourage the Company to 

maintain claims that were open to dispute. It contended that 

its possessions stretched to the Eocky Mountains, including the 

great tract which has its centre in Lake Winnipeg.^ For over a 

century the great Company enjoyed an almost matchless 

pro&perity. Its ajBfairs were presided over by a Governor-iu- 

Chief, whose liead-quarters were at Fort Factory, on Nelson 

Bay.2 Under him was a number of factoi-s, who took charge of 

the several departments and districts into which the Territory 

I was divided. In its service was a nurjerous force of traders, 

clerks, servants, and voyageurs. The warriors of the various 

Indian tribes that hunted over their domain brought the spoils 

of the chase to the posts, which were built in convenient positions 

Iby the shores of the great bays, at the heads of lakes, and by 

I the banks and mouths of rivers. 

26. A few years after the Conquest, certain merchants of 
IKontreal, chiefly Scotchmen, commenced trading in the North- 
IWest Territory, whose boundaries were defined ?.s stretching 
jfrom the head of Lake Superior over the Rocky Mountains to 
|he Pacific coast, north to the Frozen Sea, and north-eastward 
the limits of the Hudson Bay Company's domain. In 1784 



Lake Winnipeg. — Into this lake 

bw the Saskatchewan, Red, and As- 

liboine Rivers. It findjj an outlet 

by the Nelson River, falling into Hud- 
son Bay, 
' Nelson Bay. — In Hudson Bay. 



they formed the North-West Company. They were very 
prosperous, and soon had a small army of employes at their 
command. They established posts by the shores of Lake Win- 
nipeg and on Red River, in the country that the Hudson Bay 
people claimed as their exclusive domain. Then arose disputes 
about boundaries, which broke into bloody feuds between the 
rival traders. 

27. Employes of both Companies made discoveries in the 
hitherto unknown wilderness. John Hearn (1771) found his 
way to a lake larger than Ontario, the Great Slave, and to 
the Metal or Coppermine River. (Sir) Alexander Mackenzie 
(1789) explored further north-west to a great river falling 
into the Arctic Sea, since called the Mackenzie. He crossed 
the Rocky Mountains and discovered the T^-cout-ch^ Tesse, the 
river of the Faculty nation. Several years later (1808), Simon 
Frazer, a North-wester, navigated it to its mouth, and half a 
century later it became famous as the gold-bearing Frazer 
River. Six years before (1797), Captain Vancouver had 
threaded his way through the archipelago on the Pacific coast, 
and given his name to the largest of its islands. 

28. The Hudson Bay Company dold to the Earl of Selkirk 
(1811-12) a large tract of country along the courses of the Eed 
and Assiniboine Rivers. He sent out a party of Scotchmen 
(who were afterwards joined by some Norwegians and French 
Canadians) to make a &.^ttlement. They were exposed to severe 
privations from the failure of their first crops, and to constant 
peril from the prowling Indians. Captain Milnes M'DonDel 
was appointed Governor. He kept his head-quartera at Fort i 
Dan (the present Pembina). The establishment of this colony l 
in territory to which the Hudson Bay Company had doubtful 
right, more fiercely inflamed the jealousy of the North- Westers. 
The feuds between the servants, the wild half-breeds and 
Indian allies, of the rival traders, were waged with fearful ani-J 
mosity for several years. Blood was shed, life was taken, 
cruelties were perpetrated, and the fruits of arduous toil were! 
destroyed. The unfortunate Scotchmen and Norwegians ofj 
Selkirk were driven from their settlements. A party found 
tempo i'ary shelter at Norway Jlou^e, one of the chief Hudson 
Bay posts near the outlet of Lake Winnipeg. They retumeij 




ouly to be driven away again. The feud reached such a height 
that Sir George Drumraond, then Governor of Canada, sent a 
regiment to Eed Eiver to keep the peace (1816). At this 
time the profits of the Hudson Bay Company fell to zero. The 
stock-holders in London received no dividends whatever. In a 
few years the criminal folly of the rivalries forced itself on the 
minds of those who had the chief interest in the fur-trade. An 
amalgamation of the interests of the two Companies was 
brought about. Tljey were united under the name of the 
Hudson Bay Company. The monopoly of the trade in the 
British region between the coasts of Labrador and Columbia 
was granted to it for a term of years by the Imperial Parlia- 
ment. "With peace, prosperity returned. 

29. The Hudson Bay Company commenced to color'ze Van- 
couver Island in 1843. It was looked upon as a moi^u favour 
able field for settlement. It possessed spacious harbours, and 
enjoyed a healthy climate. Its soil was fertile, its forests of 
pine and other useful trees were extensive, and its sea and 
river fisheries exhaustless. Victoria, the capital, was then 

30. Shortly after chis time, Great Britain and the United 
States were on the point of going to war over a dispute regard- 
ing the boundaries of their respective possessions in the west. 
The dispute was for the time settled by the Oregon Treaty 
(Only 17, 1846). The boundaries were then defined to be sepa- 
rated by a line passing through the middle of the channel that 
divides Vancouver Island from the mainland. In this channel, 
and between the Strait of Haro on the east and of Eosario on 
the west, lies San Juan and other lesser islands. The Americans 
soon began to assert that San Juan was within their territory, 
as they claimed that the Haro Strait, which runs by the eastern 
coast of Vancouver, was within the dividing line as defined by 
the treaty. The British, on the contrary, contended that the 
Rosario Strait, running west of San Juan, and leaving that 
iskud within their territory, was the true dividing line. The 
San Juan difficulty^ remained unsettled for a number of years. 

The San Juan difficulty. — It was re- 
f Ted by the Treaty of Washington (8th 
M»y 1871) for arbitration to the Em- 

peror of Germany, who, in October 1872, 
gave his award in favour of the Unlte<l 
States. See p. 442. 







Ill 1849 Vancouver was erected into a Crown colony, and (Sir) 
James Douglas, local agent of the Hudson Bay Company, was 
appointed Governor. 

31. Attention, as already stated, was directed to the Nortli- 

West Territory at this time. The term of the monop- 

1858 oly of trade of the Hudson Bay Company was about 

A.D. to expire. Doubts were raised as to the validity of its 

ancient Charter, and a desire was manifested to annex 
the vast domain to Canada. The value of the Ked River dis- 
tricts and Saskatchewan fertile belts was then becoming well 
known. Parties in Upper Canada perceived that they presented 
an opportunity to extend the bounds of their Province west- 
ward, and to increase British iufllience in the United Canadas. 
But the annexation of the North-.West Territory did not take 
place till eleven years afterwards. British Columbia in the 


same year sprang into notice (1858). Discoveries of gold 
had been made in the country of the Upper Columbia River as 
early as 1850. The "findings" continued to be made on so 
large a scale that Governor Douglas in 1856 apprised the 
Imperial Government of the fact. When it was noised abroad, 
adventurous spirits were seized with a desire to explore the new 



gold-fields. "Wild miners from California deserted their old to 
try their fortune in the new diggings. By the year 1858, 
between twenty and thirty thousand men were scattered over 
the rocky mountain -slopes and the terraced ravines through 
which flows the Frazer River and its tributaries. A fixed 
and firm Government was necessary, to keep the reckless por- 
tion of the mixed population in order. British Columbia was 
constituted a separate colony, and New Westminster, its seat 
of Government, was founded. 

3'2. The following year the American General commanding 
in the Oregon Territoiy crossed the dividing channel 
with a military force, and landed in San Juan. The 1859 
British Admiral on the station. Sir Robert Baynes, there- a.d. 
upon sent a party of Royal Marines to the island. The 
claims of the two countries were thus brought to a threatening 
collision; but the danger was averted. The United States 
Government did not countenance the act of its General. The 
American soldiers did not retire altogether ; for an agreement 
was made between the two Powers that each should maintain a 
small military force upon the island until the question of owner- 
ship should be settled. 

Questions. — 1. Describe the system 
of government finally accepted by all 
parties in Canada. What effect had 
the repeal of the Corn Laws on the Prov- 
inces ? What concession was made to 
them in 1847? 

2. When and by what measure did 
the Provinces achieve commercial inde- 
pendence? What were its immediate 
effects? What means were taken to 
allay the discontent? How were the 
years from 1860 till 1864 occupied ? 

3. What was the pu'^ose of the canal 
system ? ''.Vhat induced the Canadians 
to construct railways ? 

4. To what had Lord Durham as- 
cribed the rapid advance of the United 
States? How had this affected the 
people? When were efficient munici- 
pal institutions established in Upper 
Canada? When, in Lower Canada? In 
what Provinces have municipal institu- 
tions taken no root ? 

5. When were systems of public edu- 
cation established in the Canadas? 

6. What effect had the English rail- 
way mania on the North American 
Provinces ? What was the first great 
railway undertaken there ? 

7. What railway scheme early en- 
gaged the attention of all the Provinces 7 
Who had been the first to point out the 
importance of railways in British North 

8. What great project was discussed 
shortly after 1842? Which Province 
was most active in connection vrith it ? 
W hat step did the British Government 

9. Give the substance of Major Robin- 
son's Report. What aid did the Legis- 
latures of the three Provinces vote to 
the undertaking? What discouraged 
it? What project took the place of this 

10. What was Joseph Howe's opinion 
of the scheme ? On what mission did 
he go to England ? 

11. Why was Nova Scotia more fa- 
vourably situated than New Brunswick 

1 n| 

''\:4 ■ ty| 

•ff. - 


>'A ' 



for entering on these great railway 

12. What was the result of Joseph 
Howe's visit to England? For what 
purpose was a meeting of delegates 
called at Toronto ? 

13. What were Messrs. Jackson and 
Company induced to do? 

14. What party had watched Howe's 
movements with suspicion? What 
position did the New Brunswick Legis- 
lature take up ? Ho v was opposition 
in that quarter smothded ? 

15. What proposal was agreed to 
by the delegates at Toronto ? How was 
the harmony disturbed ? 

16. What did the New Brunswick 
Government then propose ? What did 
Nova Scotia reply ? 

17. What proposal did Mr. Chandler 
make at the Halifax meeting of dele- 
gates? How was it received ? To what 
did the delegates then agree ? On which 
Province did that project bear hardly ? 

18. What was the result of the appli- 
cation for imperial aid ? What was the 
only course now open to the Provinces ? 
On what point did Nova Scotia separate 
from the other Provinces ? 

19. What line of railway was begun 
in Canada in 1852 ? 

20. When was the Reciprocity Treaty 
between Canada and the United States 
signjd? To whom was the treaty fa- 
vourable? Where was it unpopular? 
For what was Lord Elgin blamed? 
What were the chief objections to the 
treaty ? 

21. When did Lord Elgin retire? 
Who succeeded him ? 

22. What act had brought the contest 

between the Church of England ani 
the other sects to a direct issue? When 
was the matter settled ? How ? 

When was feudal tenure in Lower 
Canada abolished? How were the 
Seigneurs indemnified? 

24. What measures were taken to in- 
crease the comfort of immigrants and 
to promote settlement ? 

25. When was the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany incorporated ? What land did the 
Company claim ? How were its opera- 
tions carried on ? 

26. When was the North-West Com- 
pany formed ? What brought the two 
comp.' nies into collision? 

27. vVhat discoveries were made by 
the employes of these companies ? 

28. Sketch the early history of the 
Selkirk (Red River) Settlement. What 
effect had the feuds between the com- 
panies on the fur-trade? When did 
prosperity return ? 

29. When did the colonizing of Van- 
couver Island begin? Why was it 
deemed a favourable field for settle- 

30. What dispute arose at this time 
between Great Britain and the United 
States ? What were defined to be the 
boundaries by the Oregon Treaty? 
What further difference arose ? When 
did Vancouver become a Crown colony? 

31. What desire was manifested in 
1858 with reference to the North- 
west Territory ? What brought British 
Columbia into prominent notice? How 
did it obtain a fixed Governmient? 

82. What proceedings threatened s 
collision in San Juan in 1859? How 
was the danger averted ? 





1857 to 1867 A.D. 

State of the Union Question. 

Increased Bepresentation. 

An Elective Legislative Council. 

Representation by Population. 

First proposal of Union. 

The Canadian Tariffs. 

The Prince Of Wales's visit. 

The United States. 

Defence Question. 

Crisis in Parliament of Canada. 

Parties coiilesce to carry Confederation. 

Prince Edward Island Conference. 

Quebec Conference. 

The Scheme of Union. 

Delegation of Canadian Minidtiy to 

New Brunswick anti-confederate. 

Mr. Car " I's Despatch. 

The F ..J. Brotherhood. 

The Session of 1866 in New Brunswick. 

Meeting of Delegates in London. 

British North America Act. 

First Meeting of Confederate Parlia- 

1. Not very long after the establishment of British power iii 
Canada the Question of Union became a subject of speculation. 
The vast progress made by the United States seemed to prove 
the strength of that principle ; and the aggressive spirit evinced 
by them raised uneasy feelings with regard to the weak position 
of the separate Provinces. Each State had its independent 
Legislature, which governed its own local affairs ; and there 
was a Central Government (the visible representation of the 
idea of country), which was supreme over all such general 
matters as pertained to defence, commerce, currency, and foreign 
relations. Within the bounds of the Union there was freedom 
of trade. The individual States were thus all bound together 
by the bond of obedience to a central power, and by the tie of 
a common interest. The British Provinces owed allegiance to 
one Sovereign, — there was thus a grand bond of union ; but a 
similar strong community of interest did not exist among 
the individual Provinces as between the States. Each regu- 
lated its own currency; each adjusted its own tariffs to suit 
its own views and wants ; and the free interchange of products 
was prevented by a barrier of custom-houses along the boun- 
daries of each Province. 

2. In the year 1808 a scheme to unite all the British Provinces 
\tn) 27 


■ ■'■ i - 

, 1 ■ 

9- " 







under a federal form of goverument was suggested by Richard 
J. Winacke of Nova Scotia. In 1814 (as before stated) Chief. 
Justice Sewell of Quebec laid a proposal for the Confederatioy 
of all the Pro\'inces before the Earl of Bathurst, then Colouia. 
Secretary, as a means of overcoming the difficulties of govern* 
ment in Lower Canada. In 1822 (the year in which a measure 
to unite the two Canadas was proposed in the Imperial Parlia- 
ment and withdrawn) a project for the Confederation of all the 
Provinces was, at the request of the Colonial Office, drawn up 
by Sir John Beverley Kobinson. In 1839 Lord Durham rec- 
ommended Confederation as the best means of obviating the 
difficulties of government in Lower Canada, and of advancing 
the general interests of all the Provinces. In fact, at every 
political crisis in Canada the idea of Confederation was revived. 

3. The period between 1857 and 1867 was an important 
decade in the history of the British North American Provinces. 
In 1857 the first practical step was taken to carry out the proj- 
ect which had been at various times in contemplation. In 
1 867 Coiif ederation was consummated. During the earlier years 
of this period the discussion of the question was confined chiefly 
to the Canadas, and there it was only intermittent. In the 
Lower Provinces neither the people nor the Legislatures con- 
cerned themselves about it, though it sometimes formed the 
theme of a newspaper article. In Nova Scotia the proposal for 
a legislative union with New Brunswick and Prince Edward 
Island found favour, but the greater union with Canada did 
not then seem to be thought practicable. 

4. Several events happened which, combined, forced the 
people to look upon Confederation not as a theory, as heretofore, 
but as a serious practical measure. The War of Secession 
broke out. An angry feeling was aroused in the United States 
against Great Britain. The danger of war being imminent, the 
British Government pressed upon the Provinces the ne ^essity 
of uniting, in order to provide greater means of defence. The 
sectional difficulties in the Canadas, which had been increas- 
ing in int«ensity since 1857, reached an alarming height in 1864, 
when the United States gave warning of their intention to abro- 
gate the Reciprocity Treaty. Again, a party in England raised 
the cry that the Provinces were a burden and a danger, and d 



little commercial benefit to the mother country ; and a feeling 
ill favour of severing the connection seemed to be growing in 
strength. A conviction took possession of the minds of many 
people, that if the Provinces did not seize the opportunity that 
l^resentud itself to unite, they could not remain in their sepa- 
rate condition, but would be forced before long to join the 
confederacy of the United States : the alternative was Confed- 
eration or Annexation. 

5. Important measures of reform had been passed during the 
preceding ten years by the Parliament of the United Canadas. 
Still, there remained the old difficulties arising out of the dif- 
ferent characters of the two portions of the population, ex- 
pressed in their language, laws, and religion. The Government 
of the Canadas was, in fact, divided into two sections, — Eastern 
and "Western, — each with its premier, or leader, and its several 
members in the Cabinet representing its interests. The British 
aud the French Canadian members in Parliament were divided 
into parties ; — the iirst into Conservatives and Liberals or Re- 
formers (vulgarly Grits) ; the second into similar divisions, 
termed Bleus and Rouges. The i*')'ench Canadians held their 
position well. By aid of thtir majority, the British Con- 
servative minority were enabled to carry on the Government. 
The jealousy of sections tended to promote extravagance, and 
to excite angry altercations. As nearly as possible an equal 
division of the public money was insisted on. When a grant 
was made to Upper Canada for a useful public work, a like 
amount had to be voted to Lower Canada. 

6. The Union of the Canadas had been founded on the basis 
of equality of representation in Parliament. The French 
Canadians regarded that provision as a guarantee that they 
would be enabled to preserve their language, laws, and religion 
intact. When Lower Canada entered the Union in 1841 it had 
the greater population ; ten years later it could not boast of that 
superiority. Upper Canada had then 60,000 more people than 
the sister Province. The question was then raised, " Ought 

not the Western British Province to have a representa- 
tion in Parliament in proportion to its numbers 7" 

7. In 1863 the number of representatives was increased from 
84 to 130, giving 65 to efvch section, Three years afterwards a 









change wji8 made in the mode of appointing members to the 
Legislative Council. It became an elective instead of a nomi- 
native body. Its members, instead of being appointed by the 
Governor and Council, under authority of the Crown, were 
henceforth to be elected by the people. The Provinces were 
divided into 48 electoral districts, corresponding to the number 
of members of the Council. Elections were to be held in one- 
fourth of the districts every two years, thus securing an election 
of the entire Houso once every eight years. The new law did not 
affect the members already appointed by the Crown, but only 
took effect on their death or resignation. The elective principle 
had not been fully carried out when the nominative principle 
was reestablished by the Constitution of 1867. 

8. While these changes were in progress the Provinces were 
agitated by a demand for alteration in the basis of representa- 
tion. Probably most people in Upper Canada thought that the 
Province ought to have more representatives, but all were not 
willing to raise an exasperating question. The increase of rep- 
resentation became the favourite dogma of the Reformers. 
George Brown, a powerful speaker and writer, was the leader 
— the Boanerges of the party ; his journal, " The Globe," estab- 
lished in Toronto, was its exponent. At public meetings 
" representation by population " was the theme of exciting 
harangues ; it was the rallying cry at elections. If their demand 
were conceded, the Reformers expected that the representation 
of British and Protestant Upper Canada would become all- 
powerful in Parliament ; that they would be able to carry out the 
common-school system in its entirety, and to prevent the estab- 
lishment of sectarian schools by the Roman Catholic clergy; 
that Upper Canada would gain control of the revenues, and be 
able to prosecute useful public works, to develop trade in the 
west, and to acquire the North- West Territory. 

9. This demand for "representation by population" was 
strenuously resisted by the people of Lower Canada ; they con- 
sidered it a violation of the pact of the Union. They did not 
say that the Upper Canadians would do them absolute injustice, 
but they were afraid to trust them with the power that would 
enable them to do so, were thfey so disposed. They would never 
conseut to the principle, unless it were guarded by such cb^lvs 



and guarautees an would secure to them the continuauce of 
their peculiar institutions. In order to surmount the difficulty 
caused by the agitation of " representation by popula- ion," and 
to restore harmony between the sections, some of the Reiormers 
])roposed that the Legislative Union should be broken up and a 
Federal Union substituted, by which a General Parliament would 
be established to legislate in matters of common concern to both 
Provinces, — as customs, commerce, currency ; and a Legislature 
in each, to have control over local mutters, — as education, 
administration of justice, militia, public works. 

10. The angry disputes between the two sections awak- 
ened the anxiety of thoughtful statesmen in Canada, 
Alexander T. Gait, member for Sherbrooke, brought 1857 
under the consideration of Parliament the subject of a a.d. 
Confederation of all the Provinces. In his place, he 
made a speech in which he set forth the advantages of such a 
scheme, as oflfering the means to put an end to sectional strifes, 
to still the agitation of representation by population, and to 
advance the prosperity of British North America. The speech, 
able though it was, excited little interest in Parliament, but it 
was the first blast of battle. Next year a change in the 
Government took place. The Administration of John A. 
McDonald and George E. Cartier was defeated on the question of 
carrying out Her Majesty's decision respecting the removal of the 
seat of Government to Ottawa. Parliament was dissolved, a 
general election took place, and the Keform party gained a small 
majority. George Brown and A. A. Dorion formed a Govern- 
ment. It was defeated, after a very brief existence. The 
Governor-General, Sir Edmund Head, then called on the leaders 
of the Conservatives, and the former Administration, with a 
slight change, was reconstructed. It was now the Cartier lind 
M'Donald Administration. Its members did not go back to 
the people for reelection, according to the established practice, 
but resumed their duties as if the few^ days of Brown and Dorion 
were not woiih reckoning. The rage of the Eeformers was 
aroused at the abrupt manner in which their Government had 
been defeated, at the refusal of the Governor-General to dissolve 
Parliament, and at what they deemed the unconstitutional way 
by which the Consei-vative Administration had regained power 

»ir.,ijil iiBil 




-f ■ 
• * 


11. Mr. Gait joiued the Cartier and M'Douald Adminiatra- 
tiou, and Confederation was brought forward as the leadinf,' 
measure of their policy. At this time the project of the Inter- 
colonial Railway was engaging the attention of the Govern- 
ments of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, and their 
delegates* met in London to enter into negotiations with the 
Imperial Government ; these were, however, unsuccessful. The 
Canadian delegates — Hon. Messrs. Cartier, Ross, and Gait — 
addressed a memorial to Hon. E. Bulwer Lytton,^ then Colonial 
Secretary, in which, in all seriousness, they stated that grave 
difficulties presented themselves in the way of Government in 
Canada, and pointed out that Confederation was a measure 
not only of Provincial, but of Imperial importance ; that it 
afforded a remedy for allaying the sectional jealousip oi Canada, 
and a means of binding together and promoting the prosperity 
of all the Provinces, and of strengthening the power of the 
Empire on the American Continent. They suggested that the 
Imperial Government should authorize the appointment of 
delegates from all the Provinces to discuss the question. A dis- 
couraging answer was returned by the Colonial Secretary, and 
the proposal was somewhat coolly received by the Maritime 
Governments. In Nova Scotia a legislative union with New 
Brunswick and Prince Edward Island was more favourably 
looked upon than the Canadian scheme. In New Brunswick 
the Government seemed to be little disposed to discuss the 
question of union at all. They conceived that any change in 
the existing condition of the ProviTices was unnecessary ; the 
prosperity they had attained, and the power of self-government 
they enjoyed, left them nothing to envy in the condition of the 
neighbouring Republic. 

12. The subject of Confederation was not taken into con- 

sideration when the Canadian Parliament met again. 

1859 It "^^s dismissed for the time from consideration. 

A.D. A Federal Union of the two Cauadas was proposed at 

a Reform convention held at Toronto in the beginning 
of winter, as a remedy for the increasing difficulties. But 

* Hon. E. Bulwer-Lytton. — After- 
wards Lord Lytton ; the celebrated 
noTclist and dramatic writer. He was 

Colonial Secretary in Lord Derby's 
second Administration, from 1858 till 
1859. Born 1805, died 1873. 



notliiug practical was doue, though the uecesaity giuvv more 
pressing for some change in the reljitions of Upper to Lower 

13. When the Canadian Government made the pjoposiil of 
union to the Lower Provinces the circumstances of the time 
were unfavourable. Since the year 1854 Canada had enjoyed 
much seeming prosperity. The building of the Grand Trunk 
Eailway caused a great expenditure ; money was plentiful, and 
was more easily obtained than it had formerly been. The 
Provinces were blessed with fine harvests, and tlie farmers had 
a profitable market for their grain. The Peciprocity Treaty 
with the United States favoured them. But in 1857 a change 
occurred. A severe crisis overtook the commerce of America. 
It was long and se\ erely felt in Canada. To add to the depres- 
sion and difficulty of the times there was a succession of bad 
harvests. The wheat crop of 1858 was almost destroyed. The 
farmers had no grain to export. Many, who in the feverish 
hour of prosperity believed themselves rich, were plunged into 
the depths of bankruptcy. The revenue derived from the 
duties on imports fell off. At a time when the Government 
had insufficient money at their command to meet the ordinary 
expenses, they were called upon to assume large additional 
liabilities. To maintain the credit of the country they were 
compelled to increase taxation by readjusting the tariff and 
imposing a ;rger scale of duties on imports. 

14. The imposition of the high tariff prejudiced English 
manufacturers against the Provinces, and tended to raise doubts 
in their minds as to the value of colonies to the mother coun- 
try. They complained that its effect was to shut them out 
from the Canadian market, and to favour the introduction of 
American manufactures. The tariff also caused much discus- 
sion in the Provinces among parties who took different views 
regarding the commercial policy that colonies ought to pursue. 
After the repeal of the Corn Laws in Great Britain (in 1846), 
the question of Protection or Free Trade was much debaced, 
not only in Canada, but also in the other Provinces. One party 
held that the wisest course was to reduce as much as possible 
the duties on imports, to carry on unrestricted commerce with 
all foreign nations, and to raise a revenue by direct taxation. 


IIh »j 





Auothei' party held that the money of the Provinces ouyht to 
be retained in them, and not sent abroad to purchase what 
their own people might make ; and that high protective duties 
should be imposed on foreign manufactures to encourage their 
own ; that the aim of their Legislature should be to make the 
Provinces as nearly self-sustaining as might be ; and that in- 
stead of promoting the importation of goods and articles from 
abroad, they should endeavour to induce British capitalists to 
establish manufactures in the Provinces, and to draw skilled 
oj^eratives to them from Britain. 

15. The tariffs of 1858-59 were arranged by the Canadian 
Government, not with a view of carrying out any particular 
policy, but for the purpose of raising a revenue. Indirectly, 
however, they were to some extent " protective," as the high 
duties imposed on certain articles tended to foster a numbv ^ of 
new manufactories. 

16. From the war of sections, the strife of parties, and clash - 
hig views of policy, the coui-se of history turns to an event that 
stirred the heart of the people of British Koi-th America, and 
touched their feelings of attachment to the mother country, and 

of love and respect for the Sovereign. Two circum- 

1860 stances aeemed to the people of Canada to demand a 

A.D. signal celebration. The magnificent Victoria Bridge,^ 

spanning the River St. Lawrence at Montreal, was all 
but completed, and the erection of the Parliament Buildings 
at the new seat of Government at Ottawa, was about to be 
commenced. Only a royal hand should lay the key-stone of 
the arch, fasten the last of a million of rivets in the enor- 
mous tubes of the bridge, and lay the comer-stone of an edifice 
that might become the seat of the wisdom of a nation. The 
two branches of the Legislature united in an address soliciting 
the honour of a visit from the Queen to the loyal and flourish- 
ing Provinces. Unable to accept the invitation, Her Majesty 
graciously deputed her eldest son, the heir-apparent to the 
throne, to be her representative. When the intention of the 

* Victoria Bridge. — This bridge, built 
over the St. Lawrence at Montreal, 
under the superintendence of Mr. 
Robert Stephenson and Mr. A. M. 
Kosa, was begun 24th May 1864, and 

opened by the Prince of Wales 2511' 
August 1860. Its length is about fixty 
yards less than two English miles It 
is supported by twenty-four piers. The 
cost was £1,700,000. 



Prince of Wales to visit Canada became kuowu, the other 
Provinces eagerly desired to share in the honour. 

17. Since Edward, Duke of Kent, commanded in Quebec, and 
dispensed viceregal hospitality at the Lodge, Halifax, no mem- 
ber of the Eoyal Family had set foot on British North American 
aoil. In the sixty years that had intervened between his time 
and the coming of the young Prince, his grandson, scattered 
settlements, newly cut out of the wilderness, had grown to be 
flourishing provinces. 

18. The Hero, bearing the Prince of Wales, his guajtlian the 
Duke of Newcastle, Colonial Secretary, and a brilliant suite, and 
with a fleet of war vessels in its train, arrived oflf the coast of 
Newfoundland in July. The royal party landed at St. John's 
on the 23rd, thence proceeded to Halifax, St. John, and 
Frederickton, and ended their tour of the Maritime Provinces 
iu Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. Their progress 
through them was a continuous ovation. From far and near 
flocked the people of the towns, villages, and settlements to the 
cities, which were lighted up with the spirit of rejoicing. In 
Canada the reception of the Prince was more imposing and 
formal, especially at iVContreal and Ottawa, owing to the special 
public ceremonials. Toronto (which had no existence in the 
days of the Duke of Kent) outdid all other places in the magnifi- 
cence of its preparations. But the smallest town vied with the 
largest city in loyal enthusiasm. Princes, who must live in the 
hearts of their people, value sentiment more than ceremony. 
On the 20th of September the royal party entered Detroit in 
the United States. They visited the principal cities — Chicago, 
St. Louis, Cincinnati, Pittsburg, Philadelphia, Baltimore, 
Washington, New York, Boston; and the Prince was every- 
where received with a warmth of welcome that showed that 
the people of the Great Eepublic were touched with a feel- 
ing of kin to the country of whose Sovereign he was the rep- 
resentative. On the 20th of October the royal fleet sailed 
from Portland. The visit of the Prince to America was like a 
burst of sunshine before the closing of the clouds in storm. 

19. The United States had now attained an amazing degree 
of prosperity. To the original eleven States had been added 
twentv-three others, with an aggregate population of 31,000,000. 





Figures would fail to give an adequate idea of theii* posses 
sions, of their realized wealth, of the extent of their com 
merce. With a territory and with latent resources far transcend 
ing those of the kingdoms of Europe, th^y were fast approachiii 
the oldest and most populous in actual power and riches. For 
nearly a quarter of a century the country had been divided 
about slavery. In the presidential contest this year (1860), the 
Republican party in the North, which was opposed to it, de- 
feated the slaveholders of the South. Tht chief question at 
issue was, whether or not slavery should be confined to the 
States where it was established and protected by the Constitu- 
tion, and be excluded from all territories hereafter to be 
brought into the Union. There was also disagreement regard- 
ing the tariff. The North generally urged the imposition of 
high duties' to protect its manufactures. The South, which pro- 
duced much cottoii, tobacco, and rice, but manufactured hardly 
anything, and which imported most of the articles it consumed 
and used, was in favour of low duties and free trade. The 
commercial interests, as well as the state of society, were dif- 
ferent in the two sections of the country, and created opposition 
and repugnance between them. 

20. The election of Abraham Lincoln, a noted Abolitionist, 
was the signal for war. The people of South. Carolina had always 
maintained that each State was sovereign and independent, 
and had a right to break loose from the Union when it chose. 

On the 20th of December they passed an ordinance of 

1861 Secession. By the end of January six other States— 

A.D. "Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, 

Texas — had seceded. They were afterwards joined by 
Eastern Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee,— 
eleven States in all, with a population of 9,000,000, of which 
3,000,000 were slaves. These "wayward sisters" of the Union 
constituted themselves into a separate Confederacy, and chose 
Jefferson Davis to be President. Government troops held 
Fort Sumpter. The rebel cannon of Charleston opened fire 
upon it. Aft«r a hot but bloodless bombardment, its com- 
mandant, on the 13th of April, surrendered it to the trium- 
phant Secessionists. War Was thus commenced. President 
Lincoln called on the loyal States to send their quota of armed 



meu to take ^e field, and proclaimed the blockade of the 
Southern ports. The i)eople of the North showed a burning 
zeal tu support him. To preserve the Union, to refute the 
doctrine of State rights, to compel the rebel States to acknowl- 
edge that they were but the component parts of one great 
country, and that their first obedience was due to the Central 
Government, was their immediate desire. The abolition of 
slavery was only determined on amid the exigencies of a long 
and fierce contest, as a means of weakening the rebellion. 

21. A month after the fall of Fort Sumpter, a Royal Proc- 
lamation was issued, calling on all loyal British subjects 
everywhere to preserve neutrality in the war. This was held 
to be an acknowledgment that the Southern Confederacy was 
a nation, and entitled to the rights of a belligerent power. The 
anger of the Northern people was excited. They heL. ^hat the 
Confederacy was but a banding together of lebels, and that the 
British Government wat not justified in elevating a domestic 
quarrel into a contest between independent powers. Their feel- 
ing of exasperation was strengthened by the sympathy shown to 
the Secessionists by a portion of the British people, and by events 
that arose in the course of the war, — the breaking of the blockade 
by British vessels, and the escape from British ports of cruisers 
of the South (chief among them the noted "Alabama") to 
l)rey upon the commerce of the North. The people of the British 
North American Provinces could not view with indifference the 
fierce struggle so close to them. In the past the example of the 
neighbouring Kepublic had had some effect in moulding their 
])olitical constitution ; in the present it was destined to have 
some influence in determining their future condition. In the 
autumn of 1861 Sir Edmund Head was succeeded by Viscount 
Monck, as Governor-General of Canada ; the Honourable J. 
H. T. Manners-Sutton, by the Honourable Arthur H. Gor- 
don, as Governor of New Brunswick. ^ 

22. The year closed in a threatening and a sorrowful manner. 
On the 8th of Noveniber, Captain Wilkes, of the United States 
war ship the San Jacinto^ stopped the British mail-packet the 
* Trent," on the high seas, and forcibly took from on board 
Mason and Sliddel, the Southern Commissioner to England. 
This act Wf\s hailed with exultation by the people of the North- 

v: ■ 




erii States. Wilkes became the hero of the iiour. But it was 
determinedly resented by the British Government, who pre- 
pared to back their demand for the rendition of the Southern 
Commissioners by a declaration of war in case it were refused. 
Amidst the excitement caused by the threatened rupture, and 
the hurry of preparation, the "Good Prince" Albert died, 
and all British land was clothed in mourning. While British 
troops were being hurried across the Atlantic, President Lin- 
coln quietly gave up the Commissioners, who sailed from 
1862 Boston for England on the 1st of January ; so when the 
A.D. Guards and Rifles arrived in St. John, New Brunswick, 
they found that war's alarms were changed to hospitable 
meetings with the citizens. The Trent afl^air intensified the 
feeling of hostility in the North against Great Britain. The 
danger of a rupture drew the attention of the British Govern- 
ment to the defenceless state of the Provinces in face of the 
fast growing military power across the frontiers. In case of 
war, they inevitably would be the battle-ground. Military 
officers were sent out to inspect the country and to organize the 
militia. A plan of fortification was agreed upon : the cost of 
the works at Quebec to be defrayed by the Imperial Govern- 
ment ; those at Montreal, and other places above it, to be paid 
by Canada. The people of the Provinces were, in a measure, 
willing to provide for their defence, but the militia schemes 
proposed were thought too costly and extensive for their means. 
An impetus, however, was given to the volunteer movement, 
and rifle competitions kept up its spi^^ 

23. In the meantime the difficulty of conducting the Gov- 
ernment of Canada continued. The Cartier and M'Donald 
Administration, unable to carry, besides other measures, a 
Militia Bill, resigned, and was succeeded by a Reform Govern- 
ment led by J. Sanfield M'Donald and A. Sicotte. This 
event, occurring at a time when the Imperial Government was 
urging on the Provinces the necessity of adopting adequate 
measures of defence, produced a bad impression in England. 
It raised a discussion regarding the relations of the mother 
country to the Provinces, and the burdens they cast on her. 

24. Defence was a very difficult matter to adjust. The 
Imperial Government perceived that it might be called upon to 



hold the Provinces against the military power of the United 
States, and that it would be impossible to do so unless the 
Provinces put themselves in a thorough state of preparation. 
The Duke of Newcastle urged on the Government of Canada 
the necessity of making some permanent provision for the 
militia system, so as to place it beyond danger of being de- 
stroyed by a party vote in the Legislature. On the other hand, 
the people of the Provinces very generally held that no war 
could occur with the United States through their insti-umen- 
tality. It would grow out of a quarrel between the two Gov- 
ernments, which they had done nothing to foment, and which 
they could do nothi^ig to allay. When it did arise, the contest 
would be fought on their soil, and they would have to bear the 
brunt of battle ; and they thought it unjust that they should 
be called upon to assume burdens beyond their resources. They 
were willing to bear a fair share; and, as in the past, they 
would, if the crisis came, freely expend their blood and their 
treasure to preserve the connection with the mother country. 

25. At this time the project of the Intercolonial Bailway 
was again under consideration. Its importance as a means of 
defence caused the Imperial Government to look favourably 
upon it. The terms as to the portion of cost to be borne by 
each of the Provinces were settled. But the M* Donald and 
Sicotte Government refused to carry out the arrangement made 
for Canada. They were soon placed in such a position as to be 
unable to carry on the Government. A reconstruction was 
made, and A. A. Dorion took the place of M. Sicotte. The 
Parliament was dissolved, and a general election was held. 
The Administration gained a majority, but it was not strong 
enough to enable them to carry on business satisfactorily. 
Another ministerial crisis soon occurred. The old Con- 
servative Government, with Sir Etienne Tache as *0"* 


leader, again assumed the reins. After a brief hold of 
power for four months, it fell before a vote of want of con- 

26. The position of affairs was now alarming. Party pas- 
sions were fast gaining complete ascendency in Parliament. 
There seemed to be nothing before the country but another 
election, and further dangerous exciteroeut Then the leaders 



M tnlln 





paused to consider if some means might not be devised to 
escape the threatening danger. George Brown, the leader of 
the Reformers, made overtures to his political opponents. A 
Coalition Government was formed with the express understand- 
ing that it would carry out a measure to establish a Federal 
Union of the two Canadas, with a provision for the admittance 
of the Maritime Provinces and the North- West Territory. 
Tliere was some difference of opinion as to whether a Confedera- 
tion of all the Provinces, or the Federal Union, should be. the 
measure held first in view. But a circumstance decided the 
course of the Government. 

27. While these events were occurring in Canada, the Gov- 
ernments of. Nova Scotia and New Brunswick agreed to send 
delegates to dharlottetown to discuss, with representatives of 
Prince Edward Island, a scheme for a Legislative Union of 
the Maritime Provinces. The Conference was arranged for 
the 1st of September, with the cordial sanction of the Colonial 
Office, given in a despatch (6th July 1862) from the Duke of 
Newcastle. In the course of the summer a disposition was 
suddenly shown by parties in the Provinces to cultivate acquaint- 
ance with each other. Straws show which way the wind 
blows. A band of Canadians, led by Thomas d'Arcy M'Gee, 
a poet; an orator, and one of the firmest of Unionists, came as 
guests to the Lower Provinces, and were hospitably entertained 
in Halifax, St. John, Frederickton, and elsewhere. At the table 
in the Council Chamber, Frederickton, the Honourable Samuel 
L. Tilley, leader of the Government, joined hands with repre- 
sentatives of Canada and Nova Scotia, — a significant illustra- 
tion of secret thought shaping itself in action. 

28. The Canadian Government being apprised of the meeting 
of the Conference at Charlottetown, intimated a wish to be 
present. An invitation was forwarded to it, and delegates, 
comprising its leading members, descended on the island in their 
steamer Victoria, and took the representatives of the Mari- 
time Provinces present in Charlottetown captive. The idea of 
a Legislative Union was dismissed from their minds. The Con- 
ference was broken up with the understanding that delegates 
from all the Provinces should meet at Quebec to discuss the 

greater <|uestion of Confederatipn, From Priwce E'lwArd 





Island the delegates proceeded to Nova Scotia and New Bruns- 
wick. Social demonstrations, balls and banquets, marked their 
progress, and gave a sentimental impulse to their political pur- 
pose. In the beginning of October, the Fi'c^ona, sent back by 
the Canadian Governmentj after its members had reached home, 
gathered the Maritime delegates on board at Pictou, Charlotte- 
town, and Shediac. It might have been a complete pleasure 
party but for the lowering skies and strong gales during a part 
of the voyage. In the calm of a Sunday forenoon they reached 
the ancient capital. 

29. On Moo day, the 10th of October, thirty- three represen- 
tatives of British North America met in a chamber of 

tlie Parliamentary Buildings of Quebec, to discuss the ^q^a* 
future political condition of the Provinces. The Cana- 
dian Government was there in its full force of twelve 
members. The Provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, 
Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland, were represented by 
leading members of their Governments and Opposition parties. 
The Conference sat with closed doors, and continued its delibera- 
tions from day to day. When it rose, on the 27th of October, the 
Quebec Scheme of Oonfederation was completed. It was 
agreed that the different Governments should submit it to the 
Houses of Assembly then existing in the Provinces, and carry 
it without permitting the least alteration in its form. Until 
the time for legislative action arrived the Scheme was not 
to be published. Fortunately for public curiosity, one of the 
members of the Conference could not keep the secret. The 
Scheme appeared in a Prince Edward Island newspaper, 
and was quickly in the hands of the people of British North 

30. The result of the proceedings of the Conference at 
Quebec took the people by surprise, especially those of the 
Lower Provinces. But the idea of Union recommended itself 
to the judgment and imagination of many. It suggested 
strength, gi-owth, and prosperity. It was viewed in various 
lights. By some it was looked upon as a political necessity, as 
a means of